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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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E-Band Wideband MMIC Receiver Using 0.1
GaAs pHEMT Process
Kim, Bong-Su ; Byun, Woo-Jin ; Kang, Min-Soo ; Kim, Kwang Seon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 485~491
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0644
In this paper, the implementations of a
gallium arsenide (GaAs) pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor process for a low noise amplifier (LNA), a subharmonically pumped (SHP) mixer, and a single-chip receiver for 70/80 GHz point-to-point communications are presented. To obtain high-gain performance and good flatness for a 15 GHz (71 GHz to 86 GHz) wideband LNA, a five-stage input/output port transmission line matching method is used. To decrease the package loss and cost, 2nd and 4th SHP mixers were designed. From the measured results, the five-stage LNA shows a gain of 23 dB and a noise figure of 4.5 dB. The 2nd and 4th SHP mixers show conversion losses of 12 dB and 17 dB and input P1dB of -1.5 dBm to 1.5 dBm. Finally, a single-chip receiver based on the 4th SHP mixer shows a gain of 6 dB, a noise figure of 6 dB, and an input P1dB of -21 dBm.
System-Level Performance of Spread Spectrum-Based Add-on Service Overlaid onto the Existing Terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcast Band
Yoon, Seokhyun ; Lim, Bo-Mi ; Lee, Yong Tae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 492~502
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0700
We consider an overlaid broadcast service, where a spread spectrum (SS)-based broadcast signal is overlaid onto the existing terrestrial Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB) band. The system is similar to the augmented data transmission in the ATSC DTV, for which it was investigated mostly in terms of link level performance, such as bit error rate. Our focus in this paper is on the system-level performances. More specifically, utilizing both a large scale path loss and a small scale fading channel model, the primary objective is to explore the tradeoff between the coverage and the achievable rate of the overlaid service and, finally, to determine the achievable rate in the overlaid service for marginal coverage reduction in the existing broadcast service. The analytical and simulation results show that an SS-based add-on service of 10 kbps to 20 kbps can co-exist with the T-DMB service while resulting in only a marginal degradation in T-DMB coverage (for example, less than one percent reduction).
Computationally Efficient Lattice Reduction Aided Detection for MIMO-OFDM Systems under Correlated Fading Channels
Liu, Wei ; Choi, Kwonhue ; Liu, Huaping ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 503~510
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0707
We analyze the relationship between channel coherence bandwidth and two complexity-reduced lattice reduction aided detection (LRAD) algorithms for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems in correlated fading channels. In both the adaptive LR algorithm and the fixed interval LR algorithm, we exploit the inherent feature of unimodular transformation matrix P that remains the same for the adjacent highly correlated subcarriers. Complexity simulations demonstrate that the adaptive LR algorithm could eliminate up to approximately 90 percent of the multiplications and 95 percent of the divisions of the brute-force LR algorithm with large coherence bandwidth. The results also show that the adaptive algorithm with both optimum and globally suboptimum initial interval settings could significantly reduce the LR complexity, compared with the brute-force LR and fixed interval LR algorithms, while maintaining the system performance.
BLUE-Based Channel Estimation Technique for Amplify and Forward Wireless Relay Networks
PremKumar, M. ; SenthilKumaran, V.N. ; Thiruvengadam, S.J. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 511~517
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0636
The best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) is most suitable for practical application and can be determined with knowledge of only the first and second moments of the probability density function. Although the BLUE is an existing algorithm, it is still largely unexplored and has not yet been applied to channel estimation in amplify and forward (AF)-based wireless relay networks (WRNs). In this paper, a BLUE-based algorithm is proposed to estimate the overall channel impulse response between the source and destination of AF strategy-based WRNs. Theoretical mean square error (MSE) performance for the BLUE is derived to show the accuracy of the proposed channel estimation algorithm. In addition, the Cram
r-Rao lower bound (CRLB) is derived to validate the MSE performance. The proposed BLUE channel estimation algorithm approaches the CRLB as the length of the training sequence and number of relays increases. Further, the BLUE performs better than the linear minimum MSE estimator due to the minimum variance characteristic exhibited by the BLUE, which happens to be a function of signal-to-noise ratio.
A Low-Spur CMOS PLL Using Differential Compensation Scheme
Yun, Seok-Ju ; Kim, Kwi-Dong ; Kwon, Jong-Kee ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 518~526
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0417
This paper proposes LC voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) phase-locked loop (PLL) and ring-VCO PLL topologies with low-phase noise. Differential control loops are used for the PLL locking through a symmetrical transformer-resonator or bilaterally controlled varactor pair. A differential compensation mechanism suppresses out-band spurious tones. The prototypes of the proposed PLL are implemented in a CMOS 65-nm or 45-nm process. The measured results of the LC-VCO PLL show operation frequencies of 3.5 GHz to 5.6 GHz, a phase noise of -118 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset, and a spur rejection of 66 dBc, while dissipating 3.2 mA at a 1 V supply. The ring-VCO PLL shows a phase noise of -95 dBc/Hz at a 1 MHz offset, operation frequencies of 1.2 GHz to 2.04 GHz, and a spur rejection of 59 dBc, while dissipating 5.4 mA at a 1.1 V supply.
Wireless Energy Transfer System with Multiple Coils via Coupled Magnetic Resonances
Cheon, Sanghoon ; Kim, Yong-Hae ; Kang, Seung-Youl ; Lee, Myung Lae ; Zyung, Taehyoung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 527~535
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0461
A general equivalent circuit model is developed for a wireless energy transfer system composed of multiple coils via coupled magnetic resonances. To verify the developed model, four types of wireless energy transfer systems are fabricated, measured, and compared with simulation results. To model a system composed of n-coils, node equations are built in the form of an n-by-n matrix, and the equivalent circuit model is established using an electric design automation tool. Using the model, we can simulate systems with multiple coils, power sources, and loads. Moreover, coupling constants are extracted as a function of the distance between two coils, and we can predict the characteristics of a system having coils at an arbitrary location. We fabricate four types of systems with relay coils, two operating frequencies, two power sources, and the function of characteristic impedance conversion. We measure the characteristics of all systems and compare them with the simulation results. The flexibility of the developed model enables us to design and optimize a complicated system consisting of many coils.
New Scattering Matrix Model for Modeling Ferrite Media Using the TLM Method
Zugari, Asmaa ; El Adraoui, Soufiane ; Yaich, Mohamed Iben ; Khalladi, Mohsine ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 536~541
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0371
This paper aims to extend the transmission line matrix method with a hybrid symmetrical condensed node (HSCN) to model ferrite media in the time domain. To take into account the anisotropy and dispersive properties of ferrite media, equivalent current sources are incorporated into supplementary stubs of the original HSCN. The scattering matrix of the proposed HSCN is provided, and the validity of this approach is demonstrated for both transversely and longitudinally magnetized ferrites. Agreement is achieved between the results of this approach and those of the theoretical and the finite-difference time-domain method.
Gaze Detection by Wearable Eye-Tracking and NIR LED-Based Head-Tracking Device Based on SVR
Cho, Chul Woo ; Lee, Ji Woo ; Shin, Kwang Yong ; Lee, Eui Chul ; Park, Kang Ryoung ; Lee, Heekyung ; Cha, Jihun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 542~552
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0193
In this paper, a gaze estimation method is proposed for use with a large-sized display at a distance. Our research has the following four novelties: this is the first study on gaze-tracking for large-sized displays and large Z (viewing) distances; our gaze-tracking accuracy is not affected by head movements since the proposed method tracks the head by using a near infrared camera and an infrared light-emitting diode; the threshold for local binarization of the pupil area is adaptively determined by using a p-tile method based on circular edge detection irrespective of the eyelid or eyelash shadows; and accurate gaze position is calculated by using two support vector regressions without complicated calibrations for the camera, display, and user's eyes, in which the gaze positions and head movements are used as feature values. The root mean square error of gaze detection is calculated as
for a 30-inch screen.
MHP: Master-Handoff Protocol for Fast and Energy-Efficient Data Transfer over SPI in Wireless Sensing Systems
Yoo, Seung-Mok ; Chou, Pai H. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 553~563
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0209
Serial peripheral interface (SPI) has been identified as a bottleneck in many wireless sensing systems today. SPI is used almost universally as the physical connection between the microcontroller unit (MCU) and radios, storage devices, and many types of sensors. Virtually all wireless sensor nodes today perform up to twice as many bus transactions as necessary to transfer a given piece of data, as an MCU must serve as the bus master in all transactions. To eliminate this bottleneck, we propose the master-handoff protocol. After the MCU initiates reading from the source slave device and writing to the sink slave device, the MCU as a master becomes a slave, and either the source or the sink slave becomes the temporary master. Experiment results show that this master-handoff technique not only cuts the data transfer time in half, but, more importantly, also enables a superlinear energy reduction.
An Edge-Based Adaptive Method for Removing High-Density Impulsive Noise from an Image While Preserving Edges
Lee, Dong-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 564~571
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0392
This paper presents an algorithm for removing high-density impulsive noise that generates some serious distortions in edge regions of an image. Although many works have been presented to reduce edge distortions, these existing methods cannot sufficiently restore distorted edges in images with large amounts of impulsive noise. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method using connected lines extracted from a binarized image, which segments an image into uniform and edge regions. For uniform regions, the existing simple adaptive median filter is applied to remove impulsive noise, and, for edge regions, a prediction filter and a line-weighted median filter using the connected lines are proposed. Simulation results show that the proposed method provides much better performance in restoring distorted edges than existing methods provide. When noise content is more than 20 percent, existing algorithms result in severe edge distortions, while the proposed algorithm can reconstruct edge regions similar to those of the original image.
Enhanced SIFT Descriptor Based on Modified Discrete Gaussian-Hermite Moment
Kang, Tae-Koo ; Zhang, Huazhen ; Kim, Dong W. ; Park, Gwi-Tae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 572~582
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0538
The discrete Gaussian-Hermite moment (DGHM) is a global feature representation method that can be applied to square images. We propose a modified DGHM (MDGHM) method and an MDGHM-based scale-invariant feature transform (MDGHM-SIFT) descriptor. In the MDGHM, we devise a movable mask to represent the local features of a non-square image. The complete set of non-square image features are then represented by the summation of all MDGHMs. We also propose to apply an accumulated MDGHM using multi-order derivatives to obtain distinguishable feature information in the third stage of the SIFT. Finally, we calculate an MDGHM-based magnitude and an MDGHM-based orientation using the accumulated MDGHM. We carry out experiments using the proposed method with six kinds of deformations. The results show that the proposed method can be applied to non-square images without any image truncation and that it significantly outperforms the matching accuracy of other SIFT algorithms.
Harmonic Structure Features for Robust Speaker Diarization
Zhou, Yu ; Suo, Hongbin ; Li, Junfeng ; Yan, Yonghong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 583~590
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0455
In this paper, we present a new approach for speaker diarization. First, we use the prosodic information calculated on the original speech to resynthesize the new speech data utilizing the spectrum modeling technique. The resynthesized data is modeled with sinusoids based on pitch, vibration amplitude, and phase bias. Then, we use the resynthesized speech data to extract cepstral features and integrate them with the cepstral features from original speech for speaker diarization. At last, we show how the two streams of cepstral features can be combined to improve the robustness of speaker diarization. Experiments carried out on the standardized datasets (the US National Institute of Standards and Technology Rich Transcription 04-S multiple distant microphone conditions) show a significant improvement in diarization error rate compared to the system based on only the feature stream from original speech.
Applying Hebbian Theory to Enhance Search Performance in Unstructured Social-Like Peer-to-Peer Networks
Huang, Chester S.J. ; Yang, Stephen J.H. ; Su, Addison Y.S. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 591~601
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0588
Unstructured peer-to-peer (p2p) networks usually employ flooding search algorithms to locate resources. However, these algorithms often require a large storage overhead or generate massive network traffic. To address this issue, previous researchers explored the possibility of building efficient p2p networks by clustering peers into communities based on their social relationships, creating social-like p2p networks. This study proposes a social relationship p2p network that uses a measure based on Hebbian theory to create a social relation weight. The contribution of the study is twofold. First, using the social relation weight, the query peer stores and searches for the appropriate response peers in social-like p2p networks. Second, this study designs a novel knowledge index mechanism that dynamically adapts social relationship p2p networks. The results show that the proposed social relationship p2p network improves search performance significantly, compared with existing approaches.
A Study on the Identification of Cutting-Edge ICT-Based Converging Technologies
Kim, Pang Ryong ; Hwang, Sung Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 602~612
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0681
It is becoming increasingly difficult to identify promising technologies due to the influx of new technologies and the high level of complexity involved in many of these technologies. Identifying promising information and communications technology (ICT)-based converging technologies holds the key to finding new sources of economic growth and forward momentum. The goal of this study is to identify cutting-edge ICT-based converging technologies by examining the latest trends in the US patent market. Analyzing the US patent market, the most competitive of such markets in the world, can yield certain clues about which of the ICT-based converging technologies may be the next revolutionary technologies. For a classification of these technologies, this study follows the International Patent Classification system. As for ICT, there are 58 related fields at the subclass level and 831 fields at the main-group level. For emerging and converging technologies, there are 75 at the main-group level. From these technologies, a final selection for cutting-edge ICT-based converging technologies is made using a composite index reflecting the converging coefficient, emerging coefficient, and technology impact index.
A Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Scheme for a Multi-spot-beam Satellite System
Park, Unhee ; Kim, Hee Wook ; Oh, Dae Sub ; Ku, Bon-Jun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 613~616
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0437
A multi-spot-beam satellite is an attractive technique for future satellite communications since it can support high data rates by projecting high power density to each spot beam and can reuse a frequency in different cells to increase the total system capacity. In this letter, we propose a resource management technique adjusting the bandwidth of each beam to minimize the difference between the traffic demand and allocated capacity. This represents a reasonable solution for dynamic bandwidth allocation, considering a trade-off between the maximum total capacity and fairness among the spot beams with different traffic demands.
Denoising Mapping Utilizing Constellation Symmetry in Denoise-and-Forward Two-Way Relay Channels
Zheng, Jianping ; Bai, Baoming ; Li, Ying ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 617~620
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0507
The denoising mapping with the closest-neighbor clustering (CNC) method in denoise-and-forward two-way relay channels is studied. Specifically, the symmetry of the constellations in source terminals A and B is utilized to reduce the complexity of the CNC method. The specific case considered first to illustrate how the constellation symmetry works in the CNC method is the quadrature phase-shift keying constellation in A and B and the single-antenna deployment in all terminals. This case study shows that an enormous complexity reduction can be achieved. Next, the result is extended to multiple-antenna scenarios and square quadrature amplitude modulations.
On the New Design of a 4-Port TEM Waveguide with a Higher Cutoff Frequency and Wider Test Volume
Jeon, Sangbong ; Yun, Jaehoon ; Park, Seungkeun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 621~624
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0022
A new miniaturized 4-port waveguide generating a transverse electromagnetic wave is proposed. The waveguide presents enhanced performance of higher field uniformity in extended test volume up to an increased test frequency limit compared to that of the conventional 2-port waveguide. The advantageous features of the proposed waveguide have been obtained through a new design scheme based on effective miniaturization maintaining good impedance matching. Consequently, we can provide a more accurate electromagnetic compatibility test method, covering larger devices operating in higher frequencies, which is a marked improvement upon the conventional approaches.
Modeling and Analysis of Queuing Effect of Two-Level Approach to Network Localization
Park, Byungsung ; Yoo, Jaeyeong ; Kim, Hagbae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 625~628
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0035
In this letter, a novel method for localizing a user in a smart home environment is presented. We propose a two-level structure, in which the first level determines an occupant's location in the block level using RSSI in a ZigBee network, while the second level accurately estimates the occupant's location using a particle filter to handle the variations in the signal strength measurement. We devise an experimental setup with people performing significant tasks in the smart home. The results obtained from the testbed indicate that the proposed model leads to an improvement in the mean distance error.
On Combining Chase-2 and Sum-Product Algorithms for LDPC Codes
Tong, Sheng ; Zheng, Huijuan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 629~632
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0510
This letter investigates the combination of the Chase-2 and sum-product (SP) algorithms for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes. A simple modification of the tanh rule for check node update is given, which incorporates test error patterns (TEPs) used in the Chase algorithm into SP decoding of LDPC codes. Moreover, a simple yet effective approach is proposed to construct TEPs for dealing with decoding failures with low-weight syndromes. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm is effective in improving both the waterfall and error floor performance of LDPC codes.
Dynamic Pixel Models for a-Si TFT-LCD and Their Implementation in SPICE
Wang, In-Soo ; Lee, Gi-Chang ; Kim, Tae-Hyun ; Lee, Won-Jun ; Shin, Jang-Kyoo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 633~636
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0448
A dynamic analysis of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) pixel is presented using new a-Si TFT and liquid crystal (LC) capacitance models for a Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE) simulator. This dynamic analysis will be useful when predicting the performance of LCDs. The a-Si TFT model is developed to accurately estimate a-Si TFT characteristics of a bias-dependent gate to source and gate to drain capacitance. Moreover, the LC capacitance model is developed using a simplified diode circuit model. It is possible to accurately predict TFT-LCD characteristics such as flicker phenomena when implementing the proposed simulation model.
On a Reduced-Complexity Inner Decoder for the Davey-MacKay Construction
Jiao, Xiaopeng ; Armand, M.A. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 637~640
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0461
The Davey-MacKay construction is a promising concatenated coding scheme involving an outer
-ary code and an inner code of rate k/n, for insertion-deletion-substitution channels. Recently, a lookup table (LUT)-based inner decoder for this coding scheme was proposed to reduce the computational complexity of the inner decoder, albeit at the expense of a slight degradation in word error rate (WER) performance. In this letter, we show that negligible deterioration in WER performance can be achieved with an LUT as small as
, but no smaller, when the probability of receiving less than n-1 or greater than n+1 bits corresponding to one outer code symbol is at least an order of magnitude smaller than the WER when no LUT is used.
Linear Prediction Approach for Accurate Dual-Channel Sine-Wave Parameter Estimation in White Gaussian Noise
So, Hing-Cheung ; Zhou, Zhenhua ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 641~644
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0488
The problem of sinusoidal parameter estimation at two channels with common frequency in white Gaussian noise is addressed. By making use of the linear prediction property, an iterative linear least squares (LLS) algorithm for accurate frequency estimation is devised. The remaining parameters are then determined according to the LLS fit with the use of the frequency estimate. It is proven that the variance of the frequency estimate achieves Cram
r-Rao lower bound at sufficiently small noise conditions.
Recovery of Lost Speech Segments Using Incremental Subspace Learning
Huang, Jianjun ; Zhang, Xiongwei ; Zhang, Yafei ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 4, 2012, Pages 645~648
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0408
An incremental subspace learning scheme to recover lost speech segments online is presented. Our contributions in this work are twofold. First, the recovery problem is transformed into an interpolation problem of the time-varying gains via nonnegative matrix factorization. Second, incremental nonnegative matrix factorization is employed to allow online processing and track the evolution of speech statistics. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed by the experiment results.