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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
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Design of Dual-Band MIMO Antenna with High Isolation for WLAN Mobile Terminal
Lee, Jung-Nam ; Lee, Kwang-Chun ; Park, Nam-Hoon ; Park, Jong-Kweon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 177~187
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0250
In this paper, we propose a dual-band multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna with high isolation for WLAN applications (2.45 GHz and 5.2 GHz). The proposed antenna is composed of a mobile communication terminal board, eight radiators, a coaxial feed line, and slots for isolation. The measured -10 dB impedance bandwidths are 10.1% (2.35 GHz to 2.6 GHz) and 3.85% (5.1 GHz to 5.3 GHz) at each frequency band. The proposed four-element MIMO antenna has an isolation of better than 35 dB at 2.45 GHz and 45 dB at 5.2 GHz between each element. The antenna gain is 3.2 dBi at 2.45 GHz and 4.2 dBi at 5.2 GHz.
A New Modified MPPM for High-Speed Wireless Optical Communication Systems
Rouissat, Mehdi ; Borsali, Riad A. ; Chikh-Bled, Mohammad E. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 188~192
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0196
Previous work proposed combining multipulse pulse position modulation (MPPM) with pulse amplitude modulation to form multipulse amplitude and position modulation (MPAPM), which is a hybrid modulation that results in an improvement in bandwidth efficiency but a degradation in power efficiency. In this paper, to achieve greater power efficiency and a better data rate, we propose multipulse dual amplitude-width modulation, based on MPAPM and pulse width modulation. The proposed scheme shows a remarkable improvement in data rate and a 1.5-dB improvement in power efficiency over MPAPM, while sustaining the bandwidth efficiency. After introducing symbol structure, we present the theoretical expressions of spectral efficiency, the power requirements, and the normalized data rate, as well as the results of comparing the proposed modulation to MPPM and MPAPM.
An Improved Multiplicative Updating Algorithm for Nonnegative Independent Component Analysis
Li, Hui ; Shen, Yue-Hong ; Wang, Jian-Gong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 193~199
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0224
This paper addresses nonnegative independent component analysis (NICA), with the aim to realize the blind separation of nonnegative well-grounded independent source signals, which arises in many practical applications but is hardly ever explored. Recently, Bertrand and Moonen presented a multiplicative NICA (M-NICA) algorithm using multiplicative update and subspace projection. Based on the principle of the mutual correlation minimization, we propose another novel cost function to evaluate the diagonalization level of the correlation matrix, and apply the multiplicative exponentiated gradient (EG) descent update to it to maintain nonnegativity. An efficient approach referred to as the EG-NICA algorithm is derived and its validity is confirmed by numerous simulations conducted on different types of source signals. Results show that the separation performance of the proposed EG-NICA algorithm is superior to that of the previous M-NICA algorithm, with a better unmixing accuracy. In addition, its convergence speed is adjustable by an appropriate user-defined learning rate.
Performance Analysis of Compressed Sensing Given Insufficient Random Measurements
Rateb, Ahmad M. ; Syed-Yusof, Sharifah Kamilah ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 200~206
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0312
Most of the literature on compressed sensing has not paid enough attention to scenarios in which the number of acquired measurements is insufficient to satisfy minimal exact reconstruction requirements. In practice, encountering such scenarios is highly likely, either intentionally or unintentionally, that is, due to high sensing cost or to the lack of knowledge of signal properties. We analyze signal reconstruction performance in this setting. The main result is an expression of the reconstruction error as a function of the number of acquired measurements.
Modular Cellular Neural Network Structure for Wave-Computing-Based Image Processing
Karami, Mojtaba ; Safabakhsh, Reza ; Rahmati, Mohammad ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 207~217
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0107
This paper introduces the modular cellular neural network (CNN), which is a new CNN structure constructed from nine one-layer modules with intercellular interactions between different modules. The new network is suitable for implementing many image processing operations. Inputting an image into the modules results in nine outputs. The topographic characteristic of the cell interactions allows the outputs to introduce new properties for image processing tasks. The stability of the system is proven and the performance is evaluated in several image processing applications. Experiment results on texture segmentation show the power of the proposed structure. The performance of the structure in a real edge detection application using the Berkeley dataset BSDS300 is also evaluated.
An Analytical Approximation for the Pull-Out Frequency of a PLL Employing a Sinusoidal Phase Detector
Huque, Abu-Sayeed ; Stensby, John ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 218~225
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0166
The pull-out frequency of a second-order phase lock loop (PLL) is an important parameter that quantifies the loop's ability to stay frequency locked under abrupt changes in the reference input frequency. In most cases, this must be determined numerically or approximated using asymptotic techniques, both of which require special knowledge, skills, and tools. An approximating formula is derived analytically for computing the pull-out frequency for a second-order Type II PLL that employs a sinusoidal characteristic phase detector. The pull-out frequency of such PLLs can be easily approximated to satisfactory accuracy with this formula using a modern scientific calculator.
A Power-Efficient CMOS Adaptive Biasing Operational Transconductance Amplifier
Torfifard, Jafar ; A'ain, Abu Khari Bin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 226~233
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0300
This paper presents a two-stage power-efficient class-AB operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) based on an adaptive biasing circuit suited to low-power dissipation and low-voltage operation. The OTA shows significant improvements in driving capability and power dissipation owing to the novel adaptive biasing circuit. The OTA dissipates only
from a supply voltage of
and exhibits excellent high driving, which results in a slew rate improvement of more than 250 times that of the conventional class-AB amplifier. The design is fabricated using
Improving IPTV Forwarding Masechanism in IEEE 802.16j MMR Networks Based on Aggregation
Brahmia, Mohamed-El-Amine ; Abouaissa, Abdelhafid ; Lorenz, Pascal ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 234~244
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0318
Internet protocol television (IPTV) service depends on the network quality of service (QoS) and bandwidth of the broadband service provider. IEEE 802.16j mobile multihop relay Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access networks have the opportunity to offer high bandwidth capacity by introducing relay stations. However, to actually satisfy QoS requirements for offering IPTV services (HDTV, SDTV, Web TV, and mobile TV) for heterogeneous users' requests, providers must use a video server for each IPTV service type, which increases the network load, especially bandwidth consumption and forwarding time. In this paper, we present a solution for forwarding IPTV video streaming to diverse subscribers via an 802.16j broadband wireless access network. In particular, we propose a new multicast tree construction and aggregation mechanism based on the unique property of prime numbers. Performance evaluation results show that the proposed scheme reduces both bandwidth consumption and forwarding time.
Physical Media Dependent Prototype for 10-Gigabit-Capable PON OLT
Kim, Jongdeog ; Lee, Jong Jin ; Lee, Seihyoung ; Kim, Young-Sun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 245~252
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0441
In this work, we study the physical layer solutions for 10-gigabit-capable passive optical networks (PONs), particularly for an optical link terminal (OLT) including a 10-Gbit/s electroabsorption modulated laser (EML) and a 2.5-Gbit/s burst mode receiver (BM-Rx) in a novel bidirectional optical subassembly (BOSA). As unique features, a bidirectional mini-flat package and a 9-pin TO package are developed for a 10-gigabit-capable PON OLT BOSA composed of a 1,577-nm EML and a 1,270-nm avalanche photodiode BM-Rx, including a single-chip burst mode integrated circuit that is integrated with a transimpedance and limiting amplifier. In the developed prototype, the 10-Gbit/s transmitter and 2.5-Gbit/s receiver characteristics are evaluated and compared with the physical media dependent (PMD) specifications in ITU-T G.987.2 for XG-PON1. By conducting the 10-Gbit/s downstream and 2.5-Gbit/s upstream transmission experiments, we verify that the developed 10-gigabitcapable PON PMD prototype can operate for extended network coverage of up to a 40-km fiber reach.
Efficient Power-Saving 10-Gb/s ONU Using Uplink Usage-Dependent Sleep Mode Control Algorithm in WDM-PON
Lee, Han Hyub ; Kim, Kwangok ; Lee, Jonghyun ; Lee, Sangsoo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 253~258
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.1812.0059
We propose and demonstrate an efficient power-saving optical network unit (ONU) based on upstream traffic monitoring for 10-Gb/s wavelength division multiplexed passive optical networks (WDM-PONs). The power-saving mode controller uses a
-processor and traffic monitoring modules followed by the proposed power-saving processes to operate the sleep mode ONU. The power consumption of the ONU is effectively reduced from 19.3 W to 6.4 W when no traffic from the users is detected. In addition, we design a power-saving mechanism based on a cyclic sleep mode operation to allow a connectivity check between the optical line terminal and ONU. Our calculation results show that the WDM-PON ONU reduces the power consumption by around 60% using the proposed mechanism.
AndroScope: An Insightful Performance Analyzer for All Software Layers of the Android-Based Systems
Cho, Myeongjin ; Lee, Ho Jin ; Kim, Minseong ; Kim, Seon Wook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 259~269
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0203
Android has become the most popular platform for mobile devices. However, Android still has critical performance issues, such as "application not responding" errors and hiccups resulting from garbage collection. Many phone vendors have tried to resolve the problems by characterizing and improving the performance. However, there are few insightful performance analysis tools for the Android-based systems. This paper presents AndroScope, which is a performance analysis tool for both the Android platform (Dalvik virtual machine, core libraries, Android libraries, and even Linux kernels) and its applications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first tool to collect and analyze performance data from all the software layers of the Android-based systems. AndroScope offers a trace mechanism to collect such deep and wide performance data as hardware performance counters, time, and memory usage. In addition, the tool includes TraceBridge, which is a middleware for the fast handling of mass logs. Moreover, AndroScope offers an integrated graphical user interface with the Android software development kit to display a great volume of the detailed performance data.
A Fast Intra-Prediction Method in HEVC Using Rate-Distortion Estimation Based on Hadamard Transform
Kim, Younhee ; Jun, DongSan ; Jung, Soon-Heung ; Choi, Jin Soo ; Kim, Jinwoong ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 270~280
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0223
A fast intra-prediction method is proposed for High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) using a fast intra-mode decision and fast coding unit (CU) size decision. HEVC supports very sophisticated intra modes and a recursive quadtree-based CU structure. To provide a high coding efficiency, the mode and CU size are selected in a rate-distortion optimized manner. This causes a high computational complexity in the encoder, and, for practical applications, the complexity should be significantly reduced. In this paper, among the many predefined modes, the intra-prediction mode is chosen without rate-distortion optimization processes, instead using the difference between the minimum and second minimum of the rate-distortion cost estimation based on the Hadamard transform. The experiment results show that the proposed method achieves a 49.04% reduction in the intra-prediction time and a 32.74% reduction in the total encoding time with a nearly similar coding performance to that of HEVC test model 2.1.
A Frame-Based Video Signature Method for Very Quick Video Identification and Location
Na, Sang-Il ; Oh, Weon-Geun ; Jeong, Dong-Seok ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 281~291
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0286
A video signature is a set of feature vectors that compactly represents and uniquely characterizes one video clip from another for fast matching. To find a short duplicated region, the video signature must be robust against common video modifications and have a high discriminability. The matching method must be fast and be successful at finding locations. In this paper, a frame-based video signature that uses the spatial information and a two-stage matching method is presented. The proposed method is pair-wise independent and is robust against common video modifications. The proposed two-stage matching method is fast and works very well in finding locations. In addition, the proposed matching structure and strategy can distinguish a case in which a part of the query video matches a part of the target video. The proposed method is verified using video modified by the VCE7 experimental conditions found in MPEG-7. The proposed video signature method achieves a robustness of 88.7% under an independence condition of 5 parts per million with over 1,000 clips being matched per second.
A Metadata Design for Augmented Broadcasting and Testbed System Implementation
Choi, Bumsuk ; Kim, Jeonghak ; Kim, Soonchoul ; Jeong, Youngho ; Hong, Jin Woo ; Lee, Won Don ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 292~300
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0412
Augmented reality (AR) is a popular service in mobile devices, and many AR applications can be downloaded from app stores. As TV broadcasting has continued to integrate with the Internet, it has become an area in which the AR concept is able to reside, although in a simple form, such as an advertisement placed in the static region of a scene. There are some restrictions against TV broadcasting realizing AR since TVs are fixed devices and typically do not have GPS, geomagnetic, or acceleration sensors, which are standard equipment in mobile devices. However, the desire to experience AR on a large TV screen has triggered research and development for an ideal AR business model and service type. This paper introduces several use cases for augmented broadcasting services and also presents an augmented broadcasting metadata scheme designed for a broadcasting environment. We also verify some of the use cases and an augmented broadcasting metadata scheme in an implemented augmented broadcasting system based on a hybrid TV platform.
Easily Adaptable On-Chip Debug Architecture for Multicore Processors
Xu, Jing-Zhe ; Park, Hyeongbae ; Jung, Seungpyo ; Park, Ju Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 301~310
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0487
Nowadays, the multicore processor is watched with interest by people all over the world. As the design technology of system on chip has developed, observing and controlling the processor core's internal state has not been easy. Therefore, multicore processor debugging is very difficult and time-consuming. Thus, we need a reliable and efficient debugger to find the bugs. In this paper, we propose an on-chip debug architecture for multicore processors that is easily adaptable and flexible. It is based on the JTAG standard and supports monitoring mode debugging, which is different from run-stop mode debugging. Compared with the debug architecture that supports the run-stop mode debugging, the proposed architecture is easily applied to a debugger and has the advantage of having a desirable gate count and execution cycle. To verify the on-chip debug architecture, it is applied to the debugger of the prototype multicore processor and is tested by interconnecting it with a software debugger based on GDB and configured for the target processor.
A Max-Flow-Based Similarity Measure for Spectral Clustering
Cao, Jiangzhong ; Chen, Pei ; Zheng, Yun ; Dai, Qingyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 311~320
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0520
In most spectral clustering approaches, the Gaussian kernel-based similarity measure is used to construct the affinity matrix. However, such a similarity measure does not work well on a dataset with a nonlinear and elongated structure. In this paper, we present a new similarity measure to deal with the nonlinearity issue. The maximum flow between data points is computed as the new similarity, which can satisfy the requirement for similarity in the clustering method. Additionally, the new similarity carries the global and local relations between data. We apply it to spectral clustering and compare the proposed similarity measure with other state-of-the-art methods on both synthetic and real-world data. The experiment results show the superiority of the new similarity: 1) The max-flow-based similarity measure can significantly improve the performance of spectral clustering; 2) It is robust and not sensitive to the parameters.
An Empirical Analysis on a Predictive Method of Systematic Segmentation in Volatile High-Tech Markets
Shin, Yonghee ; Jeon, Hyori ; Choi, Munkee ; Han, Eoksoo ; Jung, Sungyoung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 321~331
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0251
High-tech markets are unpredictable owing to rapid technology innovation, diverse customer needs, high competition, and other elements. Many scholars have attempted to explain the uncertainty in high-tech markets using their own various approaches. However, sufficiently clear ways to predict diverse changes and trends in high-tech markets have yet to be presented. Thus, this paper proposes a new approach model, that is, systematic market segmentation, to give more accurate information. Using an empirical dataset from the mobile handset market in the Republic of Korea, we conduct our research model consisting of three steps. First, we categorize nine basic segments. Second, we test the stability of these segments. Finally, we profile the characteristics of the customers and products. We conclude that the approach is able to offer more diagnostic information to both practitioners and scholars. It is expected to provide rich information for an appropriate marketing mix in practice.
The Impact of LTE UE on Audio Devices
Shim, Yongsup ; Lee, Ilkyoo ; Park, Seungkeun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 332~335
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0441
In this letter, the acoustic noise due to long term evolution (LTE) user equipment (UE) is investigated with various transmitting powers of the LTE UE by using the Monte Carlo method in a practical acoustic noise experiment.
SER-Based Relay Selection for Two-Way Relaying with Physical Layer Network Coding
Li, Dandan ; Xiong, Ke ; Qiu, Zhengding ; Du, Guanyao ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 336~339
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0211
To enhance the symbol error rate (SER) performance of the two-way relay channels with physical layer network coding, this letter proposes a relay selection scheme, in which the relay with the maximal minimum distance between different points in its constellation among all relays is selected to assist two-way transmissions. We give the closed-form expression of minimum distance for binary phase-shift keying and quadrature phase-shift keying. Additionally, we design a low-complexity method for higher-order modulations based on look-up tables. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme improves the SER performance for two-way relay networks.
Novel Bumping Process for Solder on Pad Technology
Choi, Kwang-Seong ; Bae, Ho-Eun ; Bae, Hyun-Cheol ; Eom, Yong-Sung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 340~343
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0302
A novel bumping process using solder bump maker is developed for the maskless low-volume solder on pad (SoP) technology of fine-pitch flip chip bonding. The process includes two main steps: one is the aggregation of powdered solder on the metal pads on a substrate via an increase in temperature, and the other is the reflow of the deposited powder to form a low-volume SoP. Since the surface tension that exists when the solder is below its melting point is the major driving force of the solder deposit, only a small quantity of powdered solder adjacent to the pads can join the aggregation process to obtain a uniform, low-volume SoP array on the substrate, regardless of the pad configurations. Through this process, an SoP array on an organic substrate with a pitch of
is successfully formed.
Tri-band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode Stepped-Impedance Resonator
Liu, Haiwen ; Lei, Jiuhuai ; Zhao, Yulong ; Xu, Wenyuan ; Fan, Yichao ; Wu, Tiantian ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 344~347
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0319
This letter presents a compact dual-mode tri-band bandpass filter by using a short-circuited stub-loaded stepped-impedance resonator (SIR) and a short-circuited stub-loaded uniform impedance resonator. Also, a hairpin SIR geometry is introduced to miniature the size of this filter while maintaining excellent performance. The use of a short-circuited stub at the central point of the hairpin SIR can generate two resonant modes in two passbands. Its equivalent circuit structure is analyzed by using the even-odd mode theory. For demonstration purposes, a tri-band filter for the applications of the Global Positioning System at 1.57 GHz, Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access at 3.5 GHz, and wireless local area networks at 5.2 GHz is designed, fabricated, and measured.
Client Rendering Method for Desktop Virtualization Services
Jang, Su Min ; Choi, Won Hyuk ; Kim, Won Young ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 348~351
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0213
Cloud computing has recently become a significant technology trend in the IT field. Among the related technologies, desktop virtualization has been applied to various commercial applications since it provides many advantages, such as lower maintenance and operation costs and higher utilization. However, the existing solutions offer a very limited performance for 3D graphics applications. Therefore, we propose a novel method in which rendering commands are not executed at the host server but rather are delivered to the client through the network and are executed by the client's graphics device. This method prominently reduces server overhead and makes it possible to provide a stable service at low cost. The results of various experiments prove that the proposed method outperforms all existing solutions.
Mixed Display Platform to Expand Comfortable Zone of Stereoscopic 3D Viewing
Yang, Ungyeon ; Kim, Namkyu ; Seo, Jinseok ; Kim, Ki-Hong ; Lee, Gil-Haeng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 352~355
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0245
Common stereoscopic three-dimensional (3D) display has a convergence and accommodation conflict that violates the natural human cognitive process of viewing. This weakness exposes the challenge in supporting fun factors while eliminating safety problems in the 3D viewing experience. Thus, human factors have become a major research topic. In this letter, we propose a 3D stereoscopic visualization platform that can expand the sense of a 3D space by fusing organically mixed stereoscopic displays to provide a continuous feeling of 3D depth. In addition, we present pilot test results to show the possibility of the technical implementation of the proposed platform and note ongoing research issues to be addressed.
Tracking and Interaction Based on Hybrid Sensing for Virtual Environments
Jo, Dongsik ; Kim, Yongwan ; Cho, Eunji ; Kim, Daehwan ; Kim, Ki-Hong ; Lee, Gil-Haeng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 2, 2013, Pages 356~359
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0170
We present a method for tracking and interaction based on hybrid sensing for virtual environments. The proposed method is applied to motion tracking of whole areas, including the user's occlusion space, for a high-precision interaction. For real-time motion tracking surrounding a user, we estimate each joint position in the human body using a combination of a depth sensor and a wand-type physical user interface, which is necessary to convert gyroscope and acceleration values into positional data. Additionally, we construct virtual contents and evaluate the validity of results related to hybrid sensing-based whole-body tracking of human motion methods used to compensate for the occluded areas.