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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 14, Issue 6 - Dec 2011
Volume 14, Issue 5 - Oct 2011
Volume 14, Issue 4 - Aug 2011
Volume 14, Issue 3 - Jun 2011
Volume 14, Issue 2 - Apr 2011
Volume 14, Issue 1 - Feb 2011
Selecting the target year
The Suggestion of Applicable Concepts and Directions for the Effective Management on Biotope Types
Choi, Il-Ki ; Lee, Eun-Heui ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 1~10
The purpose of this study is to derive the actually applicable directions and measures for conservation and restoration according to biotope types. Recently biotope project-installing eco-river, restoring damaged area, protecting habitate for flora and fauna- is processed according to being interested in making and restoring the biotope. But it is lack of study to estimate and systematize which biotope preserve and restore primary. For this purpose, the direction and measures of conservation and restoration be applicable to actuality are drafted by a review on the preceded case studies until now at the inside and outside of the country. And then this study proposed the concept, direction and measures for the effective systematic biotope management through continual feed back such as field applications in selected case study areas and consultations. First, the applicable directions and measures for conservation and restoration according to biotope types is suggested with the 'conservation' divided into two parts; protection and maintenance, the 'restoration', and the 'enhancement' divided into two parts; improvement and creation. Second, for the effective biotope management, the biotope types are classified into urban type, agricultural types and natural types according to the naturalness and dominant landscape. However, this study suggests that the direction and measures suitable to the regional conditions should be reviewed enough and selected and also the detail measures should be supplemented with the foundation of directions and measures for biotope conservation and management proposed in this study because the biotope management should consider regional characteristics.
Developing the Ecological Performance Standard for Replaced Wetlands by Analyzing Reference Wetlands
Koo, Bon-Hak ; Jeong, Jin-Yong ; Park, Mi-Ok ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 11~22
This study was established to build and suggest the Ecological Performance Standards for replaced wetlands as the mitigation strategies for the construction projects. The request performance and assessment factors and standards were derived by bibliographic review and verified by the field survey for the reference wetlands. And the weights for each factor were derived by AHP(Analytical Hierarchy Process) method. The results are as follows : 1) Assessment factors were induced by in-depth research of many wetland assessment models and benchmarks evaluated ecological functions. This study proposed final 12 assessment factors through ecological specialist and experts interviews added with literature analysis. 2) 10 natural wetlands were selected as Reference Wetlands as the measure to propose assessment factors and assessment criteria. Those reference wetlands are well-conserved inland natural wetlands classified to the one having worthy to conserve (grade "high") according to RAM(Rapid Assessment Method). Reference wetlands chosen by the study are Parksilji, Jeongyangji, Mulkubi, Bawineupkubi, Jilnalneup, Jinchonneup, Doomoso, Haepyung wetland, Whangjeong wetland, and Whapo wetland. The research developed assessment criteria for the performance assessment factors based on several explorations of the reference wetlands. 3) "Requiring performance" of replaced wetlands is defined as "to carry out similar or same ecological functions provided by natural wetlands", in overall. The detailed requiring performances are as follows;
to play a role of wildlife habitats
to have biological diversity
to connect with other ecosystems
to provide water environment to perform good ecological functions 4) The assessment factors for required performance are categorized by wildlife habitat function, biological diversity, connectivity of adjacent ecosystem, and water environment. Wildlife habitat category is consisted of wildlife habitat creation, size of replacement wetland, and site suitability. Biological diversity category contains the number of plant species, the number of wildlife species, and number of protected species as the sub-factors. Connectivity of adjacent ecosystem is comprised of wildlife corridor, green network and distance from other ecosystem. Finally, water environment make up with water quality, depth of water body, and shape of waterfront. 5) Finally, every assessment factors were verified and weighted by the AHP methods and the final standards were proposed. The weights of factors of requiring performance suggested as habitat (0.280), connectivity (0.261), diversity (0.260), hydraulic environment (0.199). And those of detailed sub-factors are site suitability (0.118), protected species (0.096), distance to neighbor ecosystem (0.093), habitat creating (0.091), green corridor (0.090) etc.
Assessment of Diversity of Forest Structure in Gunja-Dong, Siheung City, Korea
Ryu, Ji-Eun ; Kang, Jong-Hyun ; Lee, Dong-Kun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 23~33
Habitats loss and fragmentation are major threats to biodiversity. There are various kinds of environmental assessment have been developed for various problems to solve. Yet, there are no well-developed methods for quantifying and predicting about biodiversity. To achieve a sustainable conservation for biodiversity, the structural diversity of forest must be assessed by proper indexes. This study aim to quantitatively assess the diversity of forest structure as habitats and results of the verification by bird survey for objective presentation of evidence. As a result of literature review, some indexes were selected as potential prediction tools for biodiversity; area of patch, area of core regions, shape of patch and average age of stand. The assessment results were estimated by monitoring of birds for accuracy verification and the results were almost in agreement with each others. But, 1 and 2 level of forests were showed ambiguous results. Certainly, this study was limited in some valuation indexes on landscape scale. Further studies should be considered that different environmental factors such as land use, disturbances by human and vegetation index. Also, we expect that the additional monitoring of birds should give rise to the result which is improved assessment results.
Assessment of Characteristics and Functions of Abandoned Rice Paddy Wetlands as Habitats for the Amphibia within Land Development Districts
Lee, Eun Yeob ; Moon, Seok Ki ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 35~42
The current study analyzed appropriateness of abandoned rice paddy wetlands as habitats for the Amphibia by assessing functions and value of abandoned rice paddy wetlands within land development districts as a habitat for living creatures and researching into the Amphibia living in the subject districts. For this purpose, the study designated abandoned rice paddy wetlands within Hwaseong A District and Pangyo B District under land development as subject lands. Those wetlands went through succession after abandonment of farming. Detailed study results are as follows. From classification of wetland types and an analysis of their characteristics, it was found that herbaceous plants such as smartweed communities, horsetail communities and reed communities, and woody plants such as pussy willow communities appeared in both districts. These abandoned rice paddy wetlands shows typical characteristics of palustrine wetlands. As a result of a vegetation structure research, it was observed that succession has been progressed for at least over 2~3 years. In assessment of wetland functions by item, it was found that they are developing into fine wetlands in terms of functions because they are ranked over Moderate Class except separate distance from streams. Also from a research into animals living in the abandoned rice paddy wetlands, it was found that main inhabitants are Rana nigromaculata,Rana dybowskii, Hyla japonica, Bufo bufo gargarizans, etc. It can be confirmed that the abandoned rice paddy wetlands are providing appropriate conditions as habitats to the Amphibia in a view that those species have life cycles of inhabitation (shores and wetlands) - egg-laying (rice paddy, puddles and swampy places) - hibernation (rice field banks and swampy places). From this point of view, it was found that abandoned rice paddy wetlands that developed because of abandonment of farming can be used as means to improve structure and functions of habitats.
Vegetation and Soil Properties of the Young-bong Area in Woraksan National Park
Shin, Kyounghyoun ; Kwon, Hyejin ; Song, Hokyung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 43~55
This study was carried out to analyze vegetation, soil characteristic, and ordination of the Young-bong region in Woraksan National Park. Communities by species in Woraksan forest were composed of Quercus mongolica community group. This community group was classified into Pinus densiflora community, Quercus variabilis community, Carpinus cordata community and Quercus mongolica community. In the study, it was found that the composition of organic matter was 9.6~19.6%, nitrogen (0.3~0.7%), available phosphorous (4.5~8.8mg/kg), exchangeable K (
), exchangeable Ca (
), exchangeable Mg (
), cation exchange capacity (C.E.C.;
), and pH was 4.5~5.1 respectively. The Carpinus cordata community were mostly found in high elevation and high percentage of total nitrogen, C.E.C., and organic matter. Controversially, Pinus densiflora community and Quercus variabilis community were found mostly in low elevation and low percentage of total nitrogen, C.E.C., and organic matter. The Quercus mongolica community were found in medium elevation and medium percentage of total nitrogen, C.E.C., and organic matter.
Vegetation Structure and Ecological Restoration Model of Quercus mongolica Community
Lee, Mi-Jeong ; Song, Hokyung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 57~65
The composition of species for each community of Quercus by vegetation and soil survey, the community classification by TWINSPAN, the structural characteristics of communities were used and analyzed during the period of 2000~2004 for Quercus mongolica forest. And the resulting suggestions for a subsequent planting model for forest are as follows. The Quercus mongolica community had the highest importance value for Quercus mongolica followed sequentially by Acer pseudosieboldianum, Acer mono, Rhododendron schlippenbachii, Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, and Fraxinus sieboldiana. As a result of suggesting a planting modeling for the Quercus mongolica communities in the areas with the warmth index of both
, Quercus mongolica was absolutely dominant in case of the subtree layer for the accompaniment species of distribution in the planting modeling by tree layer in the two areas depending on the warmth index, while there were distinct differences shown in case of the lower tree layer. While Acer pseudosieboldianum, Tilia amurensis, Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Sorbus alnifolia, Acer mono, etc. were appeared in the subtree layer for the areas with the warmth index of
. Cornus controversa, Quercus mongolica, Fraxinus sieboldiana, etc. were many appeared in the subtree layer for the areas with the warmth index of
. And, when we made ecological Quercus mongolica community, subtree layer planting is different by warmth index.
Urban Air Temperature Difference between Central Business District and Suburban Hill Footslope Village
Zheng, Hai-Yan ; Jin, Wen-Cheng ; Lee, Kyoo-Seock ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 67~76
Rooftop Vegetable Garden for Green Roof System
Ha, Yoo Mi ; Kim, Dong-Yeob ; Gu, Kyung Hee ; Hwang, Dong Kyu ; Park, Hee Ryung ; Yun, Seong Jin ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 77~88
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of soil depth and planting density on the growth of lettuce, crown daisy, and strawberry on a rooftop condition using artificial soil as a growth media. The vegetable crops showed better growth for plant height (cm), plant width (cm), plant fresh weight (g), and Fo, Fm and Fv/m on 20cm depth soil than 10cm depth soil except strawberry. Planting density of
did not show significant differences on the growth of the crops. Soil moisture content and EC were low for 10cm depth soil in lettuce plots, whereas there was no significant differences on soil moisture and EC between two soil depth in strawberry plots. Hunter's L, a, and b values showed the leaf color of lettuce dark green on 20cm depth soil and reddish on 10cm depth soil. Results showed that soil depth suitable for crop growth on rooftop conditions was 20cm rather than 10cm. Growth response of the crops showed no significant difference between
, indicating that planting density of 64
could be practiced on rooftop conditions. Lettuce growth rapidly changed in control treatment in which leaves were not pinched out, while slowly changed in plants which leaves were periodically pinched out. In the case of control plot, it was impossible to harvest because withering of lower leaves after blossom on June 22. The plant of crown daisy in which pinching was not conducted, blossomed on June 7, and the plants were removed since its aesthetical value was lost. Strawberry seemed to be a suitable vegetable crop for rooftop conditions based on its high covering rate and extended growth period until late October. The soil depth 20cm and planting density 64
were suitable for vegetable crops on green roof system using artificial soil.
The Development of Ecological Planting Model for the Make Up of Coastal Windbreak Forest on Suncheon Bay in Suncheon-si, Korea
Kim, Do-Gyun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 89~104
This study was carried out to the development of ecological planting model to make up of coastal windbreak forest on the Suncheon-bay in Sucheon-si, Korea. Make up of coastal windbreak forest in this site was needed for appropriate bioresource, biodiversity and ecological structure, and for conservation of the eco-tour resource and protection of human life and property by the unforeseen disaster from the coast. Based on the plant-social principle, the planting model of windbreak forest was developed to facilitate growth of trees, considering planting locations. The ecological planting model for the coastal windbreak was composed of warm temperate evergreen and windbreak forest which is spreading around the inland area in Korea. The horizontal forest style was composed of forest edge community and inner forest community, and the vertical forest style was composed of upper, middle, low and ground planting class. The target of the present model was quasi-natural forest, and the species of tree were selected based on the adaptability to surroundings depending on a goal to create a forest and forest style. To achieve both functions of wind break forest and visual effect in short period of time, small trees and seedlings were planted with high-density of 40,000/ha in an expectation of easy natural maintenance in the future. The significance of the present study is a suggestion for a guideline to create ecological coastal windbreak forest in the Suncheon-bay in which the harmony of human life and the ecological conservation is of great importance. Also, the ecological coastal windbreak forest model should be developed further through the long term monitoring after construction of forest.
Management Effectiveness Evaluation (MEE) Indicators Development in Protected Forest Areas
Ryu, Kwangsu ; Choi, Jaeyong ; Lee, Gwangyu ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 105~119
In order to develop the indicators which evaluate the management effectiveness for the protected forest areas in Korea, candidate indicators were listed based on literature and experts interviews, then questionnaire survey on the experts were conducted. 5 elements of context, planning, input, process, output and outcome and 32 indicators were selected. Context element includes 6 indicators of 1) documentation and assessment of values; 2) documentation and assessment of threats, 3) influence of government policy, 4) related regulations, 5) community cooperation and 6) the structure of management organization. 6 indicators of Planning element were 1) the management objective, 2) protected area design, 3) protected area size and number, 4) representation, 5) standards and categories and 6) management planning. Input element of 3 indicators were 1) management staff, 2) funding, 3) establishment and application of information. Process element were consisted of 1) governance, 2) management guidelines, 3) human resource management, 4) law enforcement, 5) eco-management, 6) disaster management, 7) education program and 8) research and monitoring. The element of outputs and outcomes were 1) accomplishment of plan, 2) accomplishment of program, 3) private land management, 4) threats change, 5) biodiversity change, 6) ecosystem health and vitality, 7) impact on community, 8) international management level and 9) visitors' satisfaction and variation in civil compliant. It is recommended to have further research on evaluation methods development by applying those above developed indicators for the protected forest areas to ensure the practicality of the indicators.
Comparison of Seasonal Nitrogen Removal by Free-Water Surface Wetlands Planted with Iris pseudacorus L.
Yang, Hongmo ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 14, issue 1, 2011, Pages 121~132
Removal rates of
-N and TN in the free-water surface wetland system during winter; December, January, February and March, spring and fall; April, May, October and November, and summer; Jun, July, August and September were investigated. The system was established on floodplain in the downstream reach of the Gwangju Stream in 2008. It measures 50 meters in length and 5.5 meters in width. Iris pseudacorus L. grown in pots for about two years were planted in the system. The water stream was funneled in by gravity and its effluent was discharged back in. Volumes and water quality of inflow and outflow were analyzed from December 2008 to November 2010. The inflow was averaged approximately 350
and hydraulic residence time was about 3 hours. Average influent and effluent
-N concentration was 3.75 and 3.35 mg/L, respectively and
-N retention was amounted to 10.6%. Influent and effluent TN concentration were averaged 4.93 and 4.30 mg/L, respectively and TN abatement reached to 12.9%. One-way ANOVA statistics claimed that the average removal rates of
-N and TN during winter, spring and fall, and summer were not always the same (p<0.001). The t-Tests of three pairs among
-N removal rates of winter, spring and fall, and summer illustrated that the removal rates of winter (
), spring and fall (
), and summer (
) were significantly different each others (p<0.001). Among TN removal rates, the three pairs of t-Tests of three seasons showed that the removal rates of winter (
), spring and fall (
), and summer (
) were significantly different from each others (p<0.001).