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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 33, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
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A System Framework for Map Air Update Navigation Service
Min, Kyoung-Wook ; An, Kyoung-Hwan ; Jang, In-Sung ; Jin, Sung-Il ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 476~486
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1610.0012
The quality of navigation service is determined by the accuracy of the available data. For existing navigation services, a full map update is provided in order to keep the map data of mobile devices current. As content and services of mobile devices have recently been diversifying, the size of map data managed in mobile devices has increased, reaching several gigabytes in size. It generally takes tens of minutes to write several gigabytes of data into mobile device storage. For traditional navigation systems, a complicated storage structure called a physical storage format (PSF) is used to assure maximum processing performance of map data in mobile devices within limited resources. Consequently, even though modified navigation map data actually affects only a portion of a map, the full map data is updated because partial updates are not possible. In this paper, a navigation system is studied to solve this difficult partial map update problem. The map air update navigation system, which is the result of this study, provides real-time partial map updating using wireless communications.
GPS-Based Orbit Determination for KOMPSAT-5 Satellite
Hwang, Yoo-La ; Lee, Byoung-Sun ; Kim, Young-Rok ; Roh, Kyoung-Min ; Jung, Ok-Chul ; Kim, Hae-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 487~496
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1610.0048
Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-5 (KOMPSAT-5) is the first satellite in Korea that provides 1 m resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Precise orbit determination (POD) using a dual-frequency IGOR receiver data is performed to conduct high-resolution SAR images. We suggest orbit determination strategies based on a differential GPS technique. Double-differenced phase observations are sampled every 30 seconds. A dynamic model approach using an estimation of general empirical acceleration every 6 minutes through a batch least-squares estimator is applied. The orbit accuracy is validated using real data from GRACE and KOMPSAT-2 as well as simulated KOMPSAT-5 data. The POD results using GRACE satellite are adjusted through satellite laser ranging data and compared with publicly available reference orbit data. Operational orbit determination satisfies 5 m root sum square (RSS) in one sigma, and POD meets the orbit accuracy requirements of less than 20 cm and 0.003 cm/s RSS in position and velocity, respectively.
Generalized IHS-Based Satellite Imagery Fusion Using Spectral Response Functions
Kim, Yong-Hyun ; Eo, Yang-Dam ; Kim, Youn-Soo ; Kim, Yong-Il ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 497~505
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1610.0042
Image fusion is a technical method to integrate the spatial details of the high-resolution panchromatic (HRP) image and the spectral information of low-resolution multispectral (LRM) images to produce high-resolution multispectral images. The most important point in image fusion is enhancing the spatial details of the HRP image and simultaneously maintaining the spectral information of the LRM images. This implies that the physical characteristics of a satellite sensor should be considered in the fusion process. Also, to fuse massive satellite images, the fusion method should have low computation costs. In this paper, we propose a fast and efficient satellite image fusion method. The proposed method uses the spectral response functions of a satellite sensor; thus, it rationally reflects the physical characteristics of the satellite sensor to the fused image. As a result, the proposed method provides high-quality fused images in terms of spectral and spatial evaluations. The experimental results of IKONOS images indicate that the proposed method outperforms the intensity-hue-saturation and wavelet-based methods.
Precise Geometric Registration of Aerial Imagery and LIDAR Data
Choi, Kyoung-Ah ; Hong, Ju-Seok ; Lee, Im-Pyeong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 506~516
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1610.0046
In this paper, we develop a registration method to eliminate the geometric inconsistency between the stereo-images and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data obtained by an airborne multisensor system. This method consists of three steps: registration primitive extraction, correspondence establishment, and exterior orientation parameter (EOP) adjustment. As the primitives, we employ object points and linked edges from the stereo-images and planar patches and intersection edges from the LIDAR data. After extracting these primitives, we establish the correspondence between them, being classified into vertical and horizontal groups. These corresponding pairs are simultaneously incorporated as stochastic constraints into aerial triangulation based on the bundle block adjustment. Finally, the EOPs of the images are adjusted to minimize the inconsistency. The results from the application of our method to real data demonstrate that the inconsistency between both data sets is significantly reduced from the range of 0.5 m to 2 m to less than 0.05 m. Hence, the results show that the proposed method is useful for the data fusion of aerial images and LIDAR data.
Featured-Based Registration of Terrestrial Laser Scans with Minimum Overlap Using Photogrammetric Data
Renaudin, Erwan ; Habib, Ayman ; Kersting, Ana Paula ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 517~527
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1610.0006
Currently, there is a considerable interest in 3D object reconstruction using terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) systems due to their ability to automatically generate a considerable amount of points in a very short time. To fully map an object, multiple scans are captured. The different scans need to be registered with the help of the point cloud in the overlap regions. To guarantee reliable registration, the scans should have large overlap ratio with good geometry for the estimation of the transformation parameters among these scans. The objective of this paper is to propose a registration method that relaxes/eliminates the overlap requirement through the utilization of photogrammetrically reconstructed features. More specifically, a point-based procedure, which utilizes non-conjugate points along corresponding linear features from photogrammetric and TLS data, will be used for the registration. The non-correspondence of the selected points along the linear features is compensated for by artificially modifying their weight matrices. The paper presents experimental results from simulated and real datasets to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed procedure.
Location Error Analysis of an Active RFID-Based RTLS in Multipath and AWGN Environments
Myong, Seung-Il ; Mo, Sang-Hyun ; Yang, Hoe-Sung ; Cha, Jong-Sub ; Lee, Heyung-Sub ; Seo, Dong-Sun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 528~536
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1610.0023
In this paper, we analyze the location accuracy of real-time locating systems (RTLSs) in multipath environments in which the RTLSs comply with the ISO/IEC 24730-2 international standard. To analyze the location error of RTLS in multipath environments, we consider a direct path and indirect path, in which time and phase are delayed, and also white Gaussian noise is added. The location error depends strongly on both the noise level and phase difference under a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regime, but only on the noise level under a high SNR regime. The phase difference effect can be minimized by matching it to the time delay difference at a ratio of 180 degrees per 1 chip time delay (Tc). At a relatively high SNR of 10 dB, a location error of less than 3 m is expected at any phase and time delay value of an indirect signal. At a low SNR regime, the location error range increases to 8.1 m at a 0.5 Tc, and to 7.3 m at a 1.5 Tc. However, if the correlation energy is accumulated for an 8-bit period, the location error can be reduced to 3.9 m and 2.5 m, respectively.
Automatic Building Reconstruction with Satellite Images and Digital Maps
Lee, Dong-Cheon ; Yom, Jae-Hong ; Shin, Sung-Woong ; Oh, Jae-Hong ; Park, Ki-Surk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 537~546
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1610.0020
This paper introduces an automated method for building height recovery through the integration of high-resolution satellite images and digital vector maps. A cross-correlation matching method along the vertical line locus on the Ikonos images was deployed to recover building heights. The rational function models composed of rational polynomial coefficients were utilized to create a stereopair of the epipolar resampled Ikonos images. Building footprints from the digital maps were used for locating the vertical guideline along the building edges. The digital terrain model (DTM) was generated from the contour layer in the digital maps. The terrain height derived from the DTM at each foot of the buildings was used as the starting location for image matching. At a preset incremental value of height along the vertical guidelines derived from vertical line loci, an evaluation process that is based on the cross-correlation matching of the images was carried out to test if the top of the building has reached where maximum correlation occurs. The accuracy of the reconstructed buildings was evaluated by the comparison with manually digitized 3D building data derived from aerial photographs.
Extraction and Regularization of Various Building Boundaries with Complex Shapes Utilizing Distribution Characteristics of Airborne LIDAR Points
Lee, Jeong-Ho ; Han, Soo-Hee ; Byun, Young-Gi ; Kim, Yong-Il ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 547~557
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1610.0022
This study presents an approach for extracting boundaries of various buildings, which have concave boundaries, inner yards, non-right-angled corners, and nonlinear edges. The approach comprises four steps: building point segmentation, boundary tracing, boundary grouping, and regularization. In the second and third steps, conventional algorithms are improved for more accurate boundary extraction, and in the final step, a new algorithm is presented to extract nonlinear edges. The unique characteristics of airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) data are considered in some steps. The performance and practicality of the presented algorithm were evaluated for buildings of various shapes, and the average omission and commission error of building polygon areas were 0.038 and 0.033, respectively.
A Spectrally Efficient Macrodiversity Handover Technique for Interference-Limited IEEE 802.16j Multihop Wireless Relay Networks
Sultan, Jamil ; Misran, Norbahiah ; Ismail, Mahamod ; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 558~568
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0097
In this paper, we propose an efficient macrodiversity handover (MDHO) technique for time-division-based interference-limited IEEE 802.16j multihop wireless relay networks. In the proposed MDHO, when the diversity set members of the mobile station (MS) are a base station (BS) and relay station (RS), the MS receives the signal transmitted by the BS in the first phase. During the second phase, it also receives the simultaneous transmissions of the BS and RS. Furthermore, when the diversity set members are two RSs or two BSs, the MS receives only the simultaneous transmissions of the diversity set members. The superiority of the proposed MDHO is validated using analytical and simulation results. The performance analysis metrics are the average downlink (DL) carrier to interference and noise ratio (CINR), the average DL spectral efficiency, and the average service outage probability. Evaluation results show that the proposed MDHO significantly outperforms the conventional MDHO. The CINR gain achieved using the proposed MDHO is 4.71 dB compared to the conventional MDHO.
Human Activity Recognition Using Body Joint-Angle Features and Hidden Markov Model
Uddin, Md. Zia ; Thang, Nguyen Duc ; Kim, Jeong-Tai ; Kim, Tae-Seong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 569~579
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0314
This paper presents a novel approach for human activity recognition (HAR) using the joint angles from a 3D model of a human body. Unlike conventional approaches in which the joint angles are computed from inverse kinematic analysis of the optical marker positions captured with multiple cameras, our approach utilizes the body joint angles estimated directly from time-series activity images acquired with a single stereo camera by co-registering a 3D body model to the stereo information. The estimated joint-angle features are then mapped into codewords to generate discrete symbols for a hidden Markov model (HMM) of each activity. With these symbols, each activity is trained through the HMM, and later, all the trained HMMs are used for activity recognition. The performance of our joint-angle-based HAR has been compared to that of a conventional binary and depth silhouette-based HAR, producing significantly better results in the recognition rate, especially for the activities that are not discernible with the conventional approaches.
High-Performance Reversible Data Hiding with Overflow/Underflow Avoidance
Yang, Ching-Yu ; Hu, Wu-Chih ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 580~588
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0534
This paper proposes reversible data hiding using minimum/maximum preserved overflow/underflow avoidance (MMPOUA). The proposed MMPOUA algorithm consists of three main steps. These steps include the minimum (or maximum) pixel fixing, pixel squeezing, and pixel isolation. The aims of pixel fixing are to keep the minimum (or maximum) pixel of a host block unchanged and prevent the occurrence of overflow/underflow. Both the pixel squeezing and pixel isolation supply hiding storage while keeping the amount of distortion low. The proposed method can avoid (or significantly reduce) the overhead bits used to overcome overflow/underflow issues. At an embedding rate of 0.15 bpp, the proposed algorithm can achieve a PSNR value of 48.52 dB, which outperforms several existing reversible data hiding schemes. Furthermore, the algorithm performed well in a variety of images, including those in which other algorithms had difficulty obtaining good hiding storage with high perceived quality.
Image Description and Matching Scheme Using Synthetic Features for Recommendation Service
Yang, Won-Keun ; Cho, A-Young ; Oh, Weon-Geun ; Jeong, Dong-Seok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 589~599
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1510.0023
This paper presents an image description and matching scheme using synthetic features for a recommendation service. The recommendation service is an example of smart search because it offers something before a user's request. In the proposed extraction scheme, an image is described by synthesized spatial and statistical features. The spatial feature is designed to increase the discriminability by reflecting delicate variations. The statistical feature is designed to increase the robustness by absorbing small variations. For extracting spatial features, we partition the image into concentric circles and extract four characteristics using a spatial relation. To extract statistical features, we adapt three transforms into the image and compose a 3D histogram as the final statistical feature. The matching schemes are designed hierarchically using the proposed spatial and statistical features. The result shows that each feature is better than the compared algorithms that use spatial or statistical features. Additionally, if we adapt the proposed whole extraction and matching scheme, the overall performance will become 98.44% in terms of the correct search ratio.
Robust Face Detection Based on Knowledge-Directed Specification of Bottom-Up Saliency
Lee, Yu-Bu ; Lee, Suk-Han ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 600~610
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.1510.0123
This paper presents a novel approach to face detection by localizing faces as the goal-specific saliencies in a scene, using the framework of selective visual attention of a human with a particular goal in mind. The proposed approach aims at achieving human-like robustness as well as efficiency in face detection under large scene variations. The key is to establish how the specific knowledge relevant to the goal interacts with the bottom-up process of external visual stimuli for saliency detection. We propose a direct incorporation of the goal-related knowledge into the specification and/or modification of the internal process of a general bottom-up saliency detection framework. More specifically, prior knowledge of the human face, such as its size, skin color, and shape, is directly set to the window size and color signature for computing the center of difference, as well as to modify the importance weight, as a means of transforming into a goal-specific saliency detection. The experimental evaluation shows that the proposed method reaches a detection rate of 93.4% with a false positive rate of 7.1%, indicating the robustness against a wide variation of scale and rotation.
Low-Power Design of Hardware One-Time Password Generators for Card-Type OTPs
Lee, Sung-Jae ; Lee, Jae-Seong ; Lee, Mun-Kyu ; Lee, Sang-Jin ; Choi, Doo-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Kyue ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 611~620
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0392
Since card-type one-time password (OTP) generators became available, power and area consumption has been one of the main issues of hardware OTPs. Because relatively smaller batteries and smaller chip areas are available for this type of OTP compared to existing token-type OTPs, it is necessary to implement power-efficient and compact dedicated OTP hardware modules. In this paper, we design and implement a low-power small-area hardware OTP generator based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). First, we implement a prototype AES hardware module using a 350 nm process to verify the effectiveness of our optimization techniques for the SubBytes transform and data storage. Next, we apply the optimized AES to a real-world OTP hardware module which is implemented using a 180 nm process. Our experimental results show the power consumption of our OTP module using the new AES implementation is only 49.4% and 15.0% of those of an HOTP and software-based OTP, respectively.
A Short and Efficient Redactable Signature Based on RSA
Lim, Seong-An ; Lee, Hyang-Sook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 621~628
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0110.0530
The redactable signature scheme was introduced by Johnson and others in 2002 as a mechanism to support disclosing verifiable subdocuments of a signed document. In their paper, a redactable signature based on RSA was presented. In 2009, Nojima and others presented a redactable signature scheme based on RSA. Both schemes are very efficient in terms of storage. However, the schemes need mechanisms to share random prime numbers, which causes huge time consuming computation. Moreover, the public key in the scheme of Johnson and others is designed to be used only once. In this paper, we improve the computational efficiency of these schemes by eliminating the use of a random prime sharing mechanism while sustaining the storage efficiency of them. The size of our signature scheme is the same as that of the standard RSA signature scheme plus the size of the security parameter. In our scheme, the public key can be used multiple times, and more efficient key management than the scheme of Johnson and others is possible. We also prove that the security of our scheme is reduced to the security of the full domain RSA signature scheme.
An Efficient and Flexible Hybrid Conditional Access System for Advanced T-DMB
Bae, Byung-Jun ; Song, Yun-Jeong ; Lee, Soo-In ; Seo, Hyung-Yoon ; Kim, Jong-Deok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 629~632
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0320
This letter presents a hybrid conditional access system (CAS) for advanced terrestrial digital multimedia broadcasting (AT-DMB). The proposed architecture is characterized by its use of a unified CAS channel and various communication networks for CAS message transmissions. We implement a prototype CAS based on the hybrid architecture, which improves the CAS message transmission efficiency greatly compared to the existing T-DMB CAS standard and supports various AT-DMB interlayer services more easily and efficiently.
An Overlaid Hybrid-Division Duplex OFDMA System with Multihop Transmission
Sang, Young-Jin ; Park, Jung-Min ; Kim, Seong-Lyun ; Kim, Kwang-Soon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 633~636
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0332
In this letter, we propose an overlaid hybrid division duplex (HDD) concept for cellular systems which divides a cell into inner and outer regions and utilizes the merits of both time division duplex (TDD) and frequency division duplex (FDD). The proposed system can take advantage of both TDD and FDD without handover between two duplex schemes. Moreover, it is shown that the proposed HDD system outperforms the conventional TDD or FDD system with mobile relay stations when the synchronization issue is considered in orthogonal frequency division multiple access systems. Thus, the proposed overlaid HDD can be considered as a new framework for future cellular systems.
Novel Bumping Material for Solder-on-Pad Technology
Choi, Kwang-Seong ; Chu, Sun-Woo ; Lee, Jong-Jin ; Sung, Ki-Jun ; Bae, Hyun-Cheol ; Lim, Byeong-Ok ; Moon, Jong-Tae ; Eom, Yong-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 637~640
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0298
A novel bumping material, which is composed of a resin and Sn3Ag0.5Cu (SAC305) solder power, has been developed for the maskless solder-on-pad technology of the fine-pitch flip-chip bonding. The functions of the resin are carrying solder powder and deoxidizing the oxide layer on the solder power for the bumping on the pad on the substrate. At the same time, it was designed to have minimal chemical reactions within the resin so that the cleaning process after the bumping on the pad can be achieved. With this material, the solder bump array was successfully formed with pitch of 150
in one direction.
A Novel Method for Bitrate Control within Macroblocks Using Kalman and FIR Filters
Seok, Jin-Wuk ; Yoon, Ki-Song ; Kim, Bum-Ho ; Lee, Jeong-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 641~644
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0361
In this letter, we propose a novel bitrate control, using both Kalman and FIR filters, based on a Hamiltonian analysis with respect to the amount of bits from each macroblock, in an encoding of a general video codec such as H.264/AVC. Since the proposed bitrate control is based on the simple computation of an optimal control method based on the Hamiltonian analysis, it is not necessary to use additional computation, such as a DCT or quantization, to estimate the bits for bitrate control. As a result, the proposed algorithm can be applied to single-pass encoding and can provide sufficient encoding speed with respect to various applications, even those requiring real-time control.
Development of a Flat-Plate Cooling Device for Electronic Packaging
Moon, Seok-Hwan ; Hwang, Gunn ; Lim, Hyun-Taeck ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 645~647
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0322
In this study, a microcapillary pumped loop (MCPL) that can be used as a cooling device for small electronic and telecommunications equipment has been developed. For thin devices such as an MCPL, securing a vapor flow space is a critical issue for enhancing the thermal performance. In this letter, such enhancement in thermal performance was accomplished by eliminating condensed droplets from the vapor line. By fabricating the grooves in the vapor line to eliminate droplets, a decrease in thermal resistance of about 63.7% was achieved.
Highly Power-Efficient Rack-Level DC Power Architecture Combined with Node-Level DC UPS
Kwon, Won-Ok ; Seo, Hae-Moon ; Choi, Pyung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 648~651
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0306
This letter presents a highly efficient rack-level DC power architecture combined with a node-level DC uninterruptible power supply (UPS). The proposed system can provide almost the equivalent power efficiency of a high-voltage DC data center without any change in the existing power infrastructure. The node-level DC UPS combined with a power distribution board provides high power efficiency as well as lower UPS installation costs. Implemented on a rack, the entire power system can be monitored through a network.
A New Support Vector Compression Method Based on Singular Value Decomposition
Yoon, Sang-Hun ; Lyuh, Chun-Gi ; Chun, Ik-Jae ; Suk, Jung-Hee ; Roh, Tae-Moon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 652~655
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0349
In this letter, we propose a new compression method for a high dimensional support vector machine (SVM). We used singular value decomposition (SVD) to compress the norm part of a radial basis function SVM. By deleting the least significant vectors that are extracted from the decomposition, we can compress each vector with minimized energy loss. We select the compressed vector dimension according to the predefined threshold which can limit the energy loss to design criteria. We verified the proposed vector compressed SVM (VCSVM) for conventional datasets. Experimental results show that VCSVM can reduce computational complexity and memory by more than 40% without reduction in accuracy when classifying a 20,958 dimension dataset.
Pairing-Friendly Curves with Minimal Security Loss by Cheon's Algorithm
Park, Cheol-Min ; Lee, Hyang-Sook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 33, issue 4, 2011, Pages 656~659
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.11.0210.0338
In ICISC 2007, Comuta and others showed that among the methods for constructing pairing-friendly curves, those using cyclotomic polynomials, that is, the Brezing-Weng method and the Freeman-Scott-Teske method, are affected by Cheon's algorithm. This paper proposes a method for searching parameters of pairing-friendly elliptic curves that induces minimal security loss by Cheon's algorithm. We also provide a sample set of parameters of BN-curves, FST-curves, and KSS-curves for pairing-based cryptography.