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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal DOI :
Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 36, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
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HF RFID Reader Antenna with Loop Switch for Avoiding Magnetic Coupling
Choi, Won-Kyu ; Jeong, Seung-Hwan ; Park, Chan-Won ; Pyo, Cheol-Sig ; Son, Hae-Won ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 881~888
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0221
This paper studies the magnetic coupling between two adjacent loop antennas that are parallel to each other in a plane and presents a new practical method to avoid the resulting magnetic coupling interference. The study focuses on the high frequency radio-frequency identification (RFID) system for casino applications, where several loop antennas are closely built into a game table to monitor gaming chips. In this case, neighboring loop antennas may severely interfere with each other by magnetic coupling, which leads to the malfunction of the RFID system. In this paper, we present a practical loop antenna with a new loop switch circuit for avoiding magnetic coupling. The loop switch circuit is integrated with a matching circuit and automatically operated by using an interrogating signal from a reader. We verified the validity of the proposed design by showing that an RFID reader with the proposed antenna can exactly and separately read the gaming chips placed on the different betting zones of a game table.
High-Performance Dual-Circularly Polarized Reflector Antenna Feed
Lim, Joo-Young ; Nyambayar, Jargalsaikhan ; Yun, Je-Young ; Kim, Dong-Hyun ; Kim, Tae-Hyung ; Ahn, Bierng-Chearl ; Bang, Jae-Hoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 889~893
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0118
This paper presents a high-performance dual-circularly polarized feed employing a dielectric-filled circular waveguide. Novel features are incorporated in the proposed feed, such as a dielectric rod radiator for high gain and good impedance matching; dual quarter-wave chokes for low axial ratio over wide angles and for low back radiation; an integrated septum polarizer; and two end-launch-type coaxial-to-waveguide transitions. The proposed feed shows excellent performance at 5.0 GHz to 5.2 GHz.
Mixed-Domain Adaptive Blind Correction of High-Resolution Time-Interleaved ADCs
Seo, Munkyo ; Nam, Eunsoo ; Rodwell, Mark ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 894~904
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0110
Blind mismatch correction of time-interleaved analog-to-digital converters (TI-ADC) is a challenging task. We present a practical blind calibration technique for low-computation, low-complexity, and high-resolution applications. Its key features are: dramatically reduced computation; simple hardware; guaranteed parameter convergence with an arbitrary number of TI-ADC channels and most real-life input signals, with no bandwidth limitation; multiple Nyquist zone operation; and mixed-domain error correction. The proposed technique is experimentally verified by an M = 4 400 MSPS TI-ADC system. In a single-tone test, the proposed practical blind calibration technique suppressed mismatch spurs by 70 dB to 90 dB below the signal tone across the first two Nyquist zones (10 MHz to 390 MHz). A wideband signal test also confirms the proposed technique.
Novel Architecture for Efficient Implementation of Dimmable VPPM in VLC Lightings
Jeong, Jin-Doo ; Lim, Sang-Kyu ; Jang, Il-Soon ; Kim, Myung-Soon ; Kang, Tae-Gyu ; Chong, Jong-Wha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 905~912
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0396
In this paper, a new architecture is proposed to achieve complexity efficiency in implementing variable pulse position modulation (VPPM). VPPM, specified in IEEE 802.15.7, can support wireless communication and dimming control simultaneously using visible light. The proposed architecture is based on the VPPM signal property in which the transition point of the modulated output is obtained by counting the sample index and comparing it to both the assigned dimming factor and the transmitting data. Therefore, the proposed architecture can be composed of simple logics, including a counter, a comparator, and an inverter, all of which are insensitive to the dimming resolution in contrast to a conventional codeword-table method. This paper describes the verification of the proposed algorithm through a register-transfer level implementation of the codeword and proposed architectures. In comparison with the codeword-table method, the proposed method gains a nine-fold complexity reduction at a 1% dimming-step resolution.
Multi-robot Mapping Using Omnidirectional-Vision SLAM Based on Fisheye Images
Choi, Yun-Won ; Kwon, Kee-Koo ; Lee, Soo-In ; Choi, Jeong-Won ; Lee, Suk-Gyu ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 913~923
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0584
This paper proposes a global mapping algorithm for multiple robots from an omnidirectional-vision simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) approach based on an object extraction method using Lucas-Kanade optical flow motion detection and images obtained through fisheye lenses mounted on robots. The multi-robot mapping algorithm draws a global map by using map data obtained from all of the individual robots. Global mapping takes a long time to process because it exchanges map data from individual robots while searching all areas. An omnidirectional image sensor has many advantages for object detection and mapping because it can measure all information around a robot simultaneously. The process calculations of the correction algorithm are improved over existing methods by correcting only the object's feature points. The proposed algorithm has two steps: first, a local map is created based on an omnidirectional-vision SLAM approach for individual robots. Second, a global map is generated by merging individual maps from multiple robots. The reliability of the proposed mapping algorithm is verified through a comparison of maps based on the proposed algorithm and real maps.
3-Level Envelope Delta-Sigma Modulation RF Signal Generator for High-Efficiency Transmitters
Seo, Yongho ; Cho, Youngkyun ; Choi, Seong Gon ; Kim, Changwan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 924~930
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0176
This paper presents a
CMOS 3-level envelope delta-sigma modulation (EDSM) RF signal generator, which synthesizes a 2.6 GHz-centered fully symmetrical 3-level EDSM signal for high-efficiency power amplifier architectures. It consists of an I-Q phase modulator, a Class B wideband buffer, an up-conversion mixer, a D2S, and a Class AB wideband drive amplifier. To preserve fast phase transition in the 3-state envelope level, the wideband buffer has an RLC load and the driver amplifier uses a second-order BPF as its load to provide enough bandwidth. To achieve an accurate 3-state envelope level in the up-mixer output, the LO bias level is optimized. The I-Q phase modulator adopts a modified quadrature passive mixer topology and mitigates the I-Q crosstalk problem using a 50% duty cycle in LO clocks. The fabricated chip provides an average output power of -1.5 dBm and an error vector magnitude (EVM) of 3.89% for 3GPP LTE 64 QAM input signals with a channel bandwidth of 10/20 MHz, as well as consuming 60 mW for both channels from a 1.2 V/2.5 V supply voltage.
Clock Mesh Network Design with Through-Silicon Vias in 3D Integrated Circuits
Cho, Kyungin ; Jang, Cheoljon ; Chong, Jong-Wha ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 931~941
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1257
Many methodologies for clock mesh networks have been introduced for two-dimensional integrated circuit clock distribution networks, such as methods to reduce the total wirelength for power consumption and to reduce the clock skew variation through consideration of buffer placement and sizing. In this paper, we present a methodology for clock mesh to reduce both the clock skew and the total wirelength in three-dimensional integrated circuits. To reduce the total wirelength, we construct a smaller mesh size on a die where the clock source is not directly connected. We also insert through-silicon vias (TSVs) to distribute the clock signal using an effective clock TSV insertion algorithm, which can reduce the total wirelength on each die. The results of our proposed methods show that the total wirelength was reduced by 12.2%, the clock skew by 16.11%, and the clock skew variation by 11.74%, on average. These advantages are possible through increasing the buffer area by 2.49% on the benchmark circuits.
Test Point Insertion with Control Point by Greater Use of Existing Functional Flip-Flops
Yang, Joon-Sung ; Touba, Nur A. ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 942~952
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1121
This paper presents a novel test point insertion (TPI) method for a pseudo-random built-in self-test (BIST) to reduce the area overhead. Recently, a new TPI method for BISTs was proposed that tries to use functional flip-flops to drive control test points instead of adding extra dedicated flip-flops for driving control points. The replacement rule used in a previous work has limitations preventing some dedicated flip-flops from being replaced by functional flip-flops. This paper proposes a logic cone analysis-based TPI approach to overcome the limitations. Logic cone analysis is performed to find candidate functional flop-flops for replacing dedicated flip-flops. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method reduces the test point area overhead significantly with minimal loss of testability by replacing the dedicated flip-flops.
Adaptive Resource Allocation for MC-CDMA and OFDMA in Reconfigurable Radio Systems
Choi, Yonghoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 953~959
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.0843
This paper studies the uplink resource allocation for multiple radio access (MRA) in reconfigurable radio systems, where multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) multicarrier-code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) and MIMO orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) networks coexist. By assuming multi-radio user equipment with network-guided operation, the optimal resource allocation for MRA is analyzed as a cross-layer optimization framework with and without fairness consideration to maximize the uplink sum-rate capacity. Numerical results reveal that parallel MRA, which uses MC-CDMA and OFDMA networks concurrently, outperforms the performance of each MC-CDMA and OFDMA network by exploiting the multiuser selection diversity.
Cross-Layer Resource Allocation in Multi-interface Multi-channel Wireless Multi-hop Networks
Feng, Wei ; Feng, Suili ; Zhang, Yongzhong ; Xia, Xiaowei ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 960~967
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1150
In this paper, an analytical framework is proposed for the optimization of network performance through joint congestion control, channel allocation, rate allocation, power control, scheduling, and routing with the consideration of fairness in multi-channel wireless multihop networks. More specifically, the framework models the network by a generalized network utility maximization (NUM) problem under an elastic link data rate and power constraints. Using the dual decomposition technique, the NUM problem is decomposed into four subproblems - flow control; next-hop routing; rate allocation and scheduling; power control; and channel allocation - and finally solved by a low-complexity distributed method. Simulation results show that the proposed distributed algorithm significantly improves the network throughput and energy efficiency compared with previous algorithms.
Real-Time Precision Vehicle Localization Using Numerical Maps
Han, Seung-Jun ; Choi, Jeongdan ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 968~978
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0040
Autonomous vehicle technology based on information technology and software will lead the automotive industry in the near future. Vehicle localization technology is a core expertise geared toward developing autonomous vehicles and will provide location information for control and decision. This paper proposes an effective vision-based localization technology to be applied to autonomous vehicles. In particular, the proposed technology makes use of numerical maps that are widely used in the field of geographic information systems and that have already been built in advance. Optimum vehicle ego-motion estimation and road marking feature extraction techniques are adopted and then combined by an extended Kalman filter and particle filter to make up the localization technology. The implementation results of this paper show remarkable results; namely, an 18 ms mean processing time and 10 cm location error. In addition, autonomous driving and parking are successfully completed with an unmanned vehicle within a
Effect of Tactile Feedback for Button GUI on Mobile Touch Devices
Shin, Heesook ; Lim, Jeong-Mook ; Lee, Jong-Uk ; Lee, Geehyuk ; Kyung, Ki-Uk ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 979~987
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0028
This paper describes new tactile feedback patterns and the effect of their input performance for a button GUI activated by a tap gesture on mobile touch devices. Based on an analysis of touch interaction and informal user tests, several tactile feedback patterns were designed. Using these patterns, three user experiments were performed to investigate appropriate tactile feedback patterns and their input performance during interaction with a touch button. The results showed that a tactile pattern responding to each touch and release gesture with a rapid response time and short falling time provides the feeling of physically clicking a button. The suggested tactile feedback pattern has a significantly positive effect on the number of typing errors and typing task completion time compared to the performance when no feedback is provided.
Dynamic Data Migration in Hybrid Main Memories for In-Memory Big Data Storage
Mai, Hai Thanh ; Park, Kyoung Hyun ; Lee, Hun Soon ; Kim, Chang Soo ; Lee, Miyoung ; Hur, Sung Jin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 988~998
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0012
For memory-based big data storage, using hybrid memories consisting of both dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) and non-volatile random-access memories (NVRAMs) is a promising approach. DRAM supports low access time but consumes much energy, whereas NVRAMs have high access time but do not need energy to retain data. In this paper, we propose a new data migration method that can dynamically move data pages into the most appropriate memories to exploit their strengths and alleviate their weaknesses. We predict the access frequency values of the data pages and then measure comprehensively the gains and costs of each placement choice based on these predicted values. Next, we compute the potential benefits of all choices for each candidate page to make page migration decisions. Extensive experiments show that our method improves over the existing ones the access response time by as much as a factor of four, with similar rates of energy consumption.
Robust Audio Fingerprinting Method Using Prominent Peak Pair Based on Modulated Complex Lapped Transform
Kim, Hyoung-Gook ; Kim, Jin Young ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 999~1007
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1405
The robustness of an audio fingerprinting system in an actual noisy environment is a major challenge for audio-based content identification. This paper proposes a high-performance audio fingerprint extraction method for use in portable consumer devices. In the proposed method, a salient audio peak-pair fingerprint, based on a modulated complex lapped transform, improves the accuracy of the audio fingerprinting system in actual noisy environments with low computational complexity. Experimental results confirm that the proposed method is quite robust in different noise conditions and achieves promising preliminary accuracy results.
Template-Based Reconstruction of Surface Mesh Animation from Point Cloud Animation
Park, Sang Il ; Lim, Seong-Jae ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1008~1015
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1181
In this paper, we present a method for reconstructing a surface mesh animation sequence from point cloud animation data. We mainly focus on the articulated body of a subject - the motion of which can be roughly described by its internal skeletal structure. The point cloud data is assumed to be captured independently without any inter-frame correspondence information. Using a template model that resembles the given subject, our basic idea for reconstructing the mesh animation is to deform the template model to fit to the point cloud (on a frame-by-frame basis) while maintaining inter-frame coherence. We first estimate the skeletal motion from the point cloud data. After applying the skeletal motion to the template surface, we refine it to fit to the point cloud data. We demonstrate the viability of the method by applying it to reconstruct a fast dancing motion.
Hybrid Model-Based Motion Recognition for Smartphone Users
Shin, Beomju ; Kim, Chulki ; Kim, Jae Hun ; Lee, Seok ; Kee, Changdon ; Lee, Taikjin ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1016~1022
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1159
This paper presents a hybrid model solution for user motion recognition. The use of a single classifier in motion recognition models does not guarantee a high recognition rate. To enhance the motion recognition rate, a hybrid model consisting of decision trees and artificial neural networks is proposed. We define six user motions commonly performed in an indoor environment. To demonstrate the performance of the proposed model, we conduct a real field test with ten subjects (five males and five females). Experimental results show that the proposed model provides a more accurate recognition rate compared to that of other single classifiers.
Scalable Approach to Failure Analysis of High-Performance Computing Systems
Shawky, Doaa ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1023~1031
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1133
Failure analysis is necessary to clarify the root cause of a failure, predict the next time a failure may occur, and improve the performance and reliability of a system. However, it is not an easy task to analyze and interpret failure data, especially for complex systems. Usually, these data are represented using many attributes, and sometimes they are inconsistent and ambiguous. In this paper, we present a scalable approach for the analysis and interpretation of failure data of high-performance computing systems. The approach employs rough sets theory (RST) for this task. The application of RST to a large publicly available set of failure data highlights the main attributes responsible for the root cause of a failure. In addition, it is used to analyze other failure characteristics, such as time between failures, repair times, workload running on a failed node, and failure category. Experimental results show the scalability of the presented approach and its ability to reveal dependencies among different failure characteristics.
Impossible Differential Cryptanalysis on Lai-Massey Scheme
Guo, Rui ; Jin, Chenhui ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1032~1040
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1335
The Lai-Massey scheme, proposed by Vaudenay, is a modified structure in the International Data Encryption Algorithm cipher. A family of block ciphers, named FOX, were built on the Lai-Massey scheme. Impossible differential cryptanalysis is a powerful technique used to recover the secret key of block ciphers. This paper studies the impossible differential cryptanalysis of the Lai-Massey scheme with affine orthomorphism for the first time. Firstly, we prove that there always exist 4-round impossible differentials of a Lai-Massey cipher having a bijective F-function. Such 4-round impossible differentials can be used to help find 4-round impossible differentials of FOX64 and FOX128. Moreover, we give some sufficient conditions to characterize the existence of 5-, 6-, and 7-round impossible differentials of Lai-Massey ciphers having a substitution-permutation (SP) F-function, and we observe that if Lai-Massey ciphers having an SP F-function use the same diffusion layer and orthomorphism as a FOX64, then there are indeed 5- and 6-round impossible differentials. These results indicate that both the diffusion layer and orthomorphism should be chosen carefully so as to make the Lai-Massey cipher secure against impossible differential cryptanalysis.
Factors Influencing New Media Subscription Based on Multigroup Analysis of IPTV and DCTV
Kang, Sang-Ug ; Park, Seungbum ; Lee, Sangwon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1041~1050
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0113.1320
As the Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) service enters the broadcasting market, the competition intensifies. This paper explains the factors influencing new media subscription and their influential differences on IPTV and digital cable TV (DCTV). We use the information systems success model and gratification opportunity theory to develop our research model. We sample 621 people and collect their responses through web-based measuring software. Structural model analysis shows that the willingness to subscribe to a new broadcasting medium is influenced by three characteristics of the medium: media richness, interactivity, and video quality. Multigroup analysis reveals that motivation to use a medium partially differs between IPTV and DCTV. This research concludes that the IPTV service is not attractive enough to act as a substitute for the already existing DCTV. In addition, for the IPTV service to proliferate, its business model should be promoted with new and differentiated revenue structures and services. The managerial implications in this study help new media businesses set business goals and product functionality, and allocate resources for the continued diffusion of IPTV.
Effects of Key Drivers on Continuing to Use Digital Convergence Services: Hierarchical Component Approach
Joung, Seokin ; Han, Eoksoo ; Han, Hyunsoo ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1051~1061
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0114.0225
Technological advances made with the development of digital technology and the Internet have led to the emergence and evolution of digital convergence - the integration of media and communications. This, in turn, has led to the creation of the representative broadcast and communication convergence business model (IPTV service). This study examines the consumption patterns and behaviors of IPTV service customers and explores the process of their continuous use of the IPTV service, thereby endeavoring to contribute to the diffusion of digital convergence services. To survey customers' continuous use of the IPTV service, this study first designs a research framework based on an examination of the existing literature on satisfaction, loyalty, and so on. In addition, research is conducted on the switching barrier of the method of consolidating customers' adherence to a given IPTV service by increasing the burden on them, thereby developing a final research model with which to attempt yet another heterogeneous approach. This enables not only an analysis of the causal relationship with antecedent variables but also a measurement of the explanatory contribution of the antecedent variables' sub-variables.
Enhanced-Gain Planar Substrate-Integrated Waveguide Cavity-Backed Slot Antenna with Rectangular Slot Window on Superstrate
Kang, Hyunseong ; Lim, Sungjoon ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1062~1065
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0213.0550
A novel substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity-backed slot antenna is proposed in this study to achieve enhanced-gain performance. The peak gain is remarkably improved with the use of an SIW cavity and metallic superstrate. The superstrate comprises a single rectangular slot window and two half-wavelength patches. The gain can be enhanced by combining the in-phase radiating fields. Further, the 10 dB bandwidth of the proposed antenna ranges from 2.32 GHz to 2.49 GHz, which covers the wireless local area network band. The measured peak gain is 9.44 dBi at 2.42 GHz.
Lane Adaptive Recovery for Multiple Lane Faults in Optical Ethernet Link
Han, Kyeong-Eun ; Kim, Sun-Me ; Lee, Jonghyun ;
ETRI Journal, volume 36, issue 6, 2014, Pages 1066~1069
DOI : 10.4218/etrij.14.0213.0557
We propose a lane adaptive recovery scheme for multiple lane faults in a multi-lane-based Ethernet link. In our scheme, when lane faults occur in a link, they are processed not as full link faults but as partial link faults. Our scheme provides a higher link utilization and lower packet loss rate by reusing the available lanes of the link and providing a low recovery time of under a microsecond.