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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Editor in Chief :
Hyun Chan Sung
Volume & Issues
Volume 11, Issue 6 - Dec 2008
Volume 11, Issue 5 - Oct 2008
Volume 11, Issue 4 - Aug 2008
Volume 11, Issue 3 - Jun 2008
Volume 11, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 11, Issue 1 - Feb 2008
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Water Retention Capacity at Sasa borealis Stands in Jirisan National Park
Ji, Hyung Woo ; Park, Jae Hyeon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 1~11
Although landslides were frequently occurred under Tripterygium regelii and Rubus sp. vegetations, the damage of landslide was not observed in sasa (Sasa borealis) stands. These phenomena may be affected by forest vegetation types. This result suggested that the landslide occurred in Jirisan (Mt.) National Park may be closely related to water retention capacity at Sasa borealis stands. This study compared and analyzed the water retention capacity of each soil horizon of sasa, larch (Larix leptolepis) and mongolian oak (Quercus mongorica) stands. Soil bulk density in A horizon was lower in sasa (0.776g/
) than in mongolian oak (0.828g/
) and in larch stands (1.282g/
). Water permeability in A horizon was 0.02055cm/sec for sasa, 0.00575cm/sec for mongolian oak, and 0.0007cm/sec for larch stands, respectively. The water permeability of sasa stand was about 3.6 times and about 29 times higher than in mongolian oak and in larch stands, respectively. This result indicates that water infiltration of soil surface during a rain event is more rapid in sasa than in other two stands. Soil organic matter content in B horizon was lower in larch (0.7%) than in mongolian oak (6.5%) and in Sasa (3.3%) stands. The solid ratio in A horizon was highest in larch among three stands, but that of mongolian oak and larch stands showed a similar rate. Pore space rates was 70.7% for A horizon and 70.6% for B horizon of sasa, 68.9% for A horizon and 70.6% for B horizon of sasa, 68.9% for A horizon and 70.6% for B horizon of mongolian oak forests and 51.7% for A horizon and 49.2% for B horizon of larch forests, respectively. According to pore space rates, the water retention capacity may be poor in larch stand compared with other two stands. Soil strength in sasa and mongolian stands was over 25kgf/
from 40cm depth, while the strength was over 25kgf/
from 25cm depth in larch stand. The result indicates that tree growth and water permeability in larch stand could be limited due to high soil strength. Larch stand was poor for soil pore space development to be offered to the water retention capacity, but water retention capacity of A horizon soil in sasa stand was high than that of other two stands. Therefore, establishment of sasa stand under larch stand could help to prevent landslides.
Habitat Environment and Massive Propagation Method of Rare Species Miscanthus changii Disappeared in Seoul Area
Kim, Gui Soon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 12~19
This study was conducted to investigate the draft data for the habitat environment and massive propagation method of Miscanthus changii, which is classified as rare species. The in-site analysis of the native soil give a indication of pH 5.24~5.48, electric conductivity (EC)0.03~0.02
, organic matter (OM) 1.13~1.15%, Ca 3.4
, K 0.25
, Mg 0.53
, N 0.23%, P 2.15
showed low and 0.33~9.12
CEC. Growth and tiller number in rhizome propagation of Miscanthus changii showed that horticulture media (perlite 1+vermiculate 1+peat moss 1) is the most suitable soil to habitat. As for seed propagation, germination percentage is 0% (0/20) at first seeding, 2% (1/50) at second seeding and 2.1% (6/280) at third seeding. The average germination percentage was below 2%. This is the reason why Miscanthus changi disappear at habitat of poor soil environment and low germination. We gained 61 plants that 60 rhizome propagation and 1 by seed propagation, renatural to habitat.
Effects of Forest Practices on the Changes of Characteristics of Forest Stand, Mesopore Ratio and Soil Water Contents in Pinus koraiensis Stands
Jun, Jaehong ; Jeong, Yongho ; Choi, Hyung Tae ; Yoo, Jae-Yun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 20~27
This study was conducted to investigate the influence of thinning and pruning on characteristics of forest stand, mesopore ratio and soil water content at the Pinus koraiensis stands in Gwangneung, Gyeonggido. The Pinus koraiensis had been planted in 1976 and thinning and pruning were carried out in 1996. A sample area survey was conducted at experimental plots (thinned and unthinned) in 1998 and 2005, and mesopore ratio and soil water content have been monitored from 2000 to present. Average tree height of the thinned plot increased from 10.9m to 13.2m and from 10.3m to 12.8m for the unthinned plot. Average D.B.H of the thinned plot increased from 15.9cm to 21.1cm and from 14.5cm to 16.7cm for the unthinned plot during the period 1998-2005. Crown density at the thinned plot increased from 81.5% to 95.0% and from 89.5% to 95.0% for the unthinned plot during the period 1998-2005. Mesopore ratio (pF2.7) of A layer soil at the thinned plot was 40.1% while that of the unthinned plot was 37.3%. Changes of mesopore ratio at unthinned plot were not associated with stand age, but those at thinned plot had increased and then decreased, showing declining of the practice effect. Average soil water content at the thinned plot were 23.7% and 22.4% for the unthinned plot. Soil watercontents at both plots have been increased with increase in stand age. But the difference of soil watercontent at each plot has been decreased, especially at the depth of 10cm.
A Study on Wildlife Habitat Suitability Modeling for Goral (Nemorhaedus caudatus raddeanus) in Seoraksan National Park
Seo, Chang Wan ; Choi, Tae Young ; Choi, Yun Soo ; Kim, Dong Young ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 28~38
The purpose of this study are to compare existing presence-absence predictive models and to predict suitable habitat for Goral (Nemorhaedus caudatus raddeanus) that is an endangered and protected species in Seoraksan national park using the best model among existing predictive models. The methods of this study are as follows. First, 375 location data and 9 environmental data layers were implemented to build a model. Secondly, 4 existing presence-absence models : Generalized Linear Model (GLM), Generalized Addictive Model (GAM), Classification and Regression Tree (CART), and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) were tested to predict the Goal habitat. Thirdly, ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) and Kappa statistics were used to calculate a model performance. Lastly, we verified models and created habitat suitability maps. The ROC AUC (Area Under the Curve) and Kappa values were 0.697/0.266 (GLM), 0.729/0.313 (GAM), 0.776/0.453 (CART), and 0.858/0.559 (ANN). Therefore, ANN was selected as the best model among 4 models. The models showed that elevation, slope, and distance to stream were the significant factors for Goal habitat. The ratio of predicted area of ANN using a threshold was 31.29%, but the area decreased when human effect was considered. We need to investigate the difference of various models to build a suitable wildlife habitat model under a given condition.
Content of Benzo(a)pvrene and Heavy Metals and Physico-chemical Properties of Turfgrass Playground Soil in Elementary School of Jeollabuk-do
Park, Bong-Ju ; Kim, Sei-Cheon ; Cho, Jae-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 39~49
A study was carried out on the physico-chemical properties of soil and content of heavy metals and benzo(a)pyrene that might have been introduced through by-product fertilizers or air pollution to growing turfgrass at natural turfgrass playgrounds in elementary schools located at the western coast and eastern mountain areas in Jeollabuk-do, Korea. The soil of turfgrass playgrounds is composed of loamy sand, and the CEC and organic matters were very low. Compared to agricultural land in Korea, the concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were very low, requiring control in terms of nutrients. The contents of total and fraction heavy metals in soil were found to be background level. The reason may lie in the fact that unpolluted sand soil or sand was used to construct the foundation for the natural grass playground in the first place. However, any change in oxidation-reduction conditions or acceleration of decomposition of organic compounds may release some heavy metals from the soil and be transformed into forms that may be easily absorbed by plants or grass. It is believed that sustained monitoring and environment impact assessments should be carried out. The contents of benzo(a)pyrene in soil showed an average 0.60ng/g with a range between 0.06 to 1.47ng/g. The detected contents were found as background level.
Environmental Factors and Phragmites Distribution at Various Habitats in Eulsukdo Ecological Park
Chung, Yong Hyun ; Sung, Kijune ; Kang, Daeseok ; Lee, Suk Mo ; Park, Soyoung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 50~61
Environmental factors and phragmites growth properties at various habitats in Eulsukdo ecological park were investigated to understand major factors affecting phragmites distribution in constructed wetlands. Although phragmites is very important species in wetland ecosystem, it should be controlled to prevent excessive expansion within the restricted park area. The results showed that phragmites dominant sites have the highest LAI among other emerged plants habitats and could adversely affect for waders habitats. Phragmites were also found at the areas with wide ranges of water-depth than other plants, and showed phragmites could be favored for occupying the newly constructed wetlands like Eulsukdo ecological park. The results showed difference in soil redox potential between phragmites dominant and non-dominant sites. Because soil redox potential is affected by wetland hydrology like flooding duration, control of wetland hydrology should be considered for creation and management of constructed wetlands. The results also showed that differences in soil cation exchange capacity, soil salinity, soil organic matter content and site inclination between phragmites dominant and non-dominant sites as well as brackish and freshwater areas. Those abiotic factors can be important considerations for the sustainable wetland management especially for the phragmitest managements in the ecological park.
Selection and Survey of Native Plants for Waste Landfill Greening
Kim, Gui Soon ; Lee, Jeong Sik ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 62~73
This paper was conducted to acquire the scientific data for the waste landfill greening. The native plant flora was investigated in waste landfill at Nanjido. As a result, total 40 species, 22 families, 32 genus were classified. The dominant species were Robinia pseudoacacia (15%), Populus euramericana (3%), and Populus monilifera (1%), ect. Naive plant of 6 species (Zoysia japonica, Aster koraiensis, Liriope platyphylla, Hemerocallis fulva, Sedum kantschaticum, Indigofera pseudotinctoria) were planted in waste landfill in one species per 1
for greening purpose. After One year planting, the ornamental optimum value was showed in Zoysia japonica, Aster koraiensis, Hemerocallis fulva, Hemerocallis fulva, Sedum kantschaticum. The covering rate after nine months planting was 85% and 80% for Zoysia japonica and Hemerocallis fulva, respectively. While Aster koraiensis(a) 13 %, Liriope platyphylla 8 % and Sedum kantschaticum appeared 22 % were obtained. Aster koraiensis (a) has highest height and Sedum kantschaticum was the shortest plant.
Assessment of Physical River Disturbances in the Namgang-dam Downstream
Kim, Ki-Heung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 74~86
To assessment the disturbances of the Namgang caused by dam construction, upstream area was selected for the reference reach and downstream area was selected for the comparison reach. And these reaches were surveyed and analyzed according to the assessment criteria of the river disturbances.The artificial factors of river disturbances were classified as river improvement works, dam construction and aggregate dredging. The indexes were physical factors as like epifaunal (bottom), embeddedness, velocity/depth regime, sediment deposition, channel flow status, channel alteration, frequency of riffles, bank stability, vegetative protection, riparian zone etc.The assessment results showed 46% of the assessment criteria which was serious status in dam downstream area and 89.5% of it which was excellent status in dam upstream.Finally, the results showed that physical river environment in downstream area was disturbed by the discharge control and the interception of sediment discharge by dam, consequently this disturbance give rise to impact of ecosystem in river.
Isothermal Distribution Map on the Korean Peninsula to Improve the Accuracy of the Environmental Planning
Kim, Won-Joo ; Lee, Gwan-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 87~93
In order to manage national environment effectively, one has to understand its ecological traits. The difference of temperature determines ecological traits of each respective region. In other words, temperature differentials on surface make a great impact on botanical structure. Currently, isothermal data-produced by meteorological stations based upon time series analysis-are widely used to plan and manage national environment. Nonetheless, the isothermal data do not reflect real surface temperature of regions. Because of numerous mountainous terrains in the Korean peninsula where temperature varies widely according to altitude, the range of temperature distribution-that reflects altitudinal change-has to be paid special attention. This study aims at expressing in space isothermal distribution that is necessary to plan and manage national environment effectively. In addition, not just South Korea, but also North Korea was included for isothermal distribution. As a result, this study corrected established isothermal lines up to date and demonstrated that altitude, latitude, and distance from coastal lines greatly influence temperature distribution of the Korean peninsula.
Regional Ecological Network Design for Wild Animals' Movement Using Landscape Permeability and Least-cost Path Methods in the Metropolitan Area of Korea
Lee, Dong-Kun ; Song, Won-Kyong ; Jeon, Seong-Woo ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 94~106
As populations inhabiting in natural ecosystem are fragmented by artificial barriers and habitats are destructed by development, extinction possibility of species is getting higher. It is necessary to design and to manage conservation areas and corridors considering animals' movement and migration for sustainable species diversity in present circumstances. 'Least-cost modeling' is one commonly employed approach in which dispersal costs are assigned to distinct habitat types and the last-costly dispersal paths among habitat patches are calculated using a geographical information system (GIS). This study aims to design ecological corridor using least-cost path method and to apply it to a regional ecological network considering movability of medium-large size mammals. This study was carried out over the metropolitan area, which has been deforested by rapid urbanization. Nevertheless there is connected with Gangwon province, Baekdudaegan mountain range and DMZ, considered where many forest species can migrate to this region. This study employs such an approach to develop least-cost path models for medium-large size mammals, have inhabited for this entire region. Considering those species, two forest areas as a source of species supply and forest areas more than 1,000ha are selected as focal forest areas. Movement and migration paths from species supply sources to focal forest areas are calculated by applying landscape permeability theory using land cover map, road density map and land slope map. Results showed least-cost paths from species supply sources to focal forest areas on two species. Wildcat and roe deer are different in some least-cost paths caused by their landscape permeability but paths show generally same specifics. The result of considering regional distribution of expected movement and migration paths to regional ecological network, low altitude mountains of western metropolitan area are evaluated important area for species connectivity. In national or regional levels ecological connectivity is essential to promote species diversity and to preserve integrated ecosystem. This study concludes that developing least-cost models from similar empirical data could significantly improve the utility of these tools.
The Increase of Seeds Germination in Albizzia julibrissin, Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Lespedeza cuneata by Microbial Treatment
Cha, Go-Woon ; Hur, Young-Jin ; Ahn, Tae-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 107~115
Herbs and plants widely used for the ecological restoration were selected for germination rate analysis under treatment of microorganisms to determine ideal treatment conditions and medium for enhanced germination rate. Albizzia julibrissin, when submerged in a nutrient medium or distilled water, presented a decrease in germination period rather than increase in germination rate. When treated with microorganism culture solution (JM-2) for 24 hours, 90% germination was achieved in two days, which is sufficient evidence to conclude that such treatment accelerates the germination of Albizzia julibrissin. Germination period decreased for Lespedeza cyrtobotrya samples submerged in microorganism solution for 15 and 48 hours, however, increases in germination rates were not observed. Sample treated in the solution for 24 hours had increased germination rate and enhanced germination period. Microorganism solution treatment had a negative effect on germination for Lespedeza cuneata, unlike Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Albizzia julibrissin. Microorganism treated seeds of Lepsedeza cuneata had a lower germination rate than that of the control with no treatment. However, submerging treatments in a nutrient medium or distilled water for 24 to 48 hours were proven effective with higher germination rates than control sample with no treatment. Herbs and plants widely used for the ecological restoration were selected for germination rate analysis under treatment of microorganisms to determine ideal treatment conditions and medium for enhanced germination rate. Albizzia julibrissin, when submerged in a nutrient medium or distilled water, presented a decrease in germination period rather than increase in germination rate. When treated with microorganism culture solution (JM-2) for 24 hours, 90% germination was achieved in two days, which is sufficient evidence to conclude that such treatment accelerates the germination of Albizzia julibrissin. Germination period decreased for Lespedeza cyrtobotrya samples submerged in microorganism solution for 15 and 48 hours, however, increases in germination rates were not observed. Sample treated in the solution for 24 hours had increased germination rate and enhanced germination period. Microorganism solution treatment had a negative effect on germination for Lespedeza cuneata, unlike Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Albizzia julibrissin. Microorganism treated seeds of Lepsedeza cuneata had a lower germination rate than that of the control with no treatment. However, submerging treatments in a nutrient medium or distilled water for 24 to 48 hours were proven effective with higher germination rates than control sample with no treatment.
Vegetation Structures and Management Plan for Jangtaesan Natural Recreation Forest in Daejeon City
Kwon, Hyejin ; Lee, Jihye ; Shin, Changhwan ; Choi, Jaeyong ; Song, Hokyung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 116~128
Vegetation structure of Jangtaesan Natural Recreation Forest in Daejeon City was investigated to suggest a preferable management plan. Vegetation survey was carried out with thirty plots. Adopting phytosociological method, plant communities were classified into twinfolds of natural and afforested area. A natural forest were composed of Quercus mongolica, Quercus variabilis, and Pinus densiflora community. Afforested area were with Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Larix leptolepis, Pinus koraiensis, and Castanea crenata community. The importance value of Quercus mongolica, Quercus variabilis, Pinus densiflora, and Quercus serrata in natural forest were 59.69%, 48.32%, 39.10%, 21.53%, respectively. According to diameter of breast hieght analysis results, it is expected that the occupancy of Quercus mongolica, Pinus densiflora, and Quercus variabilis would be continuously increased. Based on the findings of the study, management plan for natural forest and afforested area was recommended in line with the progress of natural ecology.
Effect on the Growth Condition of Chionanthus retusa, Roadside Tree in Cheongyechon
Yoon, Sowon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 11, issue 3, 2008, Pages 129~138
This study was carried out to examine the growth condition of Chionanthus retusa, roadside tree in Cheongyechon (CGC) and to investigate the relationship soil characteristics and tree vitality and chlorophyll contents of it. Growth condition of tree (condition of flower, leaves and branch, % of flowering, height, diameter at breast height, width, vitality and chlorophyll contents) and physiochemical relation item (pH, organic matter, K, Mg, Na, Ca, P) were investigated. The result are as follows : 1. The growth condition of flower, leaves and branch in the left side of CGC is better than the right side since the quantity of sunshine of left side of CGC is much more than the right side. 2. The average pH was alkaline. P and organic contents were much lower than the standards. 3. Tree vitality and chlorophyll contents were bad where were high user density and high buildings, such as 1, 2 area near Jong-gak and jongro 3 ga. Among the physiochemical factors of soil which affect tree vitality, K and P were found to be the main factors. Therefore, in order to improve the growth environment of roadside tree in CGC, it is needed to do periodical soil fertilizing and improve physical characteristics of soil such as, permeability and porosity by soil conditioner.