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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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Reconfigurable Beam-Steering Antenna Using Dipole and Loop Combined Structure for Wearable Applications
Ha, Sang-Jun ; Jung, Young-Bae ; Kim, Yong-Jin ; Jung, Chang-Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0373
This paper proposes a reconfigurable beam-steering antenna using a bended dipole and a loop. The radiation patterns of the two antennas are cancelled or compensated, and headed towards a specific direction when the dipole and loop antenna are combined at a reasonable ratio. The proposed antenna can steer the beam directions by controlling the operation of two artificial switches. The proposed antenna was manufactured on a PCB (FR-4) and a flexible PCB (polyimide). In the case of the antenna that was fabricated on a PCB, the maximum beam directions were
in the azimuth direction using the two artificial switches, and the antenna gain was 1.96 dBi to 2.48 dBi in the operation bandwidth of 2.47 GHz to 2.53 GHz. Also, the antenna was fabricated on a flexible PCB and measured under various bending conditions for wearable applications.
Improved Wideband Precoding with Arbitrary Subcarrier Grouping in MIMO-OFDM Systems
Long, Hang ; Kim, Kyeong-Jin ; Xiang, Wei ; Shen, Shanshan ; Zheng, Kan ; Wang, Wenbo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0050
Precoding in the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system is investigated. In conventional wideband precoding (WBP), only one precoder, obtained from the decomposition of the subcarrier independent channel matrix, is used for all subcarriers. With an investigation of the relationship between the subcarrier independent channel matrix and the temporal/frequency channels, an improved WBP scheme is proposed for practical scenarios in which a part of subcarriers are allocated to a user. The improved WBP scheme is a generalized scheme of which narrow-band precoding and conventional WBP schemes are special modes. Simulation results demonstrate that the improved WBP scheme almost achieves the optimum performance of a single precoder and outperforms the conventional WBP scheme in terms of the bit error ratio and ergodic capacity with slight complexity increase. The largest advantage of the improved WBP scheme on signal-to-noise ratio in simulation results is over 2.1 dB.
A Study on Feasibility of Dual-Channel 3DTV Service via ATSC-M/H
Kim, Byung-Yeon ; Bang, Min-Suk ; Kim, Sung-Hoon ; Choi, Jin-Soo ; Kim, Jin-Woong ; Kang, Dong-Wook ; Jung, Kyeong-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 17~23
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0270
This paper analyzes the feasibility of a new 3DTV broadcasting service scenario via Advanced Television Systems Committee Mobile/Handheld (ATSC-M/H). We suggest a dual-channel system in which a left-view image is encoded by MPEG-2 with HD quality and a small-sized right-view image is encoded by AVC. Also, the left view is transmitted through ATSC main channel and the right view is transmitted through ATSC-M/H channel. Although the transport stream formats of two channels are different from each other, we demonstrate that it is possible for the ATSC 2.0 decoder to synchronize the display of the left and right views when both encoders use a common wall clock and time stamp. We also propose a program specific information descriptor which guarantees full compatibility with the conventional 2D HDTV and emerging mobile TV services. Finally, we provide the results of subjective visual quality assessment of the proposed system in support of its 3DTV service quality.
Performance Analysis of Directional CSMA/CA for IEEE 802.15.3c under Saturation Environments
Kim, Mee-Joung ; Kim, Yong-Sang ; Lee, Woo-Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 24~34
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0136
In this paper, the directional carrier sense multiple access/collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) protocol in the immediate acknowledgement mode for IEEE 802.15.3c is analyzed under saturation environments. For the analysis, a sensing region and an exclusive region with a directional antenna are computed probabilistically and a Markov chain model in which the features of IEEE 802.15.3c and the effects of using directional antennas are incorporated is analyzed. An algorithm to find the maximal number of concurrently transmittable frames is proposed. The system throughput and the average transmission delay are obtained in closed forms. The numerical results show the impact of directional antennas on the CSMA/CA media access control (MAC) protocol. For instance, the throughput with a small beamwidth of antenna is more than ten times larger than that for an omnidirectional antenna. The overall analysis is verified by a simulation. The obtained results will be helpful in developing an MAC protocol for enhancing the performance of mmWave wireless personal area networks.
A 1.7 Gbps DLL-Based Clock Data Recovery for a Serial Display Interface in 0.35-
Moon, Yong-Hwan ; Kim, Sang-Ho ; Kim, Tae-Ho ; Park, Hyung-Min ; Kang, Jin-Ku ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 35~43
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0143
This paper presents a delay-locked-loop-based clock and data recovery (CDR) circuit design with a nB(n+2)B data formatting scheme for a high-speed serial display interface. The nB(n+2)B data is formatted by inserting a '01' clock information pattern in every piece of N-bit data. The proposed CDR recovers clock and data in 1:10 demultiplexed form without an external reference clock. To validate the feasibility of the scheme, a 1.7-Gbps CDR based on the proposed scheme is designed, simulated, and fabricated. Input data patterns were formatted as 10B12B for a high-performance display interface. The proposed CDR consumes approximately 8 mA under a 3.3-V power supply using a 0.35-
CMOS process and the measured peak-to-peak jitter of the recovered clock is 44 ps.
On-Chip Debug Architecture for Multicore Processor
Park, Hyeong-Bae ; Xu, Jing-Zhe ; Kim, Kil-Hyun ; Park, Ju-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 44~54
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0172
Because of the intrinsic lack of internal-system observability and controllability in highly integrated multicore processors, very restricted access is allowed for the debugging of erroneous chip behavior. Therefore, the building of an efficient debug function is an important consideration in the design of multicore processors. In this paper, we propose a flexible on-chip debug architecture that embeds a special logic supporting the debug functionality in the multicore processor. It is designed to support run-stop-type debug functions that can halt and control the execution of the multicore processor at breakpoint events and inspect the possible causes of any errors. The debug architecture consists of the following three functional components: the core debug support block, the multicore debug support block, and the debug interface and control block. By embedding this debug infrastructure, the embedded processor cores within the multicore processor can be debugged simultaneously as well as independently. The debug control is performed by employing a JTAG-based scanning operation. We apply this on-chip debug architecture to build a debugger for a prototype multicore processor and demonstrate the validity and scalability of our approach.
A Practical and Secure Electronic Election System
Lee, Yun-Ho ; Won, Dong-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 55~65
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0121
E-voting is expected to offer prominent advantages over traditional voting methods. Advantages include faster tallying, greater accuracy, prevention of void ballots, and lower cost. However, many experts express concerns about the potential for large-scale fraud. Recently, many paper based end-to-end (E2E) voter verifiable systems providing individual verifiability and universal verifiability have been proposed. These systems, unlike previous voting systems, are used in polling booths and without access to trusted computing devices at the time of voting. In this paper, we propose a practical and secure E2E voter verifiable system using a paper receipt based on cryptographic technologies.
Address Permutation for Privacy-Preserving Searchable Symmetric Encryption
Choi, Dae-Seon ; Kim, Seung-Hyun ; Lee, Youn-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 66~75
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0243
This paper proposes a privacy-preserving database encryption scheme that provides access pattern hiding against a service provider. The proposed scheme uses a session key to permute indices of database records each time they are accessed. The proposed scheme can achieve access pattern hiding in situations in which an adversary cannot access the inside of the database directly, by separating the entity with an index table and data table and permuting both the index and position where the data are stored. Moreover, it is very efficient since only O(1) server computation and communication cost are required in terms of the number of the data stored. It can be applied to cloud computing, where the intermediate entities such as cloud computing service provider can violate the privacy of users or patients.
Secure Hardware Implementation of ARIA Based on Adaptive Random Masking Technique
Kang, Jun-Ki ; Choi, Doo-Ho ; Choi, Yong-Je ; Han, Dong-Guk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 76~86
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0251
The block cipher ARIA has been threatened by side-channel analysis, and much research on countermeasures of this attack has also been produced. However, studies on countermeasures of ARIA are focused on software implementation, and there are no reports about hardware designs and their performance evaluation. Therefore, this article presents an advanced masking algorithm which is strong against second-order differential power analysis (SODPA) and implements a secure ARIA hardware. As there is no comparable report, the proposed masking algorithm used in our hardware module is evaluated using a comparison result of software implementations. Furthermore, we implement the proposed algorithm in three types of hardware architectures and compare them. The smallest module is 10,740 gates in size and consumes an average of 47.47
in power consumption. Finally, we make ASIC chips with the proposed design, and then perform security verification. As a result, the proposed module is small, energy efficient, and secure against SODPA.
Highly Dense 3D Surface Generation Using Multi-image Matching
Noh, Myoung-Jong ; Cho, Woo-Sug ; Bang, Ki-In ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 87~97
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.1611.0011
This study presents an automatic matching method for generating a dense, accurate, and discontinuity-preserved digital surface model (DSM) using multiple images acquired by an aerial digital frame camera. The proposed method consists of two main procedures: area-based multi-image matching (AMIM) and stereo-pair epipolar line matching (SELM). AMIM evaluates the sum of the normalized cross correlation of corresponding image points from multiple images to determine the optimal height of an object point. A novel method is introduced for determining the search height range and incremental height, which are necessary for the vertical line locus used in the AMIM. This procedure also includes the means to select the best reference and target images for each strip so that multi-image matching can resolve the common problem over occlusion areas. The SELM extracts densely positioned distinct points along epipolar lines from the multiple images and generates a discontinuity-preserved DSM using geometric and radiometric constraints. The matched points derived by the AMIM are used as anchor points between overlapped images to find conjugate distinct points using epipolar geometry. The performance of the proposed method was evaluated for several different test areas, including urban areas.
Tone Dual-Channel MAC Protocol with Directional Antennas for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks
Jwa, Jeong-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 98~101
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0122
The directional medium access control (MAC) protocol improves the throughput of mobile ad hoc networks but has a deafness problem and requires location information for neighboring nodes. In the dual-channel directional MAC protocol , the use of omnidirectional packets does not require the exact location of destination node. In this letter, we propose a tone dual-channel MAC protocol with directional antennas to improve the throughput of mobile ad hoc networks. In the proposed MAC protocol, we use a directional CTS and an out-of-band directional DATA tone with a new blocking algorithm to improve the spatial reuse. We confirm the throughput performance of the proposed MAC protocol by computer simulations using the Qualnet simulator.
Single Relay Selection for Bidirectional Cooperative Networks with Physical-Layer Network Coding
Liu, Yingting ; Zhang, Hailin ; Hui, Leifang ; Liu, Quanyang ; Lu, Xiaofeng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 102~105
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0092
To serve the growing demand of the bidirectional information exchange, we propose a single relay selection (RS) scheme for physical-layer network coding (PNC) in a bidirectional cooperative network consisting of two sources and multiple relays. This RS scheme selects a single best relay by maximizing the bottleneck of the capacity region of both information flows in the bidirectional network. We show that the proposed RS rule minimizes the outage probability and that it can be used as a performance benchmark for any RS rules with PNC. We derive a closed-form exact expression of the outage probability for the proposed RS rule and show that it achieves full diversity gain. Finally, numerical results demonstrate the validity of our analysis.
Adaptive Prediction Block Filter for Video Coding
Yoon, Yeo-Jin ; Jung, Seung-Won ; Lee, Ha-Hyun ; Kim, Hui-Yong ; Choi, Jin-Soo ; Ko, Sung-Jea ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 106~109
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0042
In this letter, we propose a new prediction block filter that can reduce errors between the original and prediction blocks. The proposed filter adaptively adjusts filter coefficients by using the previously reconstructed adjacent blocks and their prediction blocks. Then, the filter is selectively applied to the current prediction block according to the rate-distortion optimization. Moreover, since the same filter coefficients can be derived in the decoder, they are not encoded into the bit-stream. The proposed method achieves a 4.65% bitrate saving on average compared with H.264/AVC.
Block-Mode Lattice Reduction for Low-Complexity MIMO Detection
Choi, Kwon-Hue ; Kim, Han-Nah ; Kim, Soo-Young ; Kim, Young-Il ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 110~113
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0112
We propose a very-low-complexity lattice-reduction (LR) algorithm for multi-input multi-output detection in time-varying channels. The proposed scheme reduces the complexity by performing LR in a block-wise manner. The proposed scheme takes advantage of the temporal correlation of the channel matrices in a block and its impact on the lattice transformation matrices during the LR process. From this, the proposed scheme can skip a number of redundant LR processes for consecutive channel matrices and performs a single LR in a block. As the Doppler frequency decreases, the complexity reduction efficiency becomes more significant.
Small-Size and High-Isolation MIMO Antenna for WLAN
Jin, Zhe-Jun ; Lim, Jong-Hyuk ; Yun, Tae-Yeoul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 114~117
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0083
A small-sized (
) planar monopole MIMO antenna that offers high-isolation performance is presented in this letter. The antenna is miniaturized using inductive coupling within a meander-line radiator and capacitive coupling between a radiator and an isolator. High isolation is achieved by a T-shaped stub attached to the ground plane between two radiators, which also contributes to the small size using a folded structure and the capacitive coupling with radiators. The proposed antenna operates for the WLAN band within 2.4 GHz to 2.483 GHz. The measured isolation (S21) is about -30 dB, and the envelope correlation coefficient is less than 0.1.
Miniaturized LPDA Antenna for Portable Direction Finding Applications
Yeo, Jun-Ho ; Lee, Jong-Ig ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 118~121
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0178
In this letter, a miniaturized log-periodic dipole array (LPDA) antenna operating from 1 GHz to 6 GHz is proposed for portable direction finding applications. To reduce the lateral size of an LPDA antenna, bow-tie elements and a top-loading technique are utilized and spacing factor is decreased to reduce the spacing between the LPDA elements. The proposed miniaturized LPDA antenna has the measured gain and front-to-back ratio ranging from 1.2 dBi to 3 dBi and from 7 dB to 22 dB, respectively.
Signal Synchronization Using a Flicker Reduction and Denoising Algorithm for Video-Signal Optical Interconnect
Sangirov, Jamshid ; Ukaegbu, Ikechi Augustine ; Lee, Tae-Woo ; Cho, Mu-Hee ; Park, Hyo-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 122~125
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0078
A video signal through a high-density optical link has been demonstrated to show the reliability of optical link for high-data-rate transmission. To reduce optical point-to-point links, an electrical link has been utilized for control and clock signaling. The latency and flicker with background noise occurred during the transferring of data across the optical link due to electrical-to-optical with optical-to-electrical conversions. The proposed synchronization technology combined with a flicker and denoising algorithm has given good results and can be applied in high-definition serial data interface (HD-SDI), ultra-HD-SDI, and HD multimedia interface transmission system applications.
Ultra-thin Polarization Independent Absorber Using Hexagonal Interdigital Metamaterial
Lee, Joung-Young ; Yoon, Young-Joong ; Lim, Sung-Joon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 126~129
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0081
An ultra-thin hexagonal microwave metamaterial absorber is described. It can absorb any polarized transverse electromagnetic wave because of its hexagonal shape. In spite of its very thin structure, almost
, the absorber achieved 99% absorptivity at 11.35 GHz in experimental results because of the increased coupling losses, showing good agreement with simulation results. In addition, this high absorbance is unchanged for any polarized waves with the same frequency.
Generalized Robust Multichannel Frequency-Domain LMS Algorithms for Blind Channel Identification
Chung, Ik-Joo ; Clements, Mark A. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 130~133
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0118
Recently, several noise-robust adaptive multichannel LMS algorithms have been proposed based on the spectral flatness of the estimated channel coefficients in the presence of additive noise. In this work, we propose a general form for the algorithms that integrates the existing algorithms into a common framework. Computer simulation results are presented and demonstrate that a new proposed algorithm gives better performance compared to existing algorithms in noisy environments.
Design of 100-V Super-Junction Trench Power MOSFET with Low On-Resistance
Lho, Young-Hwan ; Yang, Yil-Suk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 134~137
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0251
Power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) devices are widely used in power electronics applications, such as brushless direct current motors and power modules. For a conventional power MOSFET device such as trench double-diffused MOSFET (TDMOS), there is a tradeoff relationship between specific on-state resistance and breakdown voltage. To overcome the tradeoff relationship, a super-junction (SJ) trench MOSFET (TMOSFET) structure is studied and designed in this letter. The processing conditions are proposed, and studies on the unit cell are performed for optimal design. The structure modeling and the characteristic analyses for doping density, potential distribution, electric field, width, and depth of trench in an SJ TMOSFET are performed and simulated by using of the SILVACO TCAD 2D device simulator, Atlas. As a result, the specific on-state resistance of 1.2
at the class of 100 V and 100 A is successfully optimized in the SJ TMOSFET, which has the better performance than TDMOS in design parameters.
Real-Time Digital Image Stabilization for Cell Phone Cameras in Low-Light Environments without Frame Memory
Luo, Lin-Bo ; Chong, Jong-Wha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 138~141
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0338
This letter proposes a real-time digital image stabilization system for cell phone cameras without the need for frame memory. The system post-processes an image captured with a safe shutter speed using an adaptive denoising filter and a global color correction algorithm. This system can transfer the normal brightness of an image previewed under long exposure to the captured image making it bright and crisp with low noise. It is even possible to take photos in low-light conditions. By not needing frame memory, the approach is feasible for integration into the size-constrained image sensors of cell phone cameras.
Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption with Constant-Size Private Keys
Zhang, Leyou ; Wu, Qing ; Hu, Yupu ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 1, 2012, Pages 142~145
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0140
The main challenge at present in constructing hierarchical identity-based encryption (HIBE) is to solve the trade-off between private-key size and ciphertext size. At least one private-key size or ciphertext size in the existing schemes must rely on the hierarchy depth. In this letter, a new hierarchical computing technique is introduced to HIBE. Unlike others, the proposed scheme, which consists of only two group elements, achieves constant-size private keys. In addition, the ciphertext consists of just three group elements, regardless of the hierarchy depth. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first efficient scheme where both ciphertexts and private keys achieve O(1)-size, which is the best trade-off between private-key size and ciphertext size at present. We also give the security proof in the selective-identity model.