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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
A Cost-Effective 40-Gb/s ROSA Module Employing Compact TO-CAN Package
Kang, Sae-Kyoung ; Lee, Joon Ki ; Huh, Joon Young ; Lee, Jyung Chan ; Kim, Kwangjoon ; Lee, Jonghyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.1812.0115
In this paper, we present an implemented serial 40-Gb/s receiver optical subassembly (ROSA) module by employing a proposed TO-CAN package and flexible printed circuit board (FPCB). The TO-CAN package employs an L-shaped metal support to provide a straight line signal path between the TO-CAN package and the FPCB. In addition, the FPCB incorporates a signal line with an open stub to alleviate signal distortion owing to an impedance mismatch generated from the soldering pad attached to the main circuit board. The receiver sensitivity of the ROSA module measures below -9 dBm for 40 Gb/s at an extinction ratio of 7 dB and a bit error rate of
New Framework and Mechanisms of Context-Aware Service Composition in the Future Internet
Gonzalez, Alberto J. ; De Pozuelo, Ramon Martin ; German, Martin ; Alcober, Jesus ; Pinyol, Francesc ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 7~17
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.1812.0071
The ongoing proliferation of new services, applications, and contents is leading the Internet to an architectural crisis owing to its inability to provide efficient solutions to new requirements. Clean-slate architectures for the future Internet offer a new approach to tackle current and future challenges. This proposal introduces a novel clean-slate architecture in which the TCP/IP protocol stack is decoupled in basic functionalities, that is, atomic services (ASs). A negotiation protocol, which enables context-aware service discovery for providing adapted communications, is also specified. Then, we present how ASs can be discovered and composed according to requesters' requirements. In addition, a media service provisioning use case shows the benefits of our framework. Finally, a proof-of-concept implementation of the framework is described and analyzed. This paper describes the first clean-slate architecture aligned with the work done within the ISO/IEC Future Network working group.
Development of Efficient Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation Algorithm for XGPON
Han, Man Soo ; Yoo, Hark ; Lee, Dong Soo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 18~26
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0061
This paper proposes an efficient bandwidth utilization (EBU) algorithm that utilizes the unused bandwidth in dynamic bandwidth allocation (DBA) of a 10-gigabit-capable passive optical network (XGPON). In EBU, an available byte counter of a queue can be negative and the unused remainder of an available byte counter can be utilized by the other queues. In addition, EBU uses a novel polling scheme to collect the requests of queues as soon as possible. We show through analysis and simulations that EBU improves performance compared to that achieved with existing methods. In addition, we describe the hardware implementation of EBU. Finally we show the test results of the hardware implementation of EBU.
Design and Implementation of a Network-Adaptive Mechanism for HTTP Video Streaming
Kim, Yo-Han ; Shin, Jitae ; Park, Jiho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 27~34
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0111.0788
This paper proposes a network-adaptive mechanism for HTTP-based video streaming over wireless/mobile networks. To provide adaptive video streaming over wireless/mobile networks, the proposed mechanism consists of a throughput estimation scheme in the time-variant wireless network environment and a video rate selection algorithm used to increase the streaming quality. The adaptive video streaming system with proposed modules is implemented using an open source multimedia framework and is validated over emulated wireless/mobile networks. The emulator helps to model and emulate network conditions based on data collected from actual experiments. The experiment results show that the proposed mechanism provides higher video quality than the existing system provides and a rate of video streaming almost void of freezing.
Efficient Congestion Control Utilizing Message Eavesdropping in Asynchronous Range-Based Localization
Choi, Hoon ; Baek, Yunju ; Lee, Ben ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 35~40
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0302
Asynchronous ranging is one practical method to implement a locating system that provides accurate results. However, a locating system utilizing asynchronous ranging generates a large number of messages that cause transmission delays or failures and degrades the system performance. This paper proposes a novel approach for efficient congestion control in an asynchronous range-based locating system. The proposed method significantly reduces the number of messages generated during the reader discovery phase by eavesdropping on other transmissions and improves the efficiency of ranging by organizing the tags in a hierarchical fashion in the measurement phase. Our evaluation shows that the proposed method reduces the number of messages by 70% compared to the conventional method and significantly improves the success rate of ranging.
Enhancement of Return Routability Mechanism for Optimized-NEMO Using Correspondent Firewall
Hasan, Samer Sami ; Hassan, Rosilah ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 41~50
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0111.0804
Network Mobility (NEMO) handles mobility of multiple nodes in an aggregate manner as a mobile network. The standard NEMO suffers from a number of limitations, such as inefficient routing and increased handoff latency. Most previous studies attempting to solve such problems have imposed an extra signaling load and/or modified the functionalities of the main entities. In this paper, we propose a more secure and lightweight route optimization (RO) mechanism based on exploiting the firewall in performing the RO services on behalf of the correspondent nodes (CNs). The proposed mechanism provides secure communications by making an authorized decision about the mobile router (MR) home of address, MR care of address, and the complete mobile network prefixes underneath the MR. In addition, it reduces the total signaling required for NEMO handoffs, especially when the number of mobile network nodes and/or CNs is increased. Moreover, our proposed mechanism can be easily deployed without modifying the mobility protocol stack of CNs. A thorough analytical model and network simulator (Ns-2) are used for evaluating the performance of the proposed mechanism compared with NEMO basic support protocol and state-of-the-art RO schemes. Numerical and simulation results demonstrate that our proposed mechanism outperforms other RO schemes in terms of handoff latency and total signaling load on wired and wireless links.
Small Internal Antenna Using Multiband, Wideband, and High-Isolation MIMO Techniques
Kim, Sang-Hyeong ; Jin, Zhe-Jun ; Chae, Yoon-Byung ; Yun, Tae-Yeoul ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 51~57
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0183
In this paper, a small internal antenna for a mobile handset is presented using multiband, wideband, and high-isolation multiple-input multiple-output techniques. The proposed antenna consists of three planar inverted-F antennas (PIFAs) that operate in the global system for mobile communication (GSM900), the digital communication system (DCS), the personal communication system (PCS), the universal mobile telecommunication system (UMTS), and wireless local area network (WLAN) bands with a physical size of
. A resonator attached to the folded PIFA creates dual resonances, achieving a wide bandwidth of approximately 460 MHz, covering the DCS, PCS, and UMTS bands; a meander shorting line is used to improve impedance matching. Additionally, a modified neutralization link is embedded between diversity antennas to enhance isolation, which results in a 6-dB improvement in the isolation and less than 0.1 in the envelope correlation coefficient evaluated from the far-field radiation patterns. Simulation and measurements demonstrate very similar results for S-parameters and radiation patterns. Peak gains show 3.73 dBi, 3.77 dBi, 3.28 dBi, 2.15 dBi, and 5.86 dBi, and antenna efficiencies show 56.15%, 72.15%, 68.59%, 52.92%, and 82.93% for GSM900, DCS, PCS, UMTS, and WLAN bands, respectively.
An Improved Contention Access Mechanism for FPRP to Increase Throughput
Yang, Qi ; Zhuang, Yuxiang ; Shi, Jianghong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 58~68
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0111.0725
Five-phase reservation protocol (FPRP) is a contention-based media access control protocol for wireless ad hoc networks. FPRP uses a five-phase reservation process to establish slot assignments based on time division multiple access. It allows a node to reserve only one slot in an information frame. Once a node has reserved a slot, it will cease contending for other slots. As a result, there may be less contending nodes in the remaining slots, so the time slots in an information frame are not fully used by FPRP. To improve time slot utilization, this paper proposes an improved pseudo-Bayesian algorithm, based on which an improved contention access mechanism for FPRP is proposed, in which nodes are allowed to contend for more than one slot in a reservation frame according to a certain probability/priority. Simulation results indicate that the proposed mechanism performs better than FPRP in time slot utilization and hence the network throughput under various scenarios.
An SSD-Based Storage System for an Interactive Media Server Using Video Frame Grouping
Jeong, Yo-Won ; Park, Youngwoo ; Seo, Kwang-Deok ; Yoo, Jeong Ju ; Park, Kyu Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 69~79
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0111.0715
For real-time interactive multimedia operations, such as video uploading, video play, fast-forward, and fast-rewind, solid state disk (SSD)-based storage systems for video streaming servers are becoming more important. Random access rates in storage systems increase significantly with the number of users; it is thus difficult to simultaneously serve many users with HDD-based storage systems, which have low random access performance. Because there is no mechanical operation in NAND flash-based SSDs, they outperform HDDs in terms of flexible random access operation. In addition, due to the multichannel architecture of SSDs, they perform similarly to HDDs in terms of sequential access. In this paper, we propose a new SSD-based storage system for interactive media servers. Based on the proposed method, it is possible to maximize the channel utilization of the SSD's multichannel architecture. Accordingly, we can improve the performance of SSD-based storage systems for interactive media operations.
Reduction of False Alarm Signals for PIR Sensor in Realistic Outdoor Surveillance
Hong, Sang Gi ; Kim, Nae Soo ; Kim, Whan Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 80~88
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0219
A passive infrared or pyroelectric infrared (PIR) sensor is mainly used to sense the existence of moving objects in an indoor environment. However, in an outdoor environment, there are often outbreaks of false alarms from environmental changes and other sources. Therefore, it is difficult to provide reliable detection outdoors. In this paper, two algorithms are proposed to reduce false alarms and provide trustworthy quality to surveillance systems. We gather PIR signals outdoors, analyze the collected data, and extract the target features defined as window energy and alarm duration. Using these features, we model target and false alarms, from which we propose two target decision algorithms: window energy detection and alarm duration detection. Simulation results using real PIR signals show the performance of the proposed algorithms.
Multicriteria-Based Computer-Aided Pronunciation Quality Evaluation of Sentences
Yoma, Nestor Becerra ; Berrios, Leopoldo Benavides ; Sepulveda, Jorge Wuth ; Torres, Hiram Vivanco ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 89~99
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0016
The problem of the sentence-based pronunciation evaluation task is defined in the context of subjective criteria. Three subjective criteria (that is, the minimum subjective word score, the mean subjective word score, and first impression) are proposed and modeled with the combination of word-based assessment. Then, the subjective criteria are approximated with objective sentence pronunciation scores obtained with the combination of word-based metrics. No a priori studies of common mistakes are required, and class-based language models are used to incorporate incorrect and correct pronunciations. Incorrect pronunciations are automatically incorporated by making use of a competitive lexicon and the phonetic rules of students' mother and target languages. This procedure is applicable to any second language learning context, and subjective-objective sentence score correlations greater than or equal to 0.5 can be achieved when the proposed sentence-based pronunciation criteria are approximated with combinations of word-based scores. Finally, the subjective-objective sentence score correlations reported here are very comparable with those published elsewhere resulting from methods that require a priori studies of pronunciation errors.
Feature Extraction Based on Speech Attractors in the Reconstructed Phase Space for Automatic Speech Recognition Systems
Shekofteh, Yasser ; Almasganj, Farshad ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 100~108
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0074
In this paper, a feature extraction (FE) method is proposed that is comparable to the traditional FE methods used in automatic speech recognition systems. Unlike the conventional spectral-based FE methods, the proposed method evaluates the similarities between an embedded speech signal and a set of predefined speech attractor models in the reconstructed phase space (RPS) domain. In the first step, a set of Gaussian mixture models is trained to represent the speech attractors in the RPS. Next, for a new input speech frame, a posterior-probability-based feature vector is evaluated, which represents the similarity between the embedded frame and the learned speech attractors. We conduct experiments for a speech recognition task utilizing a toolkit based on hidden Markov models, over FARSDAT, a well-known Persian speech corpus. Through the proposed FE method, we gain 3.11% absolute phoneme error rate improvement in comparison to the baseline system, which exploits the mel-frequency cepstral coefficient FE method.
Simultaneous Static Testing of A/D and D/A Converters Using a Built-in Structure
Kim, Incheol ; Jang, Jaewon ; Son, HyeonUk ; Park, Jaeseok ; Kang, Sungho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 109~119
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0198
Static testing of analog-to-digital (A/D) and digital-to-analog (D/A) converters becomes more difficult when they are embedded in a system on chip. Built-in self-test (BIST) reduces the need for external support for testing. This paper proposes a new static BIST structure for testing both A/D and D/A converters. By sharing test circuitry, the proposed BIST reduces the hardware overhead. Furthermore, test time can also be reduced using the simultaneous test strategy of the proposed BIST. The proposed method can be applied in various A/D and D/A converter resolutions and analog signal swing ranges. Simulation results are presented to validate the proposed method by showing how linearity errors are detected in different situations.
Analysis of Resource Assignment for Directional Multihop Communications in mm-Wave WPANs
Kim, Meejoung ; Hong, Seung-Eun ; Kim, Yongsun ; Kim, Jinkyeong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 120~130
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.1812.0033
This paper presents an analysis of resource assignment for multihop communications in millimeter-wave (mm-wave) wireless personal area networks. The purpose of this paper is to figure out the effect of using directional antennas and relaying devices (DEVs) in communications. The analysis is performed based on a grouping algorithm, categorization of the flows, and the relaying DEV selection policy. Three schemes are compared: direct and relaying concurrent transmission (DRCT), direct concurrent transmission (DCT), and direct nonconcurrent transmission (DNCT). Numerical results show that DRCT is better than DCT and DCT is better than DNCT for any antenna beamwidths under the proposed algorithm and policy. The results also show that using relaying DEVs increases the throughput up to 30% and that there is an optimal beamwidth that maximizes spatial reuse and depends on parameters such as the number of flows in the networks. This analysis can provide guidelines for improving the performance of mm-wave band communications with relaying DEVs.
A Link Between Integrals and Higher-Order Integrals of SPN Ciphers
Li, Ruilin ; Sun, Bing ; Li, Chao ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 131~141
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0111.0624
Integral cryptanalysis, which is based on the existence of (higher-order) integral distinguishers, is a powerful cryptographic method that can be used to evaluate the security of modern block ciphers. In this paper, we focus on substitution-permutation network (SPN) ciphers and propose a criterion to characterize how an r-round integral distinguisher can be extended to an (r+1)-round higher-order integral distinguisher. This criterion, which builds a link between integrals and higher-order integrals of SPN ciphers, is in fact based on the theory of direct decomposition of a linear space defined by the linear mapping of the cipher. It can be directly utilized to unify the procedure for finding 4-round higher-order integral distinguishers of AES and ARIA and can be further extended to analyze higher-order integral distinguishers of various block cipher structures. We hope that the criterion presented in this paper will benefit the cryptanalysts and may thus lead to better cryptanalytic results.
Cost-Efficient Virtual Optical Network Embedding for Manageable Inter-Data-Center Connectivity
Perello, Jordi ; Pavon-Marino, Pablo ; Spadaro, Salvatore ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 142~145
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0271
Network virtualization opens the door to novel infrastructure services offering connectivity and node manageability. In this letter, we focus on the cost-efficient embedding of on-demand virtual optical network requests for interconnecting geographically distributed data centers. We present a mixed integer linear programming formulation that introduces flexibility in the virtual-physical node mapping to optimize the usage of the underlying physical resources. Illustrative results show that flexibility in the node mapping can reduce the number of add-drop ports required to serve the offered demands by 40%.
Adaptive Data Transmission Control for Multilane-Based Ethernet
Han, Kyeong-Eun ; Kim, Kwangjoon ; Kim, SunMe ; Lee, Jonghyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 146~149
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0169
We propose a reconciliation sublayer (RS)-based lane and traffic control protocol for energy-efficient 40-G/100-G Ethernet. The RS performs active/inactive lane control and data rate adaptation depending on active lane information received from the upper layer. This protocol does not result in a processing delay in the media access control layer, nor is an additional buffer required at the physical layer for dynamic lane control. It ensures minimal delay and no overhead for the exchange of control frames and provides a simple adaptive data rate.
Fully Printed Dual-Band Power Divider Miniaturized by CRLH Phase-Shift Lines
Eom, Da-Jeong ; Kahng, Sungtek ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 150~153
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0131
In this letter, a compact and fully printed composite right- and left-handed (CRLH) dual-band power divider is proposed. The branches of the conventional Wilkinson power divider are replaced by subwavelength CRLH phase-shift lines having
for one frequency and
for another frequency for dual-band and miniaturization performance. Equations are derived for the even- and odd-mode analysis combined with the dual-band CRLH circuit. A PCS and a WLAN band are chosen as the test case and the circuit approach agrees with the CAD simulation and the measurement. Additionally, the CRLH property is shown with the dispersion diagram and the eightfold size reduction is noted.
A Hardware-Based String Matching Using State Transition Compression for Deep Packet Inspection
Kim, HyunJin ; Lee, Seung-Woo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 154~157
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0165
This letter proposes a memory-based parallel string matching engine using the compressed state transitions. In the finite-state machines of each string matcher, the pointers for representing the existence of state transitions are compressed. In addition, the bit fields for storing state transitions can be shared. Therefore, the total memory requirement can be minimized by reducing the memory size for storing state transitions.
10-Bit 200-MS/s Current-Steering DAC Using Data-Dependant Current-Cell Clock-Gating
Yang, Byung-Do ; Seo, Bo-Seok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 158~161
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.12.0212.0286
This letter proposes a low-power current-steering digital-to-analog converter (DAC). The proposed DAC reduces the clock power by cutting the clock signal to the current-source cells in which the data will not be changed. The 10-bit DAC is implemented using a
CMOS process with
=1.2 V. Its area is
. It consumes 4.46 mW at a 1-MHz signal frequency and 200-MHz sampling rate. The clock power is reduced to 30.9% and 36.2% of a conventional DAC at 1.25-MHz and 10-MHz signal frequencies, respectively. The measured spurious free dynamic ranges are 72.8 dB and 56.1 dB at 1-MHz and 50-MHz signal frequencies, respectively.
Output SNR Analysis of the LPP-Hough Transform
Li, Xiumei ; Yang, Guoqing ; Gao, Guangchun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 162~165
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0184
Recently, a new method called the local polynomial periodogram-Hough transform (LHT) was proposed for linear frequency modulated (LFM) signal detection. In this letter, a closed-form expression of the output signal-to-noise ratio is derived for the LHT, showing that the method exhibits a threshold effect for LFM signal detection. Comparisons with the pseudo-Wigner-Hough transform (PWHT) show that the threshold of the LHT is lower (better) than that of the PWHT.
Data Randomization Scheme for Endurance Enhancement and Interference Mitigation of Multilevel Flash Memory Devices
Cha, Jaewon ; Kang, Sungho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 166~169
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0273
In this letter, we propose a data randomization scheme for endurance and interference mitigation of deeply-scaled multilevel flash memory. We address the relationships between data patterns and the raw bit error rate. An on-chip pseudorandom generator composed of an address-based seed location decoder is developed and evaluated with respect to uniformity. Experiments performed with 2x-nm and 4x-nm NAND flash memory devices illustrate the effectiveness of our scheme. The results show that the error rate is reduced up to 86% compared to that of a conventional cycling scheme. Accordingly, the endurance phenomenon can be mitigated through analysis of interference that causes tech shrinkage.
Comments on an Improved RFID Security Protocol for ISO/IEC WD 29167-6
Kang, You Sung ; Choi, Dooho ; Park, Dong-Jo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 170~172
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0415
With the rapid progress of RFID security technologies, the international standard group ISO/IEC JTC 1/SC 31 is developing a few security technologies for RFID systems. One of the initial proposals is ISO/IEC working draft (WD) 29167-6. Recently, Song and others stated that Protocol 1 of ISO/IEC WD 29167-6 is vulnerable to a malicious adversary. However, their analysis comes from a misunderstanding regarding a communication parameter called Handle. In this letter, we point out that an adversary cannot obtain any sensitive information from intervening in Protocol 1.
Homomorphic Subspace MAC Scheme for Secure Network Coding
Liu, Guangjun ; Wang, Xiao ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 1, 2013, Pages 173~176
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0166
Existing symmetric cryptography-based solutions against pollution attacks for network coding systems suffer various drawbacks, such as highly complicated key distribution and vulnerable security against collusion. This letter presents a novel homomorphic subspace message authentication code (MAC) scheme that can thwart pollution attacks in an efficient way. The basic idea is to exploit the combination of the symmetric cryptography and linear subspace properties of network coding. The proposed scheme can tolerate the compromise of up to r-1 intermediate nodes when r source keys are used. Compared to previous MAC solutions, less secret keys are needed for the source and only one secret key is distributed to each intermediate node.