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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 6 - Dec 2012
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Oct 2012
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Aug 2012
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jun 2012
Volume 34, Issue 2 - Apr 2012
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Feb 2012
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16-QAM-Based Highly Spectral-Efficient E-band Communication System with Bit Rate up to 10 Gbps
Kang, Min-Soo ; Kim, Bong-Su ; Kim, Kwang Seon ; Byun, Woo-Jin ; Park, Hyung Chul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 649~654
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0815
This paper presents a novel 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) E-band communication system. The system can deliver 10 Gbps through eight channels with a bandwidth of 5 GHz (71-76 GHz/81-86 GHz). Each channel occupies 390 MHz and delivers 1.25 Gbps using a 16-QAM. Thus, this system can achieve a bandwidth efficiency of 3.2 bit/s/Hz. To implement the system, a driver amplifier and an RF up-/down-conversion mixer are implemented using a
gallium arsenide pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (GaAs pHEMT) process. A single-IF architecture is chosen for the RF receiver. In the digital modem, 24 square root raised cosine filters and four (255, 239) Reed-Solomon forward error correction codecs are used in parallel. The modem can compensate for a carrier-frequency offset of up to 50 ppm and a symbol rate offset of up to 1 ppm. Experiment results show that the system can achieve a bit error rate of
at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 21.5 dB.
Precoder Distribution and Adaptive Codebook in Wideband Precoding
Long, Hang ; Kim, Kyeong Jin ; Xiang, Wei ; Wang, Jing ; Liu, Yuanan ; Wang, Wenbo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 655~665
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0072
Based on wideband precoding (WBP) in the multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency division multiplexing system, an adaptive nonuniform codebook is presented in this paper. The relationship between the precoder distribution and spatial correlation is analyzed at first. A closed-form expression based on overlapped isosceles triangles is proposed as an approximation of the precoder distribution. Then, the adaptive codebook design is derived with the approximate distribution to minimize quantization errors. The capacity and bit error rate performance demonstrate that the adaptive codebook with WBP outperforms the conventional fixed uniform codebook.
Adaptive Pre-/Post-Filters for NRT-Based Stereoscopic Video Coding
Lee, Byung-Tak ; Lee, BongHo ; Choi, Haechul ; Kim, Jin-Soo ; Yun, Kugjin ; Cheong, Won-Sik ; Kim, Jae-Gon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 666~673
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0182
Non-real-time delivery of stereoscopic video has been considered as a service scenario for 3DTV to overcome the limited bandwidth in the terrestrial digital television system. A hybrid codec combining MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC has been suggested for the compression of stereoscopic video for 3DTV. In this paper, we propose a stereoscopic video coding scheme using adaptive pre-/post-filters (APPF) to improve the quality of 3D video while retaining compatibility with legacy video coding standards. The APPF are applied adaptively to blocks of various sizes determined by the macroblock coding mode and reference frame index. Experiment results show that the proposed method achieves up to 24.86% bit rate savings relative to a hybrid codec of MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC including the inter-view prediction.
Controllable Band-Notched Slot Antenna for UWB Communication Systems
Kueathaweekun, Weerathep ; Anantrasirichai, Noppin ; Benjangkaprasert, Chawalit ; Nakasuwan, Jintana ; Wakabayashi, Toshio ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 674~683
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0651
We propose a slot antenna consisting of a rectangular slot on the ground plane, fed by a microstrip line with a rectangular-ring-shaped tuning stub that can be deployed in ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems to avoid interference with wireless local area network (WLAN) communication. Our antenna can achieve a single band-notched property from the 5 GHz frequency to the 6 GHz frequency owing to a controllable band notch that uses L- and J-shaped parasitic elements. The antenna characteristics can be modified to tune the band-notched property (4 GHz to 5 GHz or 6 GHz to 7 GHz) and the bandwidth of the band notch (1 GHz to 2 GHz). Furthermore, the shifted notch with enhanced width of the band notch from 1 GHz to 1.5 GHz is described in this paper. The UWB slot antenna and L- and J-shaped parasitic elements also provide the band-rejection function for reference in the WiMAX (3.5 GHz) and WLAN (5 GHz to 6 GHz) regions of the spectrum. Experiment results evidence the return loss performance, radiation patterns, and antenna gains at different operational frequencies.
Mode-SVD-Based Maximum Likelihood Source Localization Using Subspace Approach
Park, Chee-Hyun ; Hong, Kwang-Seok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 684~689
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0728
A mode-singular-value-decomposition (SVD) maximum likelihood (ML) estimation procedure is proposed for the source localization problem under an additive measurement error model. In a practical situation, the noise variance is usually unknown. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that does not require the noise covariance matrix as a priori knowledge. In the proposed method, the weight is derived by the inverse of the noise magnitude square in the ML criterion. The performance of the proposed method outperforms that of the existing methods and approximates the Taylor-series ML and Cram
r-Rao lower bound.
Dependence of Light-Emitting Characteristics of Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes on Electron Injection and Transport Materials
Lee, Jeong-Ik ; Lee, Jonghee ; Lee, Joo-Won ; Cho, Doo-Hee ; Shin, Jin-Wook ; Han, Jun-Han ; Chu, Hye Yong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 690~695
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0014
We investigate the light-emitting performances of blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PHOLEDs) with three different electron injection and transport materials, that is, bathocuproine(2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) (Bphen), 1,3,5-tri(m-pyrid-3-yl-phenyl)benzene (Tm3PyPB), and 2,6-bis(3-(carbazol-9-yl)phenyl)pyridine (26DCzPPy), which are partially doped with cesium metal. We find that the device characteristics are very dependent on the nature of the introduced electron injection layer (EIL) and electron transporting layer (ETL). When the appropriate EIL and ETL are combined, the peak external quantum efficiency and peak power efficiency improve up to 20.7% and 45.6 lm/W, respectively. Moreover, this blue PHOLED even maintains high external quantum efficiency of 19.6% and 16.9% at a luminance of
ANN Synthesis Models Trained with Modified GA-LM Algorithm for ACPWs with Conductor Backing and Substrate Overlaying
Wang, Zhongbao ; Fang, Shaojun ; Fu, Shiqiang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 696~705
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0088
Accurate synthesis models based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) are proposed to directly obtain the physical dimensions of an asymmetric coplanar waveguide with conductor backing and substrate overlaying (ACPWCBSO). First, the ACPWCBSO is analyzed with the conformal mapping technique (CMT) to obtain the training data. Then, a modified genetic-algorithm-Levenberg-Marquardt (GA-LM) algorithm is adopted to train ANNs. In the algorithm, the maximal relative error (MRE) is used as the fitness function of the chromosomes to guarantee that the MRE is small, while the mean square error is used as the error function in LM training to ensure that the average relative error is small. The MRE of ANNs trained with the modified GA-LM algorithm is less than 8.1%, which is smaller than those trained with the existing GA-LM algorithm and the LM algorithm (greater than 15%). Lastly, the ANN synthesis models are validated by the CMT analysis, electromagnetic simulation, and measurements.
Novel Bumping and Underfill Technologies for 3D IC Integration
Sung, Ki-Jun ; Choi, Kwang-Seong ; Bae, Hyun-Cheol ; Kwon, Yong-Hwan ; Eom, Yong-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 706~712
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0104
In previous work, novel maskless bumping and no-flow underfill technologies for three-dimensional (3D) integrated circuit (IC) integration were developed. The bumping material, solder bump maker (SBM) composed of resin and solder powder, is designed to form low-volume solder bumps on a through silicon via (TSV) chip for the 3D IC integration through the conventional reflow process. To obtain the optimized volume of solder bumps using the SBM, the effect of the volumetric mixing ratio of resin and solder powder is studied in this paper. A no-flow underfill material named "fluxing underfill" is proposed for a simplified stacking process for the 3D IC integration. It can remove the oxide layer on solder bumps like flux and play a role of an underfill after the stacking process. The bumping process and the stacking process using the SBM and the fluxing underfill, respectively, for the TSV chips are carefully designed so that two-tier stacked TSV chips are sucessfully stacked.
Encapsulation of Semiconductor Gas Sensors with Gas Barrier Films for USN Application
Lee, Hyung-Kun ; Yang, Woo Seok ; Choi, Nak-Jin ; Moon, Seung Eon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 713~718
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0266
Sensor nodes in ubiquitous sensor networks require autonomous replacement of deteriorated gas sensors with reserved sensors, which has led us to develop an encapsulation technique to avoid poisoning the reserved sensors and an autonomous activation technique to replace a deteriorated sensor with a reserved sensor. Encapsulations of
nanoparticles with poly(ethylene-co-vinyl alcohol) (EVOH) or polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) as gas barrier layers are reported. The EVOH or PVDF films are used for an encapsulation of
as a sensing material and are effective in blocking
from contacting formaldehyde (HCHO) gas. The activation process of
by removing the EVOH through heating is effective. However, the thermal decomposition of the PVDF affects the property of the
in terms of the gas reactivity. The response of the sensor to HCHO gas after removing the EVOH is 26%, which is not significantly different with the response of 28% in a reference sample that was not treated at all. We believe that the selection of gas barrier materials for the encapsulation and activation of
should be considered because of the ill effect the byproduct of thermal decomposition has on the sensing materials and other thermal properties of the barrier materials.
Nonuniform Encoding and Hybrid Decoding Schemes for Equal Error Protection of Rateless Codes
Lim, Hyung Taek ; Joo, Eon Kyeong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 719~726
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0019
Messages are generally selected with the same probability in the encoding scheme of rateless codes for equal error protection. In addition, a belief propagation (BP) decoding scheme is generally used because of the low computational complexity. However, the probability of recovering a new message by BP decoding is reduced if both the recovered and unrecovered messages are selected uniformly. Thus, more codeword symbols than expected are required for the perfect recovery of message symbols. Therefore, a new encoding scheme with a nonuniform selection of messages is proposed in this paper. In addition, a BP-Gaussian elimination hybrid decoding scheme that complements the drawback of the BP decoding scheme is proposed. The performances of the proposed schemes are analyzed and compared with those of the conventional schemes.
Data Supply Voltage Reduction Scheme for Low-Power AMOLED Displays
Nam, Hyoungsik ; Jeong, Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 727~733
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0139
This paper demonstrates a new driving scheme that allows reducing the supply voltage of data drivers for low-power active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The proposed technique drives down the data voltage range by 50%, which subsequently diminishes in the peak power consumption of data drivers at the full white pattern by 75%. Because the gate voltage of a driving thin film transistor covers the same range as a conventional driving scheme by means of a level-shifting scheme, the low-data supply scheme achieves the equivalent dynamic range of OLED currents. The average power consumption of data drivers is reduced by 60% over 24 test images, and power consumption is kept below 25%.
A Novel Interaction Method for Mobile Devices Using Low Complexity Global Motion Estimation
Nguyen, Toan Dinh ; Kim, JeongHwan ; Kim, SooHyung ; Yang, HyungJeong ; Lee, GueeSang ; Chang, JuneYoung ; Eum, NakWoong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 734~742
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0070
A novel interaction method for mobile phones using their built-in cameras is presented. By estimating the path connecting the center points of frames captured by the camera phone, objects of interest can be easily extracted and recognized. To estimate the movement of the mobile phone, corners and corresponding Speeded-Up Robust Features descriptors are used to calculate the spatial transformation parameters between the previous and current frames. These parameters are then used to recalculate the locations of the center points in the previous frame into the current frame. The experiment results obtained from real image sequences show that the proposed system is efficient, flexible, and able to provide accurate and stable results.
A Framework for Semantic Interpretation of Noun Compounds Using Tratz Model and Binary Features
Zaeri, Ahmad ; Nematbakhsh, Mohammad Ali ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 743~752
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0111.0673
Semantic interpretation of the relationship between noun compound (NC) elements has been a challenging issue due to the lack of contextual information, the unbounded number of combinations, and the absence of a universally accepted system for the categorization. The current models require a huge corpus of data to extract contextual information, which limits their usage in many situations. In this paper, a new semantic relations interpreter for NCs based on novel lightweight binary features is proposed. Some of the binary features used are novel. In addition, the interpreter uses a new feature selection method. By developing these new features and techniques, the proposed method removes the need for any huge corpuses. Implementing this method using a modular and plugin-based framework, and by training it using the largest and the most current fine-grained data set, shows that the accuracy is better than that of previously reported upon methods that utilize large corpuses. This improvement in accuracy and the provision of superior efficiency is achieved not only by improving the old features with such techniques as semantic scattering and sense collocation, but also by using various novel features and classifier max entropy. That the accuracy of the max entropy classifier is higher compared to that of other classifiers, such as a support vector machine, a Na
ve Bayes, and a decision tree, is also shown.
An SAD-Based Selective Bi-prediction Method for Fast Motion Estimation in High Efficiency Video Coding
Kim, Jongho ; Jun, DongSan ; Jeong, Seyoon ; Cho, Sukhee ; Choi, Jin Soo ; Kim, Jinwoong ; Ahn, Chieteuk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 753~758
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0112.0186
As the next-generation video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) has adopted advanced coding tools despite the increase in computational complexity. In this paper, we propose a selective bi-prediction method to reduce the encoding complexity of HEVC. The proposed method evaluates the statistical property of the sum of absolute differences in the motion estimation process and determines whether bi-prediction is performed. A performance comparison of the complexity reduction is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed method compared to the HEVC test model version 4.0. On average, 50% of the bi-prediction time can be reduced by the proposed method, while maintaining a negligible bit increment and a minimal loss of image quality.
Adaptive Resource Allocation for Uplink Carrier Aggregation Scheme in LTE-A-Type Networks
Choi, Yonghoon ; Lee, Yonggyu ; Chang, Kapseok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 759~762
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0099
Carrier aggregation is an essential feature in the Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) system, which allows the scalable expansion of the effective bandwidth to be delivered to user equipment (UE) through the concurrent use of radio resources across multiple component carriers (CCs). This system's optimal radio-resource use has received much attention under simultaneous access (SA) scenarios for multiple CCs (m-CCs). This letter establishes how many CCs a UE should simultaneously connect to maintain maximum uplink capacity. Under the m-CC LTE-A system, the spectral efficiency of the m-CC SA scheme (
) is compared with that of CC selection (CCS). Numerical results reveal that the 2-CC SA scheme outperforms CCS and performs almost equally to the m-CC SA scheme (
Noncooperative Multimode Precoding with Limited Feedback in MIMO Interference Channels
Lee, Jong-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 763~766
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0100
This letter proposes an iterative multimode precoding scheme with limited feedback for nonreciprocal MIMO interference channels. Based on analysis of game theory, we model the iterative multimode precoding as a noncooperative game with a finite set of strategies. Numerical results are presented to verify the sum rate performance of the proposed scheme.
Compact Circularly Polarized Antenna with a Capacitive Feed for GPS/GLONASS Applications
Jeong, Seong Jae ; Hwang, Keum Cheol ; Hwang, Do-In ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 767~770
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0058
This letter presents a novel compact circularly polarized patch antenna for Global Positioning System/Global Navigation Satellite System (GPS/GLONASS) applications. The proposed antenna is composed of a simple square radiating patch fed by a capacitive dual-feeder to increase the impedance bandwidth and a lumped element hybrid coupler to achieve the broadband characteristic of the axial ratio (AR). The realized antenna dimensions are
, which is the most compact size among the dual-band GPS/GLONASS antennas reported to date. The measured results demonstrate that the proposed antenna has a gain of 2.5 dBi to 4.2 dBi and an AR of 0.41 dB to 1.51 dB over the GPS/GLONASS L1 band (1.575 GHz to 1.61 GHz).
Distributed Channel Allocation Using Kernel Density Estimation in Cognitive Radio Networks
Ahmed, M. Ejaz ; Kim, Joo Seuk ; Mao, Runkun ; Song, Ju Bin ; Li, Husheng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 771~774
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0537
Typical channel allocation algorithms for secondary users do not include processes to reduce the frequency of switching from one channel to another caused by random interruptions by primary users, which results in high packet drops and delays. In this letter, with the purpose of decreasing the number of switches made between channels, we propose a nonparametric channel allocation algorithm that uses robust kernel density estimation to effectively schedule idle channel resources. Experiment and simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms both random and parametric channel allocation algorithms in terms of throughput and packet drops.
Integrating Random Network Coding with On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol
Park, Joon-Sang ; Baek, Seung Jun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 775~778
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0057
We propose integrating random network coding with the Enhanced On-Demand Multicast Routing Protocol (E-ODMRP). With the Network Coded E-ODMRP (NCE-ODMRP), we present a framework that enables a seamless integration of random linear network coding with conventional ad hoc multicast protocols for enhanced reliability. Simulation results show that the NCE-ODMRP achieves a nearly perfect packet delivery ratio while keeping the route maintenance overhead low to a degree similar to that of the E-ODMRP.
Reactive Sputtering Process for
Thin Film Solar Cells
Park, Nae-Man ; Lee, Ho Sub ; Kim, Jeha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 779~782
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0062
(CIGS) thin films are grown on Mo/soda lime glass using a reactive sputtering process in which a Se cracker is used to deliver reactive Se molecules. The Cu and
targets are simultaneously sputtered under the delivery of reactive Se. The effects of Se flux on film composition are investigated. The Cu/(In+Ga) composition ratio increases as the Se flux increases at a plasma power of less than 30 W for the Cu target. The (112) crystal orientation becomes dominant, and crystal grain size is larger with Se flux. The power conversion efficiency of a solar cell fabricated using an 800-nm CIGS film is 8.5%.
Probabilistic Bilinear Transformation Space-Based Joint Maximum A Posteriori Adaptation
Song, Hwa Jeon ; Lee, Yunkeun ; Kim, Hyung Soon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 783~786
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0054
This letter proposes a more advanced joint maximum a posteriori (MAP) adaptation using a prior model based on a probabilistic scheme utilizing the bilinear transformation (BIT) concept. The proposed method not only has scalable parameters but is also based on a single prior distribution without the heuristic parameters of the previous joint BIT-MAP method. Experiment results, irrespective of the amount of adaptation data, show that the proposed method leads to a consistent improvement over the previous method.
Fast NAND Flash Memory System for Instruction Code Execution
Jung, Bo-Sung ; Kim, Cheong-Ghil ; Lee, Jung-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 787~790
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0211.0472
The objective of this research is to design a high-performance NAND flash memory system containing a buffer system. The proposed instruction buffer in the NAND flash memory consists of two parts, that is, a fully associative temporal buffer for temporal locality and a fully associative spatial buffer for spatial locality. A spatial buffer with a large fetching size turns out to be effective for serial instructions, and a temporal buffer with a small fetching size is devised for branch instructions. Simulation shows that the average memory access time of the proposed system is better than that of other buffer systems with four times more space. The average miss ratio is improved by about 70% compared with that of other buffer systems.
Feature Detection and Simplification of 3D Face Data with Facial Expressions
Kim, Yong-Guk ; Kim, Hyeon-Joong ; Choi, In-Ho ; Kim, Jin-Seo ; Choi, Soo-Mi ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 791~794
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0112
We propose an efficient framework to realistically render 3D faces with a reduced set of points. First, a robust active appearance model is presented to detect facial features in the projected faces under different illumination conditions. Then, an adaptive simplification of 3D faces is proposed to reduce the number of points, yet preserve the detected facial features. Finally, the point model is rendered directly, without such additional processing as parameterization of skin texture. This fully automatic framework is very effective in rendering massive facial data on mobile devices.
Weighted Constrained One-Bit Transform Method for Low-Complexity Block Motion Estimation
Choi, Youngkyoung ; Kim, Hyungwook ; Lim, Sojeong ; Yu, Sungwook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 34, issue 5, 2012, Pages 795~798
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0105
This letter proposes a new low-complexity motion estimation method. The proposed method classifies various nonmatching pixel pairs into several categories and assigns an appropriate weight for each category in the matching stage. As a result, it can significantly improve performance compared to that of the conventional methods by adding only one 1-bit addition and two Boolean operations per pixel.