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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Dec 2014
Volume 17, Issue 5 - Oct 2014
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Aug 2014
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Jun 2014
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Apr 2014
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Effect of Sulfur Powder and Citric Acid on Arsenic Phytoremediation Using Pteris multifida in Forest Soil
Kwon, Hyuk Joon ; Cho, Ju Sung ; Lee, Cheol Hee ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~12
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.001
This study was carried out not only to identify the optimum concentrations of sulfur powder and citric acid treated for improving arsenic absorption of Pteris multifuda known as hyperaccumulator of arsenic, but also to develop arsenic purification model in the forest soil. After applying sulfur powder (0, 30, 45,
) and citric acid (0, 200, 400,
) in the forest soil contaminated with heavy metals, P. multifuda was planted and cultivated for 16 weeks. And then the growth and arsenic contents of plants were analyzed. In the result of research, the growth of P. mulifuda, except plant width, cultivated in soils treated with sulfur powder and citric acid was relatively lower than control. The accumulated amount of arsenic in aerial parts of P. multifuda (
) cultivated in soils treated with
citric acid was improved 62.5% against the control. And the accumulated amount of arsenic per 1
) was the greatest in
citric acid treatment. Translocation rate (TR) was higher in all acid treatment compare to control, and was the best in
citric acid treatment (0.95) especially. It showed that the arsenic absorbed in underground parts was transferred fast to aerial parts. Therefore,
citric acid treatment in the soil is recommended for arsenic purification using P. multifuda.
A Study on Actual Condition of Topsoil Management at Forest Development Projects
Kim, Won Tae ; Cho, Yong Hyeon ; Lee, Jong Mun ; Yoon, Yong Han ; Kang, Hee Kyoung ; Park, Bong Ju ; Yoon, Taek Seong ; Jang, Kwang Eun ; Shin, Kyung Jun ; Eo, Yang Joon ; Kwak, Moo Young ; Song, Hong Seon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 13~25
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.013
The study aims to investigate and analyze actual situations of managing topsoil at forest development sites based on their types, in pursuit of conservation and effective use of national land. To do this, I selected target areas by deducting the typical types of forest development and analyzed the condition of soil at the target areas before and after development. In addition to this, I interviewed associated construction staffs to conduct study on present situations of topsoil management and find out its problems. I also surveyed of relevant experts, with the intention of seeking solutions. The results of the study have been shown that firstly, experts preferred collecting and recycling of topsoil as methods of improvement of soil conditions for plant growth. Secondly, the importance of topsoil has been well noticed and there were few construction sites using the methods. However, working and economical problems have disturbed carrying out these solutions. Thirdly, after constructions, organic matter and total-nitrogen content decreased in general which were necessary for plant growth in terms of soil conditions.
An Assessment of the Potential Area of Mountainous Wetland Using AHP
Moon, Sang Kyun ; Koo, Bonhak ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 27~43
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.027
The purpose of this research is to assess potential area of mountainous wetland by GIS and AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). Mountainous wetland is topographically located at high altitude, so it's difficult to approach for researchers. And, it's difficult to investigate systematically because of the insufficient information of mountainous wetland. Therefore, it's necessary to study on potential area of mountainous wetland for systematic and efficient investigation. This research selected slope, wetting index, land-cover map and soil map as assessment items indicating environmental characteristics of mountainous wetland and established them by GIS DB. And, spatial value of mountainous wetland for each assessment item was drawn by existing investigation data and overlap analysis of mountainous wetland. Based on the numerical results of each assessment item, a survey was conducted and relative importance for each assessment item was decided by AHP. As the result, slope was the highest as 0.550 and ground coverage was the lowest as 0.083. The subject of this research was Yangsan-si and Ulsan of Gyeongnam and an analysis was conducted for mountainous wetland in those research areas. As the result, all of wetland was distributed in the range of potential area. And, field survey and literature search were conducted for the point that the distribution of mountainous wetland is expected. As the result, mountainous wetland was distributed. Therefore, mountainous wetland should be excavated through the results of this research and it should be helpful for effective investigation as providing information necessary to the following studies on mountainous wetland.
Analysis on the Flora and Vegetation of Geumsan and Gisa Stream Located in Chunchengnam-do
Park, In-Hwan ; Cho, Kwang-Jin ; Sagong, Jung-Hee ; Kim, Hea-Young ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 45~64
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.045
This study was carried out to offer the ecological data for restoring and maintaining a local stream by analyzing the vegetation and flora in Geumsan Stream and Gisa Stream, Geumsan-gun, Chungcheongnam-do, Korea. As a result of comparison of realities of land use near Geumsan Stream and Gisa Stream, in Geumsan Stream, the ratio of residential areas, commercial and business places, and places of transportation facilities was high. With these types of land use aggregating densely in the center, farmlands were formed on both sides. On the other hand, in Gisa Stream, farmlands were distributed evenly in all sections. As a result of comparison of flora of the two streams, Geumsan Stream had a total of 166 taxons including 53 families, 131 genuses, 139 species, 23 varieties, and 4 forms, and Gisa Stream had a total of 142 taxons including 42 families, 111 genuses, 116 species, 21 varieties, and 5 forms. As a result of calculation of the Naturalization Index and Urbanization Index, the indices were analyzed to be 23.5% and 12.1% in Geumsan Stream and to be 21.8% and 9.7% in Gisa Stream, respectively. Hence, Geumsan Stream showed higher figures in both evaluation indices than those of Gisa Stream. In addition, as a result of calculation of the Actual Urbanization Index, which is the index supplemented by considering the species pool and area, it could be known that Geumsan Stream (0.0285) was urbanized more than Gisa Stream (0.0107) by about 2.7 times. A total of 18 plant communities were classified in Geumsan Stream and Gisa Stream. In Geumsan Stream, 14 vegetation types were identified, and it was analyzed that there are various vegetation types including Phalaris arundinacea community, Zoysia japonica community, Phragmites japonica-Phalaris arundinacea community, etc. evenly distributed. 11 vegetation types were identified in Gisa Stream, and it was examined that Phragmites japonica community is widely distributed in all sections.
Landscape Assessment and Landscape Planning based on Landscapetope Classification
Kwon, Oh-Sung ; Lee, Hyun-Taek ; Ra, Jung-Hwa ; Cho, Hyun-Ju ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 65~79
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.065
This study selected Nakdong River basin zone in Daegu as an example area to conduct landscapetope classification and aesthetic value assessment of landscape according to the classified landscapetope. The main result of this research can be summed up as following. First, the result of landscapetope type classification showed 28 types of landscapetope including complex residential area (AA), natural stream type with copious vegetation (BA), forest type centered on mixed forest of soft and hardwood (EB) along with 129 types of imputed specific landscapetope. The result of the total first assessment using B-VAT showed the first grade 10 types, II grade 4 types, III grade6 types, IV grade 3 types, 5 types for V grade with the lowest value. The second assessment conducted toward the landscapetope types with the grade higher than the average (including III grade) in the result of the first assessment showed that there are 66 spaces for the sites (1a, 1b) with special meaning for aesthetic landscape evaluation. And also, there were 69 spaces for those (2a, 2b, 2c) with meaning for aesthetic landscape evaluation. The design model of this research is largely divided into improvement goal and specific execution plan. First, the improvement goal is divided into 6 categories including conservation area, complementary area, and restoration area, and the specific execution plan is divided into 14 categories including special landscape management area, general landscape management area, conservation of hill areas with optically good condition. A comprehensive master plan was suggested by directly applying the set landscape planning model to the subject place of this research.
The Genetic Approach on Analyzing the Habitat Characteristics of Fairy Pitta Pitta Nympha Inhabiting Jeju Island, the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan
Kim, Eun-Mi ; Jeon, Yeon-Seon ; Kim, Se-Jae ; Kang, Chang-Wan ; Won, Hyun-Kyu ; Jeong, Gil-Sang ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 81~90
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.081
A Fairy Pitta is a bird known to breed only in mainland China, Taiwan, Japan and Korea and is listed as Vulnerable in the IUCN Red List. We carried out a DNA analysis to contribute to conserve the genetic diversity of Fairy Pitta. 32 samples were collected at Jeju Island, the Korean Peninsula and Taiwan from 2004 to 2013 and DNA was extracted from them and several sequences were amplified-it through PCR. And then we performed the population genetic analysis. We found there was a transversion between nucleotide sequences at CO1 gene, while there was no changes at Cyt-b gene. And we confirmed the polymorphism from two genes was caused from genetic drift not from selection. Through this analysis, the group within the Peninsula was found bigger than other two groups based on the analysis of CO1 gene, and the group from Taiwan was found bigger than other two groups through the analysis of Cyt-b gene. The population genetic structure of mitochondria gene of three group was showing CO1 gene had 5 haplotypes and Cyt-b gene had 6 haplotypes. Haplotype 2 in CO1 gene was found in three group and many individuals of samples had this haplotype. Like CO1 gene, haplotype 2 in Cyt-b gene was found in three group and was included in plenty of individuals. Other haplotypes were not overlaped and broke off among the three groups. To prevent from the extinction of Fairy Pitta and to obtain the genetic diversity, we need to compare with other regional group such as Japan, China and perform additional research in the non-breeding area.
Characteristics of Habitat-using of Siberian Roe Deer in Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park
Park, Yong-Su ; Lee, Woo-Shin ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 91~109
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.091
This study was conducted to obtain the basic research about Siberian roe deer (Capreolus pygargus), and to establish a conservation area into Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park, South Korea. We recorded Siberian roe deer field signs (bedding sites, feeding areas, feces and tracks etc), and habitat variables such as nearest distance to the watercourse, trails, slope, aspect, forest type and land cover etc. from Jan. 2006 to Dec. 2007 in Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park. According to the research of habitat characteristics of Siberian roe deer inhabited in Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park preferred mixed forest consisted of aged forest and middle-aged forest on the gentle slope which was close to hydrosphere in the middle elevation area of altitude of 400~600m above sea level in Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park. The results indicated that Siberian roe deer appeared to prefer south slope or north slope during the snow season and west or east slope during the non-snow season. The area of most suitable habitat for Siberian roe deer in Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park was
(32% of the total area) followed by
buffer area (62.2% of the total area), and
unsuitable habitat area (5.8% of the total area), which means environmentally unsuitable habitat for Siberian roe deer was rare in Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park. Thus, the area classified as major area in Seoraksan(Mt.) National Park appeared to be most important for the protection of Siberian roe deer.
Species Distribution Modeling of Endangered Mammals for Ecosystem Services Valuation - Focused on National Ecosystem Survey Data -
Jeon, Seong Woo ; Kim, Jaeuk ; Jung, Huicheul ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Kim, Joon-Soon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 111~122
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.111
The provided habitat of many services from natural capital is important. But because most ecosystem services tools qualitatively evaluated biodiversity or habitat quality, this study quantitatively analyzed those aspects using the species distribution model (MaxEnt). This study used location point data of the goat(Naemorhedus caudatus), marten(Martes flavigula), leopard cat(Prionailurus bengalensis), flying squirrel(Pteromys volans aluco) and otter(Lutra lutra) from the 3rd National Ecosystem Survey. Input data utilized DEM, landcover classification maps, Forest-types map and digital topographic maps. This study generated the MaxEnt model, randomly setting 70% of the presences as training data, with the remaining 30% used as test data, and ran five cross-validated replicates for each model. The threshold indicating maximum training sensitivity plus specificity was considered as a more robust approach, so this study used it to conduct the distribution into presence(1)-absence(0) predictions and totalled up a value of 5 times for uncertainty reduction. The test data's ROC curve of endangered mammals was as follows: growing down goat(0.896), otter(0.857), flying squirrel(0.738), marten(0.725), and leopard cat(0.629). This study was divided into two groups based on habitat: the first group consisted of the goat, marten, leopard cat and flying squirrel in the forest; and the second group consisted of the otter in the river. More than 60 percent of endangered mammals' distribution probability were 56.9% in the forest and 12.7% in the river. A future study is needed to conduct other species' distribution modeling exclusive of mammals and to develop a collection method of field survey data.
Analyzing the Influence of Biomass and Vegetation Type to Soil Organic Carbon - Study on Seoseoul Lake Park and Yangjae Citizen's Forest -
Tanaka, Riwako ; Kim, Yoon-Jung ; Ryoo, Hee-Kyung ; Lee, Dong-Kun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 123~134
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.123
Identification of methods to optimize the growth of a plant community, including the capacity of the soil to further sequester carbon, is important in urban design and planning. In this study, to construct and manage an urban park to mitigate carbon emissions, soil organic carbon of varying biomass, different park construction times, and a range of vegetation types were analyzed by measuring aboveground and belowground carbon in Seoseoul Lake Park and Yangjae Citizen's Forest. The urban parks were constructed during different periods; Seoseoul Lake Park was constructed in 2009, whereas Yangjae Citizen's Forest was constructed in 1986. To identify the differences in soil organic carbon in various plant communities and soil types, above and belowground carbon were measured based on biomass, as well as the physical and chemical features of the soil. Allometric equations were used to measure biomass. Soil total organic carbon (TOC) and chemical properties such as pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC), total nitrogen (TN), and soil microbes were analyzed. The analysis results show that the biomass of the Yangjae Citizen's Forest was higher than that of the Seoseoul Lake Park, indicating that older park has higher biomass. On the other hand, TOC was lower in the Yangjae Citizen's Forest than in the Seoseoul Lake Park; air pollution and acid rain probably changed the acidity of the soil in the Yangjae Citizen's Forest. Furthermore, TOC was higher in mono-layered plantation area compared to that in multi-layered plantation area. Improving the soil texture would, in the long term, result in better vegetation growth. To improve the soil texture of an urban park, park management, including pH control by using lime fertilization, soil compaction control, and leaving litter for soil nutrition is necessary.
Selection of Green Roof Initiative Zone for Improving Adaptation Capability against Urban Heat Island
Park, Eun-Jin ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 135~146
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.135
The improvement of adaptation capability against heat island (ACHI) by greening buildings is considered as an important measure to cope with a climate change. This study aimed to select the most appropriate zones for green roof initiative in case study sites, Bucheon, Anyang, and Suwon Cities and to investigate the characteristics of buildings for greening to improve ACHI. Relative ACHI for each lot was estimated from 0 to -9, assuming that it decreases with the distance from green space and waterbody. Low adaptation capabilities were mostly shown in the old urban blocks with dense low-rise buildings and lack of green space. Three blocks with the lowest ACHIs were chosen as a green roof initiative zone in each city. They are largely residential areas including low-rise buildings such as single, multi-household houses, townhouses, 5 or lower story apartments and few are industrial areas crowded with small factory buildings. The areas of building roof available for greening are 8.8% within the selected zones in Bucheon City, 5.3% in Anyang City, and 4.9% in Suwon City. As it were, 25.2~41.7% of the roof top areas are available for greening in these zones. It means that roof top areas of
can be used for greening within the selected zones of
to improve ACHI. The approach and results of the study are significant to provide a logical basis and information on location, scale, effect, and target figure of greening as a measure to cope with climate change.
Population Change of Each Ardeidae Species in Damaged Habitats of Development Area
Lee, Sang-Gi ; Kim, Nam-Choon ; Shin, Ji-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 147~162
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.147
This study aims to provide the biological and geographical materials to identify the changes in population of Family Ardeidae included Egretta alba modesta, Egretta garzetta, Bubulcus ibis, and Nycticorax nycticorax and establish their conservation measurement in terms of the fragmented and deteriorated habitat by human development such as housing and park projects. Wonjucheon Stream was measured the highest species diversity since the survey site was relatively less interfered by the surrounding human beings showing lower disturbance elements. However, the closer the stream comes downstream, the more the artificial disturbance elements generate, confirming that the species better adapted to contamination grow in more density so that the species composition becomes simplified. It implies that feeding place as well as breeding-growing places is also more closely related to the changes in population structure and species composition of Family Ardeidae. The results of Family Ardeidae immigration in Taejang-dong, Wonju, among the other survey sites, revealed that a total of 231 came to the site in 2006; and 210 in 2011, showing more or less reduction in the population. In the mean while, Namyang-dong in Hwaseong City showed the continuous decrease in population number of Family Ardeidae with 135 before development and 60 during development, resulting in the number never growing but continuously narrowing over and over after development. As a result of surveying the number of Family Ardeidae that bred following the findings above, Taejang-dong in Wonju City had 4 species of Family Ardeidae being bred, however, showing the decrease in number of population from 998 in 2006 to 589 in 2011. Namyang-dong in Hwaseong was confirmed to have as many as 352 of the population in 2006 and 230 in 2008; after the deforestation on their habitat, they had not lived in the site any longer, suggesting that the development would significantly affect Family Ardeidae.
Germination and Early Growth Characteristics of Pennisetum alopecuroides, Phragmites communis, and Miscanthus sinensis According to the Seeding Methods
Cho, Yong-Hyeon ; Lee, Ka-Hyung ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 163~172
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.163
To investigate the possibility of developing the seeding measure for river bank slope revegetation, germination experiment and early growth observation were conducted using 3 native species growing naturally around river banks such as Pennisetum alopecuroides, Phragmites communis, and Miscanthus sinensis. The applied seeding methods were 3 such as scattering seeds, tillage after scattering seeds, and covering up seed with soil after scattering seeds. According to seeding methods, germination experiment and early growth observation were carried out on nursery bed soil in greenhouse. As results of this study, all the 3 native plant species' germination ratio and growth in length on nursery bed soil were highest on the seeding method of covering up seed with soil. Also it was verified by Duncan's multiple range test that the germination ratio and growth in length on the seeding method of covering up seed with soil is distinguished from those on other two seeding methods. According to this results, the best possible seeding measure to be developed should be mechanical seed spraying with soil.
A Study on the Land Purchase Priority Measurement of the Riparian Areas in Yeongsan and Seomjin River Basin - Focusing on the Riparian Areas of the Juam Lake -
Shim, Yun-Jin ; Cha, Jin-Yeol ; Park, Yong-Su ; Lee, Dong-Jin ; Seo, Yun-Hee ; Hong, Jin-Pyo ; Cho, Dong-Gil ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 173~184
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.173
Riparian areas are significant functional grounds for inhabiting ecological system on the river such as the self-regulation of the water quality and the foundation of important corridors. For such functional device to operate, consecutive land purchase scheme that prioritizes targeted areas with high pollutant load rate imposes sustainable development of the ecological riparian belt. The purpose of this study is focused on measuring the methodology for selecting land purchse order before establishing riparian belt in accordance with pollution loading estimation and the basin approach. The Yeongsan and Seomjin river which includes targeted areas of the land purchase have been classified into the large-medium-small(standard basin) influence areas based on their catchment rage, which than sub-divided the research area of Juam lake by 38 small basins and 223 units. Small basins with the high pollution load rates have been assessed as the first prioritized targets. For the second priority, the condition of the point pollutant sources, original area of the targets, original restored area were concerned. The final decision of the land purchase order targeted only those within 50 meter range from the basin. To validate the accumulated data, the on-site investigation went along the targeted zones, which the result shows that all prioritized areas included both point and non-point pollutant sources, and had not a small originally restored areas.
The Management Planning Model for Wetland Conservation Area in South Korea: Focused on Conservation and Management Planning According to Making Mt. Daeam's Yong-neup Opening to the Public
Lee, Gwan-Gyu ; Lee, Jung-Hwan ; Cha, Jin-Yeol ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 185~201
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.185
The Yong-neup of Mt. Daeam, which was designated as Korea's National Monument No.246 in 1973, is a high moor, and it has been managed with the designation as an ecosystem conservation area, Ramsar wetlands, and wetland conservation area. With the closing of the officially announced 5-year period for 'No-Trespassing' on the ecosystem conservation area starting August, 2010, it becomes necessary to arrange a systematic management and conservation scheme in consideration of the access & use of the visitors and Yong-neup's potential change into land consequent on making it open to the public. This study thinks that in order to preserve the Yong-neup, it's necessary to prepare the conservation plan for the program operation for exterminating exotic species, development of replacement wetlands and nurseries, access limit through zone categorization, establishment of environment-monitoring system, institutional management support, and establishment of managing facilities, etc., and to make scientific approaches, such as survey on wetland ecosystem, establishment of inventories, wetland monitoring, and drawing up of wetland ecology maps, etc. In addition, it is required that there should be adequate considerations of restoration of slope faces, drains, artificial embankment, water-collecting wells, roads for military operations, and wild-boar-stricken areas, etc., and should be continuous and systematic management of Yong-neup through the wise use of residents' participation-style maintenance, organization of a consultative body, introduction of CEPA programs, and introduction of visiting facilities and alternative transportation system, etc.
Improvement of Cooperation Charge on Conservation of Ecosystem Reflected Natural Capitals Valuation - Focused on Forest Area -
Park, Jin-Han ; Lee, Dong-Kun ; Tanaka, Riwako ; Kim, Jung-Taek ; Jeon, Seong-Woo ; Lee, Woo-Kyun ; Kim, Joon-Soon ; Jung, Tae-Yong ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 203~213
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.203
In Korea, a cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem is imposed to prevent indiscriminate development. The total amount of this charge is determined by multiplying the size of the destroyed area by a value per unit area and the area index within 5 billion won. Since 2001, the charge per unit area has been determined to be
. In this study, we estimated the unit value of ecosystem services per year using benefit transfer method, with a focus on forest resources. According to our results, forest resources have a value of about
per year. When the non-use value is subtracted, that figure becomes approximately
. If this value incorporates the unit value of the cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem, it will increase. To comply with the original intent of the cooperation charge on conservation of ecosystem, the fund must be used to improve ecosystem services, including the restoration of a destroyed area or the purchase of new land.
Utilization of the Old Big Tree and Its Surrounding Space Pertaining to Cultural Value in Seoul
Jeong, Wook-Ju ; Yoon, Sang-Jun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 17, issue 1, 2014, Pages 215~233
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2014.17.1.215
Seoul is an ancient city with a long history but there is hesitancy over referring to as a historic city due to the lack of traceable historic urban landscape elements which resulted from numerous invasions and general destruction. From a diachronic perspective, the nature which was survived the influence of development, could be the key element that links the past with the city's radically changed image in modern times. Although "old big trees" may be not a dominant influence with regards to the historical authenticity of the city, they are objects which contribute towards the historical authenticity by providing a sense of place in terms of connected narratives, as well as their natural image. However, the protection policy for an "old big tree" would place too much emphasis on the aspect of the ecological value rather than its cultural value. Generally, trees have been protected by installing a fence and a signboard around them as well as receiving additional care. However, it is difficult to find that surrounding space around the "law-protected tree" is connected with its original historical and cultural values. Even though the space around trees are no longer utilized in the same way as was so in the past, they still have high-potential in terms of cultural utilization. Therefore, the subject of this study is the "old big tree" as a natural object which contributed to the historical authenticity of Seoul. The current status of these "old big trees", aged between 100 and 800 years old, currently indicate that there are 215 trees designated as "law-protected tree" by the Seoul metropolitan government. This study aims to investigate the status of protection and utilization of the existing "law-protected trees" in the city of Seoul and find a way to increase both ecological preservation and cultural utilization for the high-potential "law-protected trees" within the city itself. In order to achieve this, previously researched papers shall be reviewed and surveyed pertaining to present usage patterns of the 215 "law-protected trees". In addition, five cases have been reviewed which focus on a few of utilizing the "protected trees" and their surrounding spaces. The results of the research indicate that 21 "old big trees" have high-potential in terms of cultural utilization as well as ecological value. However, it was revealed that there are limitations to pursue the value of preservation and utilization simultaneously throughout current regimental management. In order to cope with the current situation, it is pointed out that management facilities should be designed and installed by creative and flexible methods of organizing with consideration to the surrounding space and context. Even though in the case where there may not be a connecting history or legendary stories, the "old big trees" can serve as the fundamental features of small scale parks -dependent on their location, condition and environment- which will be of value to the local communities. This study could serve as a practical reference for the management and utilization of "old big trees" nationwide with numbers reaching 12,300 besides the city of Seoul.