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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 13, Issue 6 - Dec 2010
Volume 13, Issue 5 - Oct 2010
Volume 13, Issue 4 - Aug 2010
Volume 13, Issue 3 - Jun 2010
Volume 13, Issue 2 - Apr 2010
Volume 13, Issue 1 - Feb 2010
Selecting the target year
Basic Study on Criteria for Setting Natural Conservation Area
Sung, Hyun-Chan ; Hwang, So-Young ; Chae, Mie-Oak ; Park, Eun-Suk ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 1~12
This study aims at analyzing the development status of surroundings of natural environment conservation areas and securing an adequate distance from development activities to conserve natural environment conservation areas efficiently or developing an improvement plan for setting conservation areas. Findings from the study shows that 1) rather than simply designating a legal natural environment conservation area, a conceptual scope approach of a "core area", "buffer area", and "transition area" such as in zoning of a "biosphere reserve" by UNESCO is recommended; 2) when setting an adequate range in a natural environment conservation area, it should be set by fully considering locational situation and the regional and environmental features of surroundings rather than setting a certain distance uniformly; 3) instead of designating wetlands only as a conservation area, entry and exit areas should be also included as buffer areas and in the case of wild animals, not only habitats but also feeding areas should be designated as conservation areas; and 4) an adequate horizontal separation space is important in the case of ground development, but for natural resources related to subterranean water and geological situation such as wetlands, an adequate vertical separation space should be fully considered.
The Characteristics of "Wooded Fortress of Beopseongjin in Yeonggwang" and Perspectives on the Problems of Landscape Management
Choi, Jai-Ung ; Kim, Dong-Yeob ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 13~24
Beopseongpo has been one of the most thriving ports of the Jeolla region since the Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392). During the time of King Seongjong (r. 1469-1494) of Choseon Dynasty, a navy garrison had been deployed and the port was named Beopseongjin, as recorded in the 1485 edition of Grand code for state administration (Gyeongguk daejeon). Dangsan forests and Bibo forests have been maintained by local residents since hundreds of years ago. Dangsan forests have been applied to the scale of government and public offices. The objectives of this study were to understand the characteristics of the "Wooded Fortress of Beopseongjin in Yeonggwang" as "Scenic Site No. 22", and to investigate the conservational problem of the wooded fortress of Beopseongjin and seashore. The "Wooded fortress of Beopseongjin in Yeonggwang" consists of a Dangsan forest and two Bibo forests. But, the presence of the Dangsan forest has not been well known to the public. Although the wooded fortress has been somewhat disturbed by cultural activities, the Dangsan rituals have been held until the present every January 15 by lunar calendar. On the other hand, the seashore in front of Beopseongpo plays an important role as a scenic view. It was one of the reason that the "Wooded fortress of Beopseongjin in Yeonggwang" had been designated as a national cultural property of "Scenic Sites". However, the sandbar was reclaimed in 2009 to build commercial buildings. An integrated plan should be prepared to conserve the landscape of "Wooded fortress of Beopseongjin in Yeonggwang", which requires close partnership among local residents, experts, and local government. At present, four new buildings have been built. Although we have lost the sandbar, it is indispensable to secure the visibility of Wooded Fortress of Beopseongjin at the entrance of the village.
A Research on Satisfaction and Preference of Residents for Water Space in Residential Complex - Focused on 5 Apartment Complexes on Gwangju Metropolitan City -
Park, Won-Kyu ; Lee, Chi-Hun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 25~38
This study focused on the analysis of satisfaction and preference of residents' for water space as a environmental friendly facility in residential complex. The purpose of this study is to serve design data of water space in residential complex, in order to make water space that residents' satisfaction are high. In this study, residents' satisfaction and preferences of water space in 5 residential complex were analyze through a questionnaire survey of residents. The major findings of the study are as follows. First, in terns of the need of the water space, 60.4% of the respondents answered that water space are need to improve the amenity. Secondly, in terms of satisfaction, 57.3% of the respondents have been satisfied with location of water space in the residential complex, and the maintenance satisfaction degree is above average level. Overall satisfaction degree is above average level too, but it is are not high as compared construction cost. Thirdly, in terms of preference, 26.5% of respondents have been prefer to the combined type of water space, and 25.9% of respondents prefer to dropping water type, and 25.9% of respondents prefer to flowing stream type. It appeared that the preference levels of 3 type is high similarly, so we can assume that residents prefer to moving water type because of having a feeling refreshed through the sound of water. The results of this study can be used as the design data of water space in residentialcomplex and expected to contributed in making the water space that residents' satisfaction are high.
Air Temperature Decreasing Effects by Shading and Ventilation at Micro-scale Experiment Plots
Kim, Hyun-Cheol ; Woo, Ji-Keun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 39~48
The purpose of this study was to analyze air temperature decreasing effects by shading and ventilation at micro-scale experiment plots, especially focused on the Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGT) in outdoor spaces. To monitor the time-serial changes of Dry-bulb Temperature (DT), Globe Temperature (GT) and Relative Humidity (RH) in the wind blocking and shading conditions, Two hexahedral steel frames were established on the open grass field, the dimension of each frame was 1.5m(W)
1.5m(H). Four vertical side of one frame was covered by transparent polyethylene film to prevent wind passing through (Wind break plot; WP). The top side of the other frame was covered with shading curtain which intercept 95% of solar light and energy (Shading plot; SP). And, Another vertical steel frame without any treatment preventing ventilation and sunlight was set up, which represents natural conditions (Control plot; CP). The major findings were as follows; 1. The average globe temperature (GT) was highest at WP showing
and lowest at SP showing
. The GT of natural condition (SP) was
locating the midst between WP and SP. The difference of GT of each plot was about
, which means the ventilation and shading has significant effect on decreasing the temperature. 2. WP showed the highest average dry-bulb temperature (DT) of
which apparently differ from SP and CP showing
respectively. The DT of SP and CP were nearly the same. 3. The average relative humidity (RH) was lowest at WP showing 15.21%, but SP and CP had similar RH 28.79%, 28.02% respectively. 4. The average of calculated WBGT were the highest at the WP (
) and the lowest at the SP (
). The CP (
) was in the middle of the others. As summery, compared with natural condition (CP), the wind blocking increased about
WBGT, but the shading decreased about
WBGT. So It can be apparently said that the open space with much shading trees, sheltering furnitures and well-delivered wind corridor can reduce useless and even harmful energy for human outdoor activity considerably in outdoor spaces.
A Study on Tourism Companies' Awareness for Introduction of an Environmental Tourism Certification Program
Kang, Mi-Hee ; Lee, Won-Hee ; Kim, Hyun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 49~62
This study aims to examine a significant difference in performance of, and attitudes towards, environmental tourism among domestic tourism companies by their types and scale, and to propose a policy direction for a new certification program on environmental tourism. This study conducted a survey with 152 tourism accommodations and 150 travel agencies. As a result, this study found that tourism accommodations and a large scale of companies had participated in environmental management practices more often than travel agencies and a small scale of companies. Also, tourism accommodations were more likely to recognize well a relation between their business and environmental tourism, and were more likely to participate in a new certification program than travel agencies. A large scale of tourism accommodations showed more positive attitudes towards environmental tourism than a small scale of tourism accommodations. On the other hand, all of the travel agencies showed less positive attitudes towards environmental tourism regardless of their size. In conclusion, this study proposed that the government should adopt a different approach to a new certification program according to tourism companies' types and scale, also it should provide a variety of incentives and supports for tourism companies.
Study of Vegetation of Civilian Control Line.DMZ Area - Focusing on the Donghae Bukbu Line -
Kim, Chang-Hwan ; Kim, Kwi-Gon ; Choi, Young-Eun ; Kim, Sang-Sik ; Shin, Jung-Ryeul ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 63~74
In this study, wetlands and forest vegetation surrounding rail, road of DMZ area and Civilian Control Line were studied as follows: Plant communities hierarchical system of forest vegetation classified according to the results of phytosociological methods of Braun-Blanquet (1964) as; Quercus mongolica community, Quercus mongolica-Quercus variabilis community and Quercus acutissima -Quercus mongolica community. Wetland vegetation major communities; Scirpus wichurae community, Scirpus fluviatilis community, Juncus effusus var. decipiens community, Typha orientalis community, Typha angustata community, Juncus alatus community, Miscanthus sacchariflorus community, Phragmites communis-Miscanthus sacchariflorus community, Hragmites communis community, Phragmites communis-Alnus japonica community, Alnus japonica community, Phragmites japonica community, Salix koreensis community, Prunus padus community, Alnus japonica community, Zizania latifolia community and Amorpha fruticosa community were surveyed. Coastal sand dune vegetation in a DMZ area and the Civilian Control Line was mainly characterized by; Carex pumila, Elymus mollis, Carex kobomugi, Rosa rugosa, Calystegia soldanella, Lathyrus japonica and Aster hispidus, species that are of typically sand dune vegetation.
Vegetation Structures of Warm Temperate Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest in Gageodo, Korea
Lee, Ji-Hye ; Kwon, Hye-Jin ; Hwang, Yong ; Kim, Mu-Yeol ; Lee, Chung-Hee ; Song, Ho-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 75~86
This study used a phytosociolocal approach in classifying the vegetation communities of evergreen broad-leaved forest in Gageodo island of Korea, and the results are as follows: Quercus acuta community was classified into Dendropanax morbifer subcommunity, Daphniphyllum macropodum subcommunity, and Quercus acuta typical subcommunity. In the study sites, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, available phosphorous, exchangeable K, exchangeable Ca, exchangeable Mg, cation exchange capacity, and soil pH were ranged from 15.23~18.89%, 0.73~0.99%, 4.31~15.06 (mg/kg), 1.09~1.13 (
/kg), 21~7.15 (
/kg), 1.33~2.10 (
/kg), 33.04~38.28 (
/kg) and 4.47~4.83 respectively. The Dendropanax morbifer subcommunity were found in sites with high percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, and low percentage of exchangeable Mg and Ca while the Daphniphyllum macropodum subcommunity were found in sites with low percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, exchangeable Mg and Ca. The Quercus acuta typical subcommunity were found in sites with high percentage of organic matter, total nitrogen, exchangeable Mg and Ca. It is urgently needed to work for the preparation of an island management plan to the levels of species through habitat conservation.
Comparison of Seedling Growth by Treatments of Vegetation Basis in an Abandoned Coal Mine Area
Jeong, Yong-Ho ; Lee, Im-Kyun ; Lim, Joo-Hoon ; Seo, Kyung-Won ; Lee, Choong-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 87~96
This study was conducted to select environmentally-friendly and low-cost mulching material that could replace soil molding which can be used to restore vegetation in an abandoned coal mine area. To this end, we established 20 experimental plots (4m
10m in size) on the steep, south west-facing slope of the abandoned coal mine area in Hwangji-Dong, Taebaek City, Gangwon Province in April 2006. We planted two-year-old 1,600 seedlings (at intervals of 0.6m
0.8m) of drought-resistant tree species including Betula schmidtii, Betula platyphylla var. japonica, Amorpha fruticosa, and Quercus mongolica in the plots. After planting seedlings, mulching was applied by using five different kinds of material such as HWAP (Teracotem), peat moss, straw mats, wood chips, and control (no-mulching) and the effects of different mulching material on the survival rate and growth performance were compared. Three years after planting, the survival rate was the highest in wood chip mulching, followed by straw-mat, peat moss, HWAP, and control. The survival rate was the highest in Quercus mongolica, followed by Betula schmidtii, Betula platyphylla var. japonica, and Amorpha fruticosa. Meanwhile the height growth was the best in Betula platyphylla var. japonica, followed by Betula schmidtii, Quercus mongolica, and Amorpha fruticosa. The height growth of seedlings was the best in HWAP mulching, followed by peat moss, woody chips, straw mat, and control. From an economic point of view, wood chips are considered to be the best mulching material. The results showed that mulching without soil molding and/or mixing applications would be effective for restoring vegetation in an abandoned coal mine areas.
Effect of Earthworms on Collembola Abundance in Temperate Forest Soil Ecosystem
Lee, Ju-Hyung ; Park, Ji-Hyun ; Yoo, Ji-Yeon ; Han, Su-Hyun ; Nam, Bo-Eun ; Kim, Jae-Geun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 97~106
Earthworm, a prominent ecosystem engineer within many terrestrial ecosystems, can exert profound influences on various abiotic/biotic environments through bioturbation processes such as burrowing, casting and mixing of litter and soil. In this study, we investigated how the presence or absence of earthworm (Oligochaeta) can alter the soil physico-chemical conditions and ultimately the distribution and abundance of Collembola which constitutes a large proportion of the soil fauna. During September 2010, soil organisms along with soil samples were collected from randomly installed 20 plots in Mt. Gwan-ak. We examined the differences in the abundance of Collembola among plot samples in respect to the presence/absence of earthworm and soil physico-chemical conditions (i.e., pH,
, organic matter (OM), electrical conductance and water content). Analysis of soil physico-chemical environment revealed a significantly higher organic matter content and electrical conductance in plots with earthworm compared to plots without earthworm. Abundance of Collembola were not only higher in plots with earthworm than in plots without earthworm, but were also positively correlated with availability of OM present in the environment. The results suggest that positive impacts of earthworm on the abundance of Collembola in this study may have been due to their ability to effectively modify soil physico-chemical conditions favored by Collembola. Such conspicuous influence of earthworm's activity on below-ground community suggests their potential significance in forest restoration or revegetation process.
Floral Changes During Three Years After Cheonggyecheon Restoration
Kim, Hyeong-Guk ; Koo, Bon-Hak ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 107~115
This study was surveyed to identify changes of flora during three years after restoration in Cheonggyecheon stream. There are four sections in Cheonggyecheon. One and two sections are upper streams and three and four sections are down streams. It was surveyed 328 species in 2006. In 2007 and 2008, 446 and 444 species were found, respectively. This result shows that Cheonggyecheon is unstable initial condition in restored stream ecosystem. Naturalized species were 58 species in 2006 and it was respectively 61 and 63 species in 2007 and 2008. Hazard species of ecosystem were three common species during survey period. In appearance of flora per section, three and four sections constituted by natural sites such as point bars, wide flood plains, riffles and ponds, marshes, etc. were surveyed more species than one and two constructed by concrete materials and narrow flow channel. Recently, as time goes by, introduced species are being increased. And succession has mainly been progressed by one year or binary herbs and perennial herbs. Compared with other restored streams, Cheonggyecheon showed more flora than Yangjaecheon and Anyangcheon. It is judged owing to length of surveyed site, various planted species and area of inhabitation space. To manage restored stream ecosystem, monitoring is essential. Further, because change of vegetation after restoration in Cheonggyecheon is very important, continuous monitoring about Flora and Naturalized species and Hazard species of ecosystem is also very important.
The Type Classification and Function Assessment at Small Palustrine Wetland in Rural Areas
Son, Jin-Kwan ; Kim, Nam-Choon ; Kang, Bang-Hun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 117~131
This study was conducted to utilize as basic information for the construction of conservation and estimation system for Palustrine wetland, which was badly managed and imprudently reclaimed, through the analysis of distribution characteristics and the estimation of conservation value for sample sites (eight wetlands) in rural area. As the result of wetland type classification, these wetlands was classified by 4 types (Permanent freshwater marshes/pools, ponds, Aquaculture ponds, and Seasonally flooded agricultural land) by Ramsar system, 3 types (Emergent Wetland, Aquatic Bed, and Scrub-Shrub Wetland) by NWI (Cowardin) System, 5 types (Farm Pond Depression, Under-flow wetland, Man-made Pond Depression, Abandoned Paddy Fields Wetland, and Reservoir Shore) by National Wetland's Categorical System, and 3 types (Aquatic Bed Wetland, Emergent Wetland, and Forested Wetland) by Lee (2000) System. These results suggest us developing the new type classification system for small Palustrine wetland in Korean rural areas. The score of function assessment (The Modified RAM) for small Palustrine wetlands was high at the wetlands nearby hills and rice paddy fields, and low at those nearby upper fields, which was mainly affected by land-use and vegetation. The functions as 'Flood/Storm Water Storage', 'Runoff Attenuation', 'Water Quality Protection' were resulted by the structural difference of inflow and outlet. Some functions as 'Wetland size', 'Wetland to immediate watershed ratio', 'Presence of boat traffic', 'Maximum water depth', 'Fetch of water's body' of RAM were not appropriate in evaluation of small wetlands in rural area. Which suggest us developing the new function assessment system for small Palustirne wetland in Korean rural areas.
A Study on the Ecological Rehabilitation Plan for Urban Stream - Focused on Suam Stream in Anyang City -
Choi, Jung-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 133~144
The objective of this planning proposal is to rehabilitate the urban stream which has been ecologically disturbed in the urban process. The experimental stream, Su-am stream located in Anyang City is typical urban stream in adjacent land use and the spatial condition. The stream in the watershed context, is the second tributary of Han River, in the Anyangcheon watershed. The Characteristics of the stream reach were analyzed by the river corridor survey. In the conceptual phase, Rehabilitation Programs were established based on the hydrological, ecological and spatial characteristics of the stream. Spatial zoning concept according to the characteristics of the stream and adjacent land use, was suggested 4 types of zoning; ecological preservation zone, natural landscape zone, neighborhood water-friendly zone and CBD water-friendly zone. Implementation Practices can be summarized as follow: For The longitudinal river continuum, some In-stream practices were suggested and implemented; such as channel alignment, step & pool, pool & riffle and low-flow channel bank. For latitudinal continuum and intimate spatial relationship between Sam-duk Park & Su-am stream, gentle sloped bank was planned and implemented. After stream improvement & ecological Implementation, follow-up monitoring and adaptive management programs will be a meaningful process for ecological rehabilitation.
Water Purification and Ecological Restoration Effects of Sustainable Structured Wetland Biotop (SSB) System Established in the Habitat of the Endangered Species -Exemplified by An-teo Reservior Ecological Park in the Habitat of the Gold-spotted Pond Frog -
Byeon, Chan-Woo ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 145~159
A Sustainable Structured wetland Biotop (SSB) system was planned, designed, and finally constructed, and maintained in the An-teo Reservoir ecological park, which is the habitat of the endangered Gold-spotted Pond Frog. The system purifies polluted water of An-teo Reservoir which flows from up to bottom within the system. Water was sampled once a month at the inlet and at the outlet from December, 2009 to August, 2010. BOD5, SS, T-N and T-P were analyzed. Average influent and effluent BOD5 concentration was 2.9 and 1.0 mg/L, respectively, and BOD5 removal was 67%. SS concentration of influent and effluent averaged 18.1 mg/L and 2.5 mg/L, respectively, and SS abatement amounted to 86%. Average influent and effluent T-N concentration was 0.426 mg/L and 0.147 mg/L, respectively, and T-N retention was 66%. T-P concentration of influent and effluent averaged 0.071 mg/L and 0.022 mg/L, respectively, and T-P removal amounted to 68%. Plant and frog species of the system were monitored during the period. Amphibia and reptiles provided 7 species and 4 families including the Endangered Gold-Spotted Pond Frog (Rana chosenica ) which also lives in the system. Twenty-six plant species were naturally introduced into the system, however, they didn't make up a significant portion of the plant populations compared with the planted species. The endangered plants, Bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris var. japonica ) and Euryale ferox were observed in An-teo Reservoir as well as in the system.
Habitat Potential Evaluation Using Maxent Model - Focused on Riparian Distance, Stream Order and Land Use -
Lee, Dong-Kun ; Kim, Ho-Gul ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 161~172
As the interest on biodiversity has increased around the world, researches about evaluating potential for habitat are also increasing to find and comprehend the valuable habitats. This study focus on comprehending the significance of stream in evaluating habitat's potential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate habitat potential with applying stream as a main variable, and to comprehend the relationship between the variables and habitat potential. Basin is a unit that has hydrological properties and dynamic interaction with ecosystem. Especially, biodiversity and suitability of habitat in basin area has direct correlation with stream. Existing studies also are proposing for habitat potential evaluation in basin unit, they applied forest, slope and road as main variables. Despite stream is considered the most important factor in basin area, researchers haven't applied stream as a main variable. Therefore, in this study, three variables that can demonstrate hydrological properties are selected, which are, riparian distance, stream order and land use disturbance, and evaluate habitat potential. Habitat potential is analyzed by using Maxent (Maximum entropy model), and vertebrate's presence data is used as dependent variables and stream order map and land cover map is used as base data of independent variables. As a result of analysis, habitat potential is higher at riparian and upstream area, and lower at frequently disturbed area. Result indicates that adjacent to stream, upstream, and less disturbed area is the habitat that vertebrate prefer. In particular, mammals prefer adjacent area of stream and forest and reptiles prefer upriver area. Birds prefer adjacent area of stream and midstream and amphibians prefer adjacent area of stream and upriver. The result of this research could help to establish habitat conservation strategy around basin unit in the future.
Analysis on the Plant and Site Characteristics for the Restoration of Sangrim Woodlands in Hamyang-Gun, Korea II
Park, Jae-Hyeon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 13, issue 6, 2010, Pages 173~184
This study was conducted to establish a management plan for the Sangrim Woodlands restoration by analyzing the vegetation survey and the site characteristics of the Sangrim Woodlands Natural Monument (Natural Monument 154) in Hamyang-Gun, Gyoungsangnam-Do, Korea. According to the vegetation analysis, the species diversity by the location of Sangrim was higher near forest (1.000) than near urban (0.358) areas. Although forest occupied 53% of the Sangrim woodlands area, it is still insufficient, requiring to transform arable land, lawn, or house areas to the forest within the woodlands. Soil bulk density was increased in access areas frequently used by public, while it was decreased in closed areas. Soil hardness at 0-10 cm soil depth was generally improved in the closed areas, while became worse in the public access areas compared with the soil hardness in 2004.