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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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Interference Management with Block Diagonalization for Macro/Femto Coexisting Networks
Jang, Uk ; Cho, Kee-Seong ; Ryu, Won ; Lee, Ho-Jin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 297~307
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0110.0793
A femtocell is a small cellular base station, typically designed for use in a home or small business. The random deployment of a femtocell has a critical effect on the performance of a macrocell network due to co-channel interference. Utilizing the advantage of a multiple-input multiple-output system, each femto base station (FBS) is able to form a cluster and generates a precoding matrix, which is a modified version of conventional single-cell block diagonalization, in a cooperative manner. Since interference from clustered-FBSs located at the nearby macro user equipment (MUE) is the dominant interference contributor to the coexisting networks, each cluster generates a precoding matrix considering the effects of interference on nearby MUEs. Through simulation, we verify that the proposed algorithm shows better performance respective to both MUE and femto user equipment, in terms of capacity.
Analyzing the Economic Effect of Mobile Network Sharing in Korea
Song, Young-Keun ; Zo, Hang-Jung ; Lee, Sung-Joo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 308~318
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0471
As mobile markets in most developed countries are rapidly coming close to saturation, it is increasingly challenging to cover the cost of providing the network, as revenues are not growing. This has driven mobile operators, thus far mostly involved in facility-based competition, to turn their attention to network sharing. There exist various types of mobile network sharing (MNS), from passive to active sharing. In this paper, we propose a model, based on the supply-demand model, for evaluating the economic effects of using six types of MNS. Our study measures the economic effects of employing these six types of MNS, using actual WiBro-related data. Considering lower service price and expenditure reduction, the total economic effect from a year's worth of MNS use is estimated to be between 513 million and 689 million USD, which is equal to three to four percent of the annual revenue of Korean mobile operators. The results of this study will be used to support the establishment of a MNS policy in Korea. In addition, the results can be used as a basic model for developing various network sharing models.
Closed-Loop Transmit Diversity Techniques for Small Wireless Terminals and Their Performance Assessment in a Flat Fading Channel
Mostafa, Raqibul ; Pallat, Ramesh C. ; Ringel, Uwe ; Tikku, Ashok A. ; Reed, Jeffrey H. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 319~329
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0413
Closed-loop transmit diversity is considered an important technique for improving the link budget in the third generation and future wireless communication standards. This paper proposes several transmit diversity algorithms suitable for small wireless terminals and presents performance assessment in terms of average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and outage improvement, convergence, and complexity of operations. The algorithms presented herein are verified using data from measured indoor channels with variable antenna spacing and the results explained using measured radiation patterns for a two-element array. It is shown that for a two-element array, the best among the proposed techniques provides SNR improvement of about 3 dB in a tightly spaced array (inter-element spacing of 0.1 wavelength at 2 GHz) typical of small wireless devices. Additionally, these techniques are shown to perform significantly better than a single antenna device in an indoor channel considering realistic values of latency and propagation errors.
Scate: A Scalable Time and Energy Aware Actor Task Allocation Algorithm in Wireless Sensor and Actor Networks
Sharifi, Mohsen ; Okhovvat, Morteza ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 330~340
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0366
In many applications of wireless sensor actor networks (WSANs) that often run in harsh environments, the reduction of completion times of tasks is highly desired. We present a new time-aware, energy-aware, and starvation-free algorithm called Scate for assigning tasks to actors while satisfying the scalability and distribution requirements of WSANs with semi-automated architecture. The proposed algorithm allows concurrent executions of any mix of small and large tasks and yet prevents probable starvation of tasks. To achieve this, it estimates the completion times of tasks on each available actor and then takes the remaining energies and the current workloads of these actors into account during task assignment to actors. The results of our experiments with a prototyped implementation of Scate show longer network lifetime, shorter makespan of resulting schedules, and more balanced loads on actors compared to when one of the three well-known task-scheduling algorithms, namely, the max-min, min-min, and opportunistic load balancing algorithms, is used.
Multimedia Service Discrimination Based on Fair Resource Allocation Using Bargaining Solutions
Shin, Kwang-Sup ; Jung, Jae-Yoon ; Suh, Doug-Young ; Kang, Suk-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 341~351
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0435
We deal with a resource allocation problem for multimedia service discrimination in wireless networks. We assume that a service provider allocates network resources to users who can choose and access one of the discriminated services. To express the rational service selection of users, the utility function of users is devised to reflect both service quality and cost. Regarding the utility function of a service provider, total profit and efficiency of resource usage have been considered. The proposed service discrimination framework is composed of two game models. An outer model is a repeated Stackelberg game between a service provider and a user group, while an inner model is a service selection game among users, which is solved by adopting the Kalai-Smorodinsky bargaining solution. Through simulation experiments, we compare the proposed framework with existing resource allocation methods according to user cost sensitivity. The proposed framework performed better than existing frameworks in terms of total profit and fairness.
Low-Cost, Low-Power, High-Capacity 3R OEO-Type Reach Extender for a Long-Reach TDMA-PON
Kim, Kwang-Ok ; Lee, Jie-Hyun ; Lee, Sang-Soo ; Lee, Jong-Hyun ; Jang, Youn-Seon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 352~360
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0410
This paper proposes a low-cost, low-power, and high-capacity optical-electrical-optical-type reach extender that can provide 3R frame regeneration and remote management to increase the reach and split ratio with no change to a legacy time division multiple access passive optical network. To provide remote management, the extender gathers information regarding optical transceivers and link status per port and then transmits to a service provider using a simple network management protocol agent. The extender can also apply to an Ethernet passive optical network (E-PON) or a gigabit-capable PON (G-PON) by remote control. In a G-PON, in particular, it can provide burst mode signal retiming and burst-to-continuous mode conversion at the upstream path through a G-PON transmission convergence frame adaptor. Our proposed reach extender is based on the quad-port architecture for cost-effective design and can accommodate both the physical reach of 60 km and the 512 split ratios in a G-PON and the physical reach of 80 km and the 256 split ratios in an E-PON.
High-Frequency Modeling and Optimization of E/O Response and Reflection Characteristics of 40 Gb/s EML Module for Optical Transmitters
Xu, Chengzhi ; Xu, Y.Z. ; Zhao, Yanli ; Lu, Kunzhong ; Liu, Weihua ; Fan, Shibing ; Zou, Hui ; Liu, Wen ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 361~368
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0516
A complete high-frequency small-signal circuit model of a 40 Gb/s butterfly electroabsorption modulator integrated laser module is presented for the first time to analyze and optimize its electro-optic (E/O) response and reflection characteristics. An agreement between measured and simulated results demonstrates the accuracy and validity of the procedures. By optimizing the bonding wire length and the impedance of the coplanar waveguide transmission lines, the E/O response increases approximately 5% to 15% from 20 GHz to 33 GHz, while the signal injection efficiency increases from approximately 15% to 25% over 18 GHz to 35 GHz.
Probability Constrained Search Range Determination for Fast Motion Estimation
Kang, Hyun-Soo ; Lee, Si-Woong ; Hosseini, Hamid Gholam ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 369~378
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0200
In this paper, we propose new adaptive search range motion estimation methods where the search ranges are constrained by the probabilities of motion vector differences and a search point sampling technique is applied to the constrained search ranges. Our new methods are based on our previous work, in which the search ranges were analytically determined by the probabilities. Since the proposed adaptive search range motion estimation methods effectively restrict the search ranges instead of search point sampling patterns, they provide a very flexible and hardware-friendly approach in motion estimation. The proposed methods were evaluated and tested with JM16.2 of the H.264/AVC video coding standard. Experiment results exhibit that with negligible degradation in PSNR, the proposed methods considerably reduce the computational complexity in comparison with the conventional methods. In particular, the combined method provides performance similar to that of the hybrid unsymmetrical-cross multi-hexagon-grid search method and outstanding merits in hardware implementation.
Modified RHKF Filter for Improved DR/GPS Navigation against Uncertain Model Dynamics
Cho, Seong-Yun ; Lee, Hyung-Keun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 379~387
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0391
In this paper, an error compensation technique for a dead reckoning (DR) system using a magnetic compass module is proposed. The magnetic compass-based azimuth may include a bias that varies with location due to the surrounding magnetic sources. In this paper, the DR system is integrated with a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver using a finite impulse response (FIR) filter to reduce errors. This filter can estimate the varying bias more effectively than the conventional Kalman filter, which has an infinite impulse response structure. Moreover, the conventional receding horizon Kalman FIR (RHKF) filter is modified for application in nonlinear systems and to compensate the drawbacks of the RHKF filter. The modified RHKF filter is a novel RHKF filter scheme for nonlinear dynamics. The inverse covariance form of the linearized Kalman filter is combined with a receding horizon FIR strategy. This filter is then combined with an extended Kalman filter to enhance the convergence characteristics of the FIR filter. Also, the receding interval is extended to reduce the computational burden. The performance of the proposed DR/GPS integrated system using the modified RHKF filter is evaluated through simulation.
Yield Enhancement Techniques for 3D Memories by Redundancy Sharing among All Layers
Lee, Joo-Hwan ; Park, Ki-Hyun ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 388~398
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0643
Three-dimensional (3D) memories using through-silicon vias (TSVs) will likely be the first commercial applications of 3D integrated circuit technology. A 3D memory yield can be enhanced by vertical redundancy sharing strategies. The methods used to select memory dies to form 3D memories have a great effect on the 3D memory yield. Since previous die-selection methods share redundancies only between neighboring memory dies, the opportunity to achieve significant yield enhancement is limited. In this paper, a novel die-selection method is proposed for multilayer 3D memories that shares redundancies among all of the memory dies by using additional TSVs. The proposed method uses three selection conditions to form a good multi-layer 3D memory. Furthermore, the proposed method considers memory fault characteristics, newly detected faults after bonding, and multiple memory blocks in each memory die. Simulation results show that the proposed method can significantly improve the multilayer 3D memory yield in a variety of situations. The TSV overhead for the proposed method is almost the same as that for the previous methods.
Object Modeling with Color Arrangement for Region-Based Tracking
Kim, Dae-Hwan ; Jung, Seung-Won ; Suryanto, Suryanto ; Lee, Seung-Jun ; Kim, Hyo-Kak ; Ko, Sung-Jea ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 399~409
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0383
In this paper, we propose a new color histogram model for object tracking. The proposed model incorporates the color arrangement of the target that encodes the relative spatial distribution of the colors inside the object. Using the color arrangement, we can determine which color bin is more reliable for tracking. Based on the proposed color histogram model, we derive a mean shift framework using a modified Bhattacharyya distance. In addition, we present a method of updating an object scale and a target model to cope with changes in the target appearance. Unlike conventional mean shift based methods, our algorithm produces satisfactory results even when the object being tracked shares similar colors with the background.
Reversible Watermark Using an Accurate Predictor and Sorter Based on Payload Balancing
Kang, Sang-Ug ; Hwang, Hee-Joon ; Kim, Hyoung-Joong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 410~420
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0075
A series of reversible watermarking technologies have been proposed to increase embedding capacity and the quality of the watermarked image simultaneously. The major skills include difference expansion, histogram shifting, and optimizing embedding order. In this paper, an accurate predictor is proposed to enhance the difference expansion. An efficient sorter is also suggested to find a more desirable embedding order. The payload is differently distributed into two sub-images, split like a chessboard pattern, for better watermarked image quality. Simulation results of the accurate prediction and sorter based on the payload balancing method yield generally better performance over previous methods. The gap is wide, in particular, in low payload for natural images. The peak signal-to-noise ratio improvement is around 2 dB in low payload ranges.
Provably Secure Aggregate Signcryption Scheme
Ren, Xun-Yi ; Qi, Zheng-Hua ; Geng, Yang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 421~428
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0215
An aggregate signature scheme is a digital signature scheme that allows aggregation of n distinct signatures by n distinct users on n distinct messages. In this paper, we present an aggregate signcryption scheme (ASC) that is useful for reducing the size of certification chains (by aggregating all signatures in the chain) and for reducing message size in secure routing protocols. The new ASC scheme combines identity-based encryption and the aggregation of signatures in a practical way that can simultaneously satisfy the security requirements for confidentiality and authentication. We formally prove the security of the new scheme in a random oracle model with respect to security properties IND-CCA2, AUTH-CMA2, and EUF-CMA.
High-Quality and Robust Reversible Data Hiding by Coefficient Shifting Algorithm
Yang, Ching-Yu ; Lin, Chih-Hung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 429~438
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0312
This study presents two reversible data hiding schemes based on the coefficient shifting (CS) algorithm. The first scheme uses the CS algorithm with a mean predictor in the spatial domain to provide a large payload while minimizing distortion. To guard against manipulations, the second scheme uses a robust version of the CS algorithm with feature embedding implemented in the integer wavelet transform domain. Simulations demonstrate that both the payload and peak signal-to-noise ratio generated by the CS algorithm with a mean predictor are better than those generated by existing techniques. In addition, the marked images generated by the variant of the CS algorithm are robust to various manipulations created by JPEG2000 compression, JPEG compression, noise additions, (edge) sharpening, low-pass filtering, bit truncation, brightness, contrast, (color) quantization, winding, zigzag and poster edge distortion, and inversion.
Technological Convergence of IT and BT: Evidence from Patent Analysis
Geum, Young-Jung ; Kim, Chul-Hyun ; Lee, Sung-Joo ; Kim, Moon-Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 439~449
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.1711.0010
In recent innovation trends, one notable feature is the merging and overlapping of technologies: in other words, technological convergence. A key technological convergence is the fusion of biotechnology (BT) and information technology (IT). Major IT advances have led to innovative devices that allow us to advance BT. However, the lack of data on IT-BT convergence is a major impediment: relatively little research has analyzed the inter-disciplinary relationship of different industries. We propose a systematic approach to analyzing the technological convergence of BT and IT. Patent analysis, including citation and co-classification analyses, was adopted as a main method to measure the convergence intensity and coverage, and two portfolio matrices were developed to manage the technological convergence. The contribution of this paper is that it provides practical evidences for IT-BT convergence, based on quantitative data and systematic processes. This has managerial implications for each sector of IT and BT.
Channel Estimation Scheme for WLAN Systems with Backward Compatibility
Kim, Jee-Hoon ; Yu, Hee-Jung ; Lee, Sok-Kyu ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 450~453
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0353
IEEE 802.11n standards introduced a mixed-mode format frame structure to achieve higher throughput with multiple antennas while providing backward compatibility with legacy systems. Although multi-input multi-output channel estimation was possible only with high-throughput long training fields (HT-LTFs), the proposed scheme utilizes a legacy LTF as well as HT-LTFs in a decision feedback manner to improve the accuracy of the estimates. It was verified through theoretical analysis and simulations that the proposed scheme effectively enhances the mean square error performance.
Planar DVB-T Antenna Using a Patterned Helical Line and Matching Circuit
Lim, Jong-Hyuk ; Yun, Tae-Yeoul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 454~457
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0405
A miniaturized planar digital video broadcasting terrestrial (DVB-T) antenna, which is composed of a patterned helical line, an open stub, and an impedance matching circuit on an FR4 (
=4.4) substrate for portable media player applications, is presented in this letter. The antenna has monopole-like, omni-directional radiation characteristics and a wide impedance bandwidth (VSWR<3) in the DVB-T band from 174 MHz to 230 MHz at the VHF band.
ML-Based Estimation Algorithm of Frequency Offset for
Lei, Ming ; Zhao, Minjian ; Zhong, Jie ; Cai, Yunlong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 458~461
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0412
In this letter, we propose a novel frequency offset estimation algorithm for space-time block code (STBC) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing systems. The algorithm mainly exploits the specific construction of STBC so that it does not need any additional pilots or sequences in the data field. The estimator is derived on the basis of the maximum likelihood theory. Simulation results show that this method can provide a significant performance improvement in terms of the estimation accuracy of the frequency offset.
A Distributed Sequential Link Schedule Combined with Routing in Wireless Mesh Networks
Cha, Jae-Ryong ; Kim, Jae-Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 462~465
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0402
This letter proposes a new distributed scheduling scheme combined with routing to support the quality of service of real-time applications in wireless mesh networks. Next, this letter drives average end-to-end delay of the proposed scheduling scheme that sequentially schedules the slots on a path. Finally, this letter simulates the time division multiple access network for performance comparison. From the simulation results, when the average number of hops is 2.02, 2.66, 4.1, 4.75, and 6.3, the proposed sequential scheduling scheme reduces the average end-to-end delay by about 28%, 10%, 17%, 27%, and 30%, respectively, compared to the conventional random scheduling scheme.
Dual Autostereoscopic Display Platform for Multi-user Collaboration with Natural Interaction
Kim, Hye-Mi ; Lee, Gun-A. ; Yang, Ung-Yeon ; Kwak, Tae-Jin ; Kim, Ki-Hong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 466~469
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0331
In this letter, we propose a dual autostereoscopic display platform employing a natural interaction method, which will be useful for sharing visual data with users. To provide 3D visualization of a model to users who collaborate with each other, a beamsplitter is used with a pair of autostereoscopic displays, providing a visual illusion of a floating 3D image. To interact with the virtual object, we track the user's hands with a depth camera. The gesture recognition technique we use operates without any initialization process, such as specific poses or gestures, and supports several commands to control virtual objects by gesture recognition. Experiment results show that our system performs well in visualizing 3D models in real-time and handling them under unconstrained conditions, such as complicated backgrounds or a user wearing short sleeves.
Image Independent Driving Power Reduction for High Frame Rate LCD Televisions
Nam, Hyoung-Sik ; Shim, Jae-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 470~473
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0365
In this letter, the constant driving power reduction ratio has been achieved for column drivers regardless of the input image by incorporating a new static power reduction scheme into the previous dynamic power reduction method. The measured power reduction ratio is around 50% for a 120 Hz liquid crystal display panel in such cases of still input video and fallback.
Adaptive TCX Windowing Technology for Unified Structure MPEG-D USAC
Lee, Tae-Jin ; Beack, Seung-Kwon ; Kang, Kyeong-Ok ; Kim, Whan-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 474~477
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0404
The MPEG-D unified speech and audio coding (USAC) standardization process was initiated by MPEG to develop an audio codec that is able to provide consistent quality for mixed speech and music contents. The current USAC reference model structure consists of frequency domain (FD) and linear prediction domain (LPD) core modules and is controlled using a signal classifier tool. In this letter, we propose an LPD single-mode USAC structure using an adaptive widowing-based transform-coded excitation module. We tested our system using official test items for all mono-evaluation modes. The results of the experiment show that the objective and subjective performances of the proposed single-mode USAC system are better than those of the FD/LPD dual-mode USAC system.
A Fast Redundancy Analysis Algorithm in ATE for Repairing Faulty Memories
Cho, Hyung-Jun ; Kang, Woo-Heon ; Kang, Sung-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 478~481
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0378
Testing memory and repairing faults have become increasingly important for improving yield. Redundancy analysis (RA) algorithms have been developed to repair memory faults. However, many RA algorithms have low analysis speeds and occupy memory space within automatic test equipment. A fast RA algorithm using simple calculations is proposed in this letter to minimize both the test and repair time. This analysis uses the grouped addresses in the faulty bitmap. Since the fault groups are independent of each other, the time needed to find solutions can be greatly reduced using these fault groups. Also, the proposed algorithm does not need to store searching trees, thereby minimizing the required memory space. Our experiments show that the proposed RA algorithm is very efficient in terms of speed and memory requirements.
Cryptanalysis of an Authenticated Key Agreement Protocol for Wireless Mobile Communications
He, Debiao ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 3, 2012, Pages 482~484
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0340
With the rapid progress of wireless mobile communications, the authenticated key agreement (AKA) protocol has attracted an increasing amount of attention. However, due to the limitations of bandwidth and storage of the mobile devices, most of the existing AKA protocols are not suitable for wireless mobile communications. Recently, Lo and others presented an efficient AKA protocol based on elliptic curve cryptography and included their protocol in 3GPP2 specifications. However, in this letter, we point out that Lo and others' protocol is vulnerable to an offline password guessing attack. To resist the attack, we also propose an efficient countermeasure.