Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Dec 2013
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Oct 2013
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Aug 2013
Volume 35, Issue 3 - Jun 2013
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Apr 2013
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Feb 2013
Selecting the target year
Replica Correlation-Based Synchronization with Low Complexity and Frequency Offset Immunity
Chang, Kapseok ; Bang, Seung Chan ; Kim, Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 739~747
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0764
This paper investigates the multifarious nature of the long-term evolution (LTE) scheme and that of the modified LTE scheme for symbol timing synchronization (STS). This investigation allows us to propose a new replica correlation-based STS scheme to overcome the inherent weaknesses of the other two schemes. The proposed STS signal combines a gold sequence and a half sine wave in the time domain, whereas conventional STS signals specify either binary sequences or complex sequences in the time domain or in the frequency domain. In the proposed scheme, a sufficient correlation property is realized by the gold sequence, and robustness against the frequency offset (FO) is achieved through the sine wave. Compared to the existing LTE-related schemes, the proposed scheme can better achieve immunity to FO and reduction in detector complexity, as well as a low peak-to-average power ratio and a low detection error rate. Performance evaluations through analysis and simulation are provided in the paper to demonstrate these attributes.
Online Hop Timing Detection and Frequency Estimation of Multiple FH Signals
Sha, Zhi-Chao ; Liu, Zhang-Meng ; Huang, Zhi-Tao ; Zhou, Yi-Yu ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 748~756
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0787
This paper addresses the problem of online hop timing detection and frequency estimation of multiple frequency-hopping (FH) signals with antenna arrays. The problem is deemed as a dynamic one, as no information about the hop timing, pattern, or rate is known in advance, and the hop rate may change during the observation time. The technique of particle filtering is introduced to solve this dynamic problem, and real-time frequency and direction of arrival estimates of the FH signals can be obtained directly, while the hop timing is detected online according to the temporal autoregressive moving average process. The problem of network sorting is also addressed in this paper. Numerical examples are carried out to show the performance of the proposed method.
TOA Estimation Technique for IR-UWB Based on Homogeneity Test
Djeddou, Mustapha ; Zeher, Hichem ; Nekachtali, Younes ; Drouiche, Karim ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 757~766
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0889
This paper deals with the estimation of the time of arrival (TOA) of ultra-wideband signals under IEEE 802.15.4a channel models. The proposed approach is based on a randomness test and consists of determining whether an autoregressive (AR) process modeling an energy frame is random or not by using a distance to measure the randomness. The proposed method uses a threshold that is derived analytically according to a preset false alarm probability. To highlight the effectiveness of the developed approach, simulation setups as well as real data experiments are conducted to assess the performance of the new TOA estimation algorithm. Thereby, the proposed method is compared with the cell averaging constant false alarm rate technique, the threshold comparison algorithm, and the technique based on maximum energy selection with search back. The obtained results are promising, considering both simulations and collected real-life data.
A Novel Parallel Viterbi Decoding Scheme for NoC-Based Software-Defined Radio System
Wang, Jian ; Li, Yubai ; Li, Huan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 767~774
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0113.0032
In this paper, a novel parallel Viterbi decoding scheme is proposed to decrease the decoding latency and power consumption for the software-defined radio (SDR) system. It implements a divide-and-conquer approach by first dividing a block into a series of subblocks, then performing independent Viterbi decoding for each subsequence, and finally merging the surviving subpaths into the final path. Moreover, a network-on-chip-based SDR platform is used to evaluate the performance of the proposed parallel Viterbi decoding scheme. The experiment results show that our scheme can speed up the Viterbi decoding process without increasing the BER, and it performs better than the current state-of-the-art methods.
Interference Analysis in an Urban Mesh Network Operating in the 60-GHz Band
Rasekh, Maryam Eslami ; Farzaneh, Forouhar ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 775~785
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0736
Because of their exclusive features, millimeter wave directive mesh networks can be considered for small cell backhaul support in urban environments. For this purpose, a network of closely spaced stations has been considered with very directive line-of-sight links operating in the 60-GHz band. An attempt is made to evaluate channel response and interference behavior in such a network, taking into account the effect of building blockage. A simple grid of building blocks is considered as the propagation environment, and wave propagation is simulated using 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) ray tracing (2D with ground effect) to calculate the received signal at different nodes in the network. The results are compared with free space predictions and used to evaluate interference at all nodes in the channel and describe certain characteristics of links, such as the delay profile and the correlation length.
Highly Utilized Fiber Plant with Extended Reach and High Splitting Ratio Based on AWG and EDFA Characteristics
Syuhaimi, Mohammad ; Mohamed, Ibrahim ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 786~796
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0793
In this paper, we propose a hybrid time-division multiplexing and dense wavelength-division multiplexing scheme to implement a cost-effective and scalable long-reach optical access network (LR-OAN). Our main objectives are to increase fiber plant utilization, handle upstream and downstream flow through the same input/output port, extend the reach, and increase the splitting ratio. To this end, we propose the use of an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) in one configuration. AWG is employed to achieve the first and second objectives, while EDFA is used to achieve the third and fourth objectives. The performance of the proposed LR-OAN is verified using the Optisystem and Matlab software packages under bit error rate constraints and two different approaches (multifiber and single-fiber). Although the single-fiber approach offers a more cost-effective solution because service is provided to each zone via a common fiber, it imposes additional losses, which leads to a reduction in the length of the feeder fiber from 20 km to 10 km.
Wide Voltage Input Receiver with Hysteresis Characteristic to Reduce Input Signal Noise Effect
Biswas, Arnab Kumar ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 797~807
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0632
In this paper, an input receiver with a hysteresis characteristic that can work at voltage levels between 0.9 V and 5 V is proposed. The input receiver can be used as a wide voltage range Schmitt trigger also. At the same time, reliable circuit operation is ensured. According to the research findings, this is the first time a wide voltage range Schmitt trigger is being reported. The proposed circuit is compared with previously reported input receivers, and it is shown that the circuit has better noise immunity. The proposed input receiver ends the need for a separate Schmitt trigger and input buffer. The frequency of operation is also higher than that of the previously reported receiver. The circuit is simulated using HSPICE at 0.35-
standard thin oxide technology. Monte Carlo analysis is conducted at different process conditions, showing that the proposed circuit works well for different process conditions at different voltage levels of operation. A noise impulse of (
) magnitude is added to the input voltage to show that the receiver receives the correct logic level even in the presence of noise. Here,
is the fixed voltage supply of 3.3 V.
A Flexible Programmable Memory BIST for Embedded Single-Port Memory and Dual-Port Memory
Park, Youngkyu ; Kim, Hong-Sik ; Choi, Inhyuk ; Kang, Sungho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 808~818
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0717
Programmable memory built-in self-test (PMBIST) is an attractive approach for testing embedded memory. However, the main difficulties of the previous works are the large area overhead and low flexibility. To overcome these problems, a new flexible PMBIST (FPMBIST) architecture that can test both single-port memory and dual-port memory using various test algorithms is proposed. In the FPMBIST, a new instruction set is developed to minimize the FPMBIST area overhead and to maximize the flexibility. In addition, FPMBIST includes a diagnostic scheme that can improve the yield by supporting three types of diagnostic methods for repair and diagnosis. The experiment results show that the proposed FPMBIST has small area overhead despite the fact that it supports various test algorithms, thus having high flexibility.
A Class-D Amplifier for a Digital Hearing Aid with 0.015% Total Harmonic Distortion Plus Noise
Lee, Dongjun ; Noh, Jinho ; Lee, Jisoo ; Choi, Yongjae ; Yoo, Changsik ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 819~826
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0852
A class-D audio amplifier for a digital hearing aid is described. The class-D amplifier operates with a pulse-code modulated (PCM) digital input and consists of an interpolation filter, a digital sigma-delta modulator (SDM), and an analog SDM, along with an H-bridge power switch. The noise of the power switch is suppressed by feeding it back to the input of the analog SDM. The interpolation filter removes the unwanted image tones of the PCM input, improving the linearity and power efficiency. The class-D amplifier is implemented in a 0.13-
CMOS process. The maximum output power delivered to the receiver (speaker) is 1.19 mW. The measured total harmonic distortion plus noise is 0.015%, and the dynamic range is 86.0 dB. The class-D amplifier consumes 304
from a 1.2-V power supply.
Application of VSI-EBG Structure to High-Speed Differential Signals for Wideband Suppression of Common-Mode Noise
Kim, Myunghoi ; Kim, Sukjin ; Bae, Bumhee ; Cho, Jonghyun ; Kim, Joungho ; Kim, Jaehoon ; Ahn, Do Seob ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 827~837
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0875
In this paper, we present wideband common-mode (CM) noise suppression using a vertical stepped impedance electromagnetic bandgap (VSI-EBG) structure for high-speed differential signals in multilayer printed circuit boards. This technique is an original design that enables us to apply the VSI-EBG structure to differential signals without sacrificing the differential characteristics. In addition, the analytical dispersion equations for the bandgap prediction of the CM propagation in the VSIEBG structure are extracted, and the closed-form expressions for the bandgap cutoff frequencies are derived. Based on the dispersion equations, the effects of the impedance ratio, the EBG patch length, and via inductances on the bandgap of the VSI-EBG structure for differential signals are thoroughly examined. The proposed dispersion equations are verified through agreement with the full-wave simulation results. It is experimentally demonstrated that the proposed VSI-EBG structure for differential signaling suppresses the CM noise in the wideband frequency range without degrading the differential characteristics.
Extracting Multiword Sentiment Expressions by Using a Domain-Specific Corpus and a Seed Lexicon
Lee, Kong-Joo ; Kim, Jee-Eun ; Yun, Bo-Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 838~848
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0113.0093
This paper presents a novel approach to automatically generate Korean multiword sentiment expressions by using a seed sentiment lexicon and a large-scale domain-specific corpus. A multiword sentiment expression consists of a seed sentiment word and its contextual words occurring adjacent to the seed word. The multiword sentiment expressions that are the focus of our study have a different polarity from that of the seed sentiment word. The automatically extracted multiword sentiment expressions show that 1) the contextual words should be defined as a part of a multiword sentiment expression in addition to their corresponding seed sentiment word, 2) the identified multiword sentiment expressions contain various indicators for polarity shift that have rarely been recognized before, and 3) the newly recognized shifters contribute to assigning a more accurate polarity value. The empirical result shows that the proposed approach achieves improved performance of the sentiment analysis system that uses an automatically generated lexicon.
Stochastic Differential Equations for Modeling of High Maneuvering Target Tracking
Hajiramezanali, Mohammadehsan ; Fouladi, Seyyed Hamed ; Ritcey, James A. ; Amindavar, Hamidreza ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 849~858
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0113.0097
In this paper, we propose a new adaptive single model to track a maneuvering target with abrupt accelerations. We utilize the stochastic differential equation to model acceleration of a maneuvering target with stochastic volatility (SV). We assume the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (GARCH) process as the model for the tracking procedure of the SV. In the proposed scheme, to track a high maneuvering target, we modify the Kalman filtering by introducing a new GARCH model for estimating SV. The proposed tracking algorithm operates in both the non-maneuvering and maneuvering modes, and, unlike the traditional decision-based model, the maneuver detection procedure is eliminated. Furthermore, we stress that the improved performance using the GARCH acceleration model is due to properties inherent in GARCH modeling itself that comply with maneuvering target trajectory. Moreover, the computational complexity of this model is more efficient than that of traditional methods. Finally, the effectiveness and capabilities of our proposed strategy are demonstrated and validated through Monte Carlo simulation studies.
A Perceptually Motivated Active Noise Control Design and Its Psychoacoustic Analysis
Bao, Hua ; Panahi, Issa M.S. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 859~868
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0822
The active noise control (ANC) technique attenuates acoustic noise in a flexible and effective way. Traditional ANC design aims to minimize the residual noise energy, which is indiscriminative in the frequency domain. However, human hearing perception exhibits selective sensitivity for different frequency ranges. In this paper, we aim to improve the noise attenuation performance in perceptual perspective by incorporating noise weighting into ANC design. We also introduce psychoacoustic analysis to evaluate the sound quality of the residual noise by using a predictive pleasantness model, which combines four psychoacoustic parameters: loudness, sharpness, roughness, and tonality. Simulations on synthetic random noise and realistic noise show that our method improves the sound quality and that ITU-R 468 noise weighting even performs better than A-weighting.
Design of Prototype-Based Emotion Recognizer Using Physiological Signals
Park, Byoung-Jun ; Jang, Eun-Hye ; Chung, Myung-Ae ; Kim, Sang-Hyeob ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 869~879
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0751
This study is related to the acquisition of physiological signals of human emotions and the recognition of human emotions using such physiological signals. To acquire physiological signals, seven emotions are evoked through stimuli. Regarding the induced emotions, the results of skin temperature, photoplethysmography, electrodermal activity, and an electrocardiogram are recorded and analyzed as physiological signals. The suitability and effectiveness of the stimuli are evaluated by the subjects themselves. To address the problem of the emotions not being recognized, we introduce a methodology for a recognizer using prototype-based learning and particle swarm optimization (PSO). The design involves two main phases: i) PSO selects the P% of the patterns to be treated as prototypes of the seven emotions; ii) PSO is instrumental in the formation of the core set of features. The experiments show that a suitable selection of prototypes and a substantial reduction of the feature space can be accomplished, and the recognizer formed in this manner is characterized by high recognition accuracy for the seven emotions using physiological signals.
Faster Ate Pairing Computation over Pairing-Friendly Ellipitic Curves Using GLV Decomposition
Eom, Soo Kyung ; Lee, Eunjeong ; Lee, Hyang-Sook ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 880~888
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0756
The preexisting pairings ate,
, R-ate, and optimal-ate use q-expansion, where q is the size of the defining field for the elliptic curves. Elliptic curves with small embedding degrees only allow a few of these pairings. In such cases, efficiently computable endomorphisms can be used, as in  and . They used the endomorphisms that have characteristic polynomials with very small coefficients, which led to some restrictions in finding various pairing-friendly curves. To construct more pairing-friendly curves, we consider
-expansion using the Gallant-Lambert-Vanstone (GLV) decomposition method, where
is an arbitrary integer. We illustrate some pairing-friendly curves that provide more efficient pairing from the
-expansion than from the ate pairing. The proposed method can achieve timing results at least 20% faster than the ate pairing.
A Strong Authentication Scheme with User Privacy for Wireless Sensor Networks
Kumar, Pardeep ; Gurtov, Andrei ; Ylianttila, Mika ; Lee, Sang-Gon ; Lee, HoonJae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 889~899
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0113.0103
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are used for many real-time applications. User authentication is an important security service for WSNs to ensure only legitimate users can access the sensor data within the network. In 2012, Yoo and others proposed a security-performance-balanced user authentication scheme for WSNs, which is an enhancement of existing schemes. In this paper, we show that Yoo and others' scheme has security flaws, and it is not efficient for real WSNs. In addition, this paper proposes a new strong authentication scheme with user privacy for WSNs. The proposed scheme not only achieves end-party mutual authentication (that is, between the user and the sensor node) but also establishes a dynamic session key. The proposed scheme preserves the security features of Yoo and others' scheme and other existing schemes and provides more practical security services. Additionally, the efficiency of the proposed scheme is more appropriate for real-world WSNs applications.
Research of Adaptive Transformation Method Based on Webpage Semantic Features for Small-Screen Terminals
Li, Hao ; Liu, Qingtang ; Hu, Min ; Zhu, Xiaoliang ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 900~910
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0112.0834
Small-screen mobile terminals have difficulty accessing existing Web resources designed for large-screen devices. This paper presents an adaptive transformation method based on webpage semantic features to solve this problem. According to the text density and link density features of the webpages, the webpages are divided into two types: index and content. Our method uses an index-based webpage transformation algorithm and a content-based webpage transformation algorithm. Experiment results demonstrate that our adaptive transformation method is not dependent on specific software and webpage templates, and it is capable of enhancing Web content adaptation on small-screen terminals.
Progression-Preserving Dimension Reduction for High-Dimensional Sensor Data Visualization
Yoon, Hyunjin ; Shahabi, Cyrus ; Winstein, Carolee J. ; Jang, Jong-Hyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 911~914
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0468
This letter presents Progression-Preserving Projection, a dimension reduction technique that finds a linear projection that maps a high-dimensional sensor dataset into a two- or three-dimensional subspace with a particularly useful property for visual exploration. As a demonstration of its effectiveness as a visual exploration and diagnostic means, we empirically evaluate the proposed technique over a dataset acquired from our own virtual-reality-enhanced ball-intercepting training system designed to promote the upper extremity movement skills of individuals recovering from stroke-related hemiparesis.
Accurate FDTD Dispersive Modeling for Concrete Materials
Chung, Haejun ; Cho, Jeahoon ; Ha, Sang-Gyu ; Ju, Saehoon ; Jung, Kyung-Young ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 915~918
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0491
This work presents an accurate finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) dispersive modeling of concrete materials with different water/cement ratios in 50 MHz to 1 GHz. A quadratic complex rational function (QCRF) is employed for dispersive modeling of the relative permittivity of concrete materials. To improve the curve fitting of the QCRF model, the Newton iterative method is applied to determine a weighting factor. Numerical examples validate the accuracy of the proposed dispersive FDTD modeling.
Optimal Diversity-Multiplexing Tradeoff of MIMO Multi-way Relay Channel
Su, Yuping ; Li, Ying ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 919~922
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0213.0044
A MIMO multi-way relay channel with full data exchange in which K users exchange messages with each other via the help of a single relay is considered. For the case in which each link is quasi-static Rayleigh fading and the relay is full-duplex, the fundamental diversity-multiplexing tradeoff (DMT) is investigated, and we show that a compress-and-forward relay protocol can achieve the optimal DMT.
Gradient Fusion Method for Night Video Enhancement
Rao, Yunbo ; Zhang, Yuhong ; Gou, Jianping ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 923~926
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0550
To resolve video enhancement problems, a novel method of gradient domain fusion wherein gradient domain frames of the background in daytime video are fused with nighttime video frames is proposed. To verify the superiority of the proposed method, it is compared to conventional techniques. The implemented output of our method is shown to offer enhanced visual quality.
Visible Light Communication with Color and Brightness Control of RGB LEDs
Choi, Kyungmook ; Jang, Yunseon ; Ju, MinChul ; Park, Youngil ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 927~930
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0425
We propose a visible light communication system in which the color and brightness are controllable. Pulse width modulation and variable pulse position modulation (VPPM) schemes are used to control the color and brightness, respectively. A digital algorithm to decode VPPM signals is suggested and implemented. A seamless transmission is observed in a testbed experiment under various environmental conditions. The proposed scheme can be applied to emotional-lighting-based wireless optical communication.
Hardware Implementation on the Weight Calculation of Iterative Algorithm for CT Image Reconstruction
Cao, Xixin ; Ma, Kaisheng ; Lian, Renchun ; Zhang, Qihui ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 931~934
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0569
The weight calculation in an iterative algorithm is the most computationally costly task in computed tomography image reconstruction. In this letter, a fast algorithm to speed up the weight calculation is proposed. The classic square pixel rotation approximate calculation method for computing the weights in the iterative algorithm is first analyzed and then improved by replacing the square pixel model with a circular pixel model and the square rotation approximation with a segmentation method of a circular area. Software simulation and hardware implementation results show that our proposed scheme can not only improve the definition of the reconstructed image but also accelerate the reconstruction.
A Low-Delay MDCT/IMDCT
Lee, Sangkil ; Lee, Insung ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 935~938
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0559
This letter presents an algorithm for selecting a low delay for the modified discrete cosine transform (MDCT) and inverse MDCT (IMDCT). The implementation of conventional MDCT and IMDCT requires a 50% overlap-add (OLA) for a perfect reconstruction. In the OLA process, an algorithmic delay in the frame length is employed. A reduced overlap window and MDCT/IMDCT phase shifting is used to reduce the algorithmic delay. The performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated by applying the low-delay MDCT to the G.729.1 speech codec.
A New Solution for Projective Reconstruction Based on Coupled Line Cameras
Lee, Joo-Haeng ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 939~942
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0213.0087
We provide a new solution for the projective reconstruction problem based on coupled line cameras (CLCs) and their geometric properties. The proposed solution is composed of a series of optimized steps, and each step is more efficient than those of the initial solution proposed in . We also give a new determinant condition for rectangle determination, which leads to less ambiguity in implementation. The key steps of the proposed solution can be represented with more compact analytic equations due to the intuitive geometric interpretations of the projective reconstruction problem based on CLCs: the center of projection corresponds to the intersection point of the two solution circles of each line camera involved.
Modified Unscented Kalman Filter for a Multirate INS/GPS Integrated Navigation System
Enkhtur, Munkhzul ; Cho, Seong Yun ; Kim, Kyong-Ho ;
ETRI Journal, volume 35, issue 5, 2013, Pages 943~946
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.13.0212.0540
Instead of the extended Kalman filter, the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) has been used in nonlinear systems without initial accurate state estimates over the last decade because the UKF is robust against large initial estimation errors. However, in a multirate integrated system, such as an inertial navigation system (INS)/Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated navigation system, it is difficult to implement a UKF-based navigation algorithm in a low-grade or mid-grade microcontroller, owing to a large computational burden. To overcome this problem, this letter proposes a modified UKF that has a reduced computational burden based on the basic idea that the change of probability distribution for the state variables between measurement updates is small in a multirate INS/GPS integrated navigation filter. The performance of the modified UKF is verified through numerical simulations.