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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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Design of Reader Baseband Receiver Structure for Demodulating Backscattered Tag Signal in a Passive RFID Environment
Bae, Ji-Hoon ; Choi, Won-Kyu ; Park, Chan-Won ; Pyo, Cheol-Sig ; Kim, Kyung-Tae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 147~158
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0365
In this paper, we present a demodulation structure suitable for a reader baseband receiver in a passive radio frequency identification (RFID) environment. In a passive RFID configuration, an undesirable DC-offset phenomenon may appear in the baseband of the reader receiver, which can severely degrade the performance of the extraction of valid information from the received tag signal. To eliminate this DC-offset phenomenon, the primary feature of the proposed demodulation structures for the received FM0 and Miller subcarrier signals is to reconstruct the signal corrupted by the DC-offset phenomenon by creating peak signals from the corrupted signal. It is shown that the proposed method can successfully detect valid data, even when the received baseband signal is distorted by the DC-offset phenomenon.
Distributed Resource Allocation in Two-Hierarchy Networks
Liu, Shuhui ; Chang, Yongyu ; Wang, Guangde ; Yang, Dacheng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 159~167
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0451
In this paper, a new distributed resource allocation algorithm is proposed to alleviate the cross-tier interference for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing access macrocell and femtocell overlay. Specifically, the resource allocation problem is modeled as a non-cooperative game. Based on game theory, we propose an iterative algorithm between subchannel and power allocation called distributed resource allocation which requires no coordination among the two-hierarchy networks. Finally, a macrocell link quality protection process is proposed to guarantee the macrocell UE's quality of service to avoid severe cross-tier interference from femtocells. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve remarkable performance gains as compared to the pure waterfilling algorithm.
A Novel Data Transmission Scheme for ATSC Terrestrial DTV Systems
Park, Sung-Ik ; Kim, Heung-Mook ; Oh, Wang-Rok ; Kim, Jeong-Chang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 168~174
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0311
In Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC) terrestrial digital television (DTV) systems, additional very low-rate data can be transmitted by modulating the amplitude and polarity of the transmitter identification (TxID) signal. Although the additional data transmission scheme offers reliable transmission and has a very large coverage area, it has a limitation on the data rate. In this paper, we propose a novel additional data transmission scheme based on the TxID sequences of the ATSC DTV system and Walsh modulation. The proposed scheme not only increases the data rate significantly, but also offers a virtually identical coverage area compared to a conventional scheme.
Synchronization for IR-UWB System Using a Switching Phase Detector-Based Impulse Phase-Locked Loop
Zheng, Lin ; Liu, Zhenghong ; Wang, Mei ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 175~183
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0299
Conventional synchronization algorithms for impulse radio require high-speed sampling and a precise local clock. Here, a phase-locked loop (PLL) scheme is introduced to acquire and track periodical impulses. The proposed impulse PLL (iPLL) is analyzed under an ideal Gaussian noise channel and multipath environment. The timing synchronization can be recovered directly from the locked frequency and phase. To make full use of the high harmonics of the received impulses efficiently in synchronization, the switching phase detector is applied in iPLL. It is capable of obtaining higher loop gain without a rise in timing errors. In different environments, simulations verify our analysis and show about one-tenth of the root mean square errors of conventional impulse synchronizations. The developed iPLL prototype applied in a high-speed ultra-wideband transceiver shows its feasibility, low complexity, and high precision.
Statistical Model-Based Voice Activity Detection Based on Second-Order Conditional MAP with Soft Decision
Chang, Joon-Hyuk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 184~189
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0344
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to statistical model-based voice activity detection (VAD) that incorporates a second-order conditional maximum a posteriori (CMAP) criterion. As a technical improvement for the first-order CMAP criterion in , we consider both the current observation and the voice activity decision in the previous two frames to take full consideration of the interframe correlation of voice activity. This is clearly different from the previous approach  in that we employ the voice activity decisions in the second-order (previous two frames) CMAP, which has quadruple thresholds with an additional degree of freedom, rather than the first-order (previous single frame). Also, a soft-decision scheme is incorporated, resulting in time-varying thresholds for further performance improvement. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the conventional CMAP-based VAD technique under various experimental conditions.
Adaptive Correlation Noise Model for DC Coefficients in Wyner-Ziv Video Coding
Qin, Hao ; Song, Bin ; Zhao, Yue ; Liu, Haihua ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 190~198
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0273
An adaptive correlation noise model (CNM) construction algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the efficiency of parity bits for correcting errors of the side information in transform domain Wyner-Ziv (WZ) video coding. The proposed algorithm introduces two techniques to improve the accuracy of the CNM. First, it calculates the mean of direct current (DC) coefficients of the original WZ frame at the encoder and uses it to assist the decoder to calculate the CNM parameters. Second, by considering the statistical property of the transform domain correlation noise and the motion characteristic of the frame, the algorithm adaptively models the DC coefficients of the correlation noise with the Gaussian distribution for the low motion frames and the Laplacian distribution for the high motion frames, respectively. With these techniques, the proposed algorithm is able to make a more accurate approximation to the real distribution of the correlation noise at the expense of a very slight increment to the coding complexity. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can improve the average peak signal-to-noise ratio of the decoded WZ frames by 0.5 dB to 1.5 dB.
Impacts of Hierarchy in Ethernet Ring Networks on Service Resiliency
Lee, Kwang-Koog ; Ryoo, Jeong-Dong ; Kim, Young-Lok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 199~209
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0341
In transport networks, a multi-ring architecture is very useful to facilitate network planning and to design and provide more resilient services for customers. Unlike traditional synchronous optical network multi-rings, the service resiliency of Ethernet-based multi-rings is significantly impacted by the ring hierarchy because a link or node failure in a certain level ring triggers filtering database flush actions in all higher level rings as well as in the ring with the failure, and consequently a large amount of duplicated data frames may be flooded. In this paper, we investigate how the ring hierarchy impacts the service resiliency of multi-ring networks. Based on extensive experiments on various single- and multiple-link failures, we suggest two effective inter-ring connection rules to minimize the transient traffic and to ensure more resilient multi-ring networks. In addition, we consider a flush optimization technique called e-ADV, and show that the combination of e-ADV and multi-ring structures satisfying our inter-ring connection rules results in a more attractive survivability performance.
Design of Group Delay Time Controller Based on a Reflective Parallel Resonator
Chaudhary, Girdhari ; Choi, Heung-Jae ; Jeong, Yong-Chae ; Lim, Jong-Sik ; Kim, Chul-Dong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 210~215
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0110.0689
In this paper, a group delay time controller (GDTC) is proposed based on a reflection topology employing a parallel resonator as the reflection termination. The design equations of the proposed GDTC have been derived and validated by simulation and experimental results. The group delay time can be varied by varying the capacitance and inductance at an operating frequency. To show the validity of the proposed circuit, an experiment was performed for a wideband code division multiple access downlink band operating at 2.11 GHz to 2.17 GHz. According to the experiment, a group delay time variation of
ns over bandwidth of 60 MHz with excellent flatness is obtained.
Transceiver for Human Body Communication Using Frequency Selective Digital Transmission
Hyoung, Chang-Hee ; Kang, Sung-Weon ; Park, Seong-Ook ; Kim, Youn-Tae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 216~225
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0178
This paper presents a transceiver module for human body communications whereby a spread signal with a group of 64 Walsh codes is directly transferred through a human body at a chip rate of 32 Mcps. Frequency selective digital transmission moves the signal spectrum over 5 MHz without continuous frequency modulation and increases the immunity to induced interference by the processing gain. A simple receiver structure with no additional analog circuitry for the transmitter has been developed and has a sensitivity of 250
. The high sensitivity of the receiver makes it possible to communicate between mobile devices using a human body as the transmission medium. It enables half-duplex communication of 2 Mbps within an operating range of up to 170 cm between the ultra-mobile PCs held between fingertips of each hand with a packet error rate of lower than
. The transceiver module consumes 59 mA with a 3.3 V power supply.
Construction of Membrane Sieves Using Stoichiometric and Stress-Reduced
Multilayer Films and Their Applications in Blood Plasma Separation
Lee, Dae-Sik ; Choi, Yo-Han ; Han, Yong-Duk ; Yoon, Hyun-C. ; Shoji, Shuichi ; Jung, Mun-Youn ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 226~234
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.1711.0013
The novelty of this study resides in the fabrication of stoichiometric and stress-reduced
triple-layer membrane sieves. The membrane sieves were designed to be very flat and thin, mechanically stress-reduced, and stable in their electrical and chemical properties. All insulating materials are deposited stoichiometrically by a low-pressure chemical vapor deposition system. The membranes with a thickness of 0.4
have pores with a diameter of about 1
. The device is fabricated on a 6" silicon wafer with the semiconductor processes. We utilized the membrane sieves for plasma separations from human whole blood. To enhance the separation ability of blood plasma, an agarose gel matrix was attached to the membrane sieves. We could separate about 1
of blood plasma from 5
of human whole blood. Our device can be used in the cell-based biosensors or analysis systems in analytical chemistry.
Constructing Strong Identity-Based Designated Verifier Signatures with Self-Unverifiability
Ki, Ju-Hee ; Hwang, Jung-Yeon ; Nyang, Dae-Hun ; Chang, Beom-Hwan ; Lee, Dong-Hoon ; Lim, Jong-In ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 235~244
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0597
An identity-based strong designated verifier signature scheme provides restricted verifiability only for a verifier designated by a signer and proper privacy for the signer. In this paper, we show that strong designated verifier signature schemes do not satisfy the self-unverifiability requirement in the sense that not only exposure of the verifier's secret key but also of the signer's secret key enables an attacker to verify signatures, which should have been the exclusive right of the verifier. We also present a generic method to construct a strong identity-based designated verifier signature scheme with self-unverifiability from identity-based key encapsulation and identity-based key sharing schemes. We prove that a scheme constructed from our method achieves unforgeability, non-transferability, and self-unverifiability if the two underlying components are secure. To show the advantage of our method, we present an example that outputs short signatures and we analyze its performance.
Acceptance-Diffusion Strategies for Tablet-PCs: Focused on Acceptance Factors of Non-Users and Satisfaction Factors of Users
Kim, You-Jin ; Sim, Jin-Bo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 245~255
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0198
Among emerging devices propelling the growth of mobile devices, smartphones and tablet-PCs are among the most recognizable. In this study, a research model is designed for exploring acceptance-diffusion strategies for tablet-PCs from the viewpoint of consumer perception, which is verified through a survey. The results of this study show that tablet-PCs have great potential to be versatile, multifunctional devices, even though they are currently considered mostly as entertainment-oriented rather than fulfilling the essential needs of everyday life. An analysis of the acceptance model for tablet-PCs revealed that playability, cost level, functionality, and complexity significantly affect user acceptance. An analysis of the diffusion model, on the other hand, showed that playability and user interface have a significant influence on satisfaction, trust, and positive behavioral intention. We also found that cost level is not a major hindrance in the market diffusion of tablet-PCs. The results of this study can be used to establish effective acceptance and diffusion strategies for tablet-PCs and other emerging devices.
New Multiplier for a Double-Base Number System Linked to a Flash ADC
Nguyen, Minh-Son ; Kim, In-Soo ; Choi, Kyu-Sun ; Lim, Jae-Hyun ; Choi, Won-Ho ; Kim, Jong-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 256~259
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0198
The double-base number system has been used in digital signal processing systems for over a decade because of its fast inner product operation and low hardware complexity. This letter proposes an innovative multiplier architecture using hybrid operands. The multiplier can easily be linked to flash analog-to-digital converters or digital systems through a double-base number encoder (DBNE) for realtime signal processing. The design of the DBNE and the multiplier enable faster digital signal processing and require less hardware resources compared to the binary processing method.
Moving-Target Tracking Based on Particle Filter with TDOA/FDOA Measurements
Cho, Jeong-A ; Na, Han-Byeul ; Kim, Sun-Woo ; Ahn, Chun-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 260~263
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0218
In this letter, we propose a moving-target tracking algorithm based on a particle filter that uses the time difference of arrival (TDOA)/frequency difference of arrival (FDOA) measurements acquired by distributed sensors. It is shown that the performance of the proposed algorithm, based on the particle filter, outperforms the one based on the extended Kalman filter. The use of both the TDOA and FDOA measurements is shown to be effective in the moving-target tracking. It is proven that the particle filter deals with the nonlinear nature of the movingtarget tracking problem successfully.
Performance Analysis of a Two-Hop Fixed-Gain MIMO Multiuser Relay Network with End-to-End Antenna Selection
Li, Guangping ; Blostein, Steven David ; Zhang, Guangchi ; Feng, Jiuchao ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 264~267
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0308
This letter analyzes the performance of a two-hop MIMO multiuser relay network with a fixed gain amplify-and-forward protocol and antenna selection at the transmitter and receiver. A new expression for the cumulative distribution function of the highest instantaneous end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio is derived. Based on the above result, closed-form expressions for outage probability and bit error rate are presented. Also, the diversity order of the system is determined. Finally, computer simulations are compared to the analytical results, and insights and observations are provided.
Partial Shift Mapping for PAPR Reduction with Low Complexity in OFDM Systems
Ouyang, Xing ; Jin, Jiyu ; Jin, Guiyue ; Wang, Zhisen ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 268~271
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0355
The high peak-to-average power is one of the main drawbacks in OFDM systems. This letter proposes a partial shift mapping (PSM) method for peak power reduction in OFDM systems. By utilizing the properties of the discrete Fourier transform, the proposed method generates a set of candidate signals without additional complex multiplication and selects the one with minimum peak power for transmission. Analyses and simulations confirm that the PSM method achieves satisfactory peak power reduction performance and low complexity compared with other kindred methods, for example, selected mapping and partial transmit sequences.
Exploiting Multichannel Diversity in Spectrum Sharing Systems Using Optimal Stopping Rule
Xu, Yuhua ; Wu, Qihui ; Wang, Jinlong ; Anpalagan, Alagan ; Xu, Yitao ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 272~275
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0274
This letter studies the problem of exploiting multichannel diversity in a spectrum sharing system, where the secondary user (SU) sequentially explores channel state information on the licensed channels with time consumption. To maximize the expected achievable throughput for the SU, we formulate this problem as an optimal stopping problem, whose objective is to choose the right channel to stop exploration based on the observed signal-to-noise ratio sequence. Moreover, we propose a myopic but optimal rule, called one-stage look-ahead rule, to solve the stopping problem.
Modified 802.11-Based Opportunistic Spectrum Access in Cognitive Radio Networks
Zhai, Linbo ; Zhang, Xiaomin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 276~279
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0350
In this letter, a modified 802.11-based opportunistic spectrum access is proposed for single-channel cognitive radio networks where primary users operate on a slot-by-slot basis. In our opportunistic spectrum access, control frames are used to reduce the slot-boundary impact and achieve channel reservation to improve throughput of secondary users. An absorbing Markov chain model is used to analyze the throughput of secondary users. Simulation results show that the analysis accurately predicts the saturation throughput.
Improved Stability of Atomic Layer Deposited ZnO Thin Film Transistor by Intercycle Oxidation
Oh, Him-Chan ; KoPark, Sang-Hee ; Ryu, Min-Ki ; Hwang, Chi-Sun ; Yang, Shin-Hyuk ; Kwon, Oh-Sang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 280~283
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0186
treatment steps during atomic layer deposition of a ZnO layer, the turn-on voltage shift from negative bias stress (NBS) under illumination was reduced considerably compared to that of a device that has a continuously grown ZnO layer without any treatment steps. Meanwhile, treatment steps without introducing reactive gases, and simply staying under a low working pressure, aggravated the instability under illuminated NBS due to an increase of oxygen vacancy concentration in the ZnO layer. From the experiment results, additional oxidation of the ZnO channel layer is proven to be effective in improving the stability against illuminated NBS.
Design and Optimization of Full Comparator Based on Quantum-Dot Cellular Automata
Hayati, Mohsen ; Rezaei, Abbas ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 284~287
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0258
Quantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is one of the few alternative computing platforms that has the potential to be a promising technology because of higher speed, smaller size, and lower power consumption in comparison with CMOS technology. This letter proposes an optimized full comparator for implementation in QCA. The proposed design is compared with previous works in terms of complexity, area, and delay. In comparison with the best previous full comparator, our design has 64% and 85% improvement in cell count and area, respectively. Also, it is implemented with only one clock cycle. The obtained results show that our full comparator is more efficient in terms of cell count, complexity, area, and delay compared to the previous designs. Therefore, this structure can be simply used in designing QCA-based circuits.
A New Semantic Kernel Function for Online Anomaly Detection of Software
Parsa, Saeed ; Naree, Somaye Arabi ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 288~291
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0293
In this letter, a new online anomaly detection approach for software systems is proposed. The novelty of the proposed approach is to apply a new semantic kernel function for a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to detect fault-suspicious execution paths at runtime in a reasonable amount of time. The kernel uses a new sequence matching algorithm to measure similarities among program execution paths in a customized feature space whose dimensions represent the largest common subpaths among the execution paths. To increase the precision of the SVM classifier, each common subpath is given weights according to its ability to discern executions as correct or anomalous. Experiment results show that compared with the known kernels, the proposed SVM kernel will improve the time overhead of online anomaly detection by up to 170%, while improving the precision of anomaly alerts by up to 140%.
Analysis of the Empirical Effects of Contextual Matching Advertising for Online News
Oh, Hyo-Jung ; Lee, Chang-Ki ; Lee, Chung-Hee ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 2, 2012, Pages 292~295
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0171
Beyond the simple keyword matching methods in contextual advertising, we propose a rich contextual matching (CM) model adopting a classification method for topic targeting and a query expansion method for semantic ad matching. This letter reports on an investigation into the empirical effects of the CM model by comparing the click-through rates (CTRs) of two practical online news advertising systems. Based on the evaluation results from over 100 million impressions, we prove that the average CTR of our proposed model outperforms that of a traditional model.