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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Aug 2016
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Jun 2016
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Apr 2016
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
Selecting the target year
Effects of Geohumus Mixed with Artificial Soil on Soil Water Retention and Plant Stress Response
Li, Yan ; Kim, Dong Yeob ; Kim, Hyoung Bo ; Kim, Young Ki ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~11
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.1
Currently, urban green space is disappearing due to urbanization, industrialization and various environmental problems including the disruption of the ecology in urban areas. To solve such problems and increase urban green area, roof greening has been suggested as an alternative. Through observing the responses of three plant species (Mukdenia rossii, Dianthus chinensis, and Pachysandra terminalis) plantrd on the soil mixed with Geohumus, this study investigated the effect of Gehumus on soil water content and plant survival. Soil water content of the rooftop soils has been increased when mixed with Geohumus. The responses were proportional to the amount of Geohumus in the mixture. Geohumus exerted a stronger influence on raising soil moisture content for soil A which had lower water-holding capacity. The stress responses of the plants varied in relation to the amount of Geohumus and soil moisture content. The stress response was lowest for Dianthus chinensis and increased in the order of Mukdenia rossii and Pachysandra terminalis. With the highest plant stress, Pachysandra terminalis showed the lowest survival rate among the three species. Without irrigation, the plants survived only for six weeks on green roofs. The survival rate differed depending on the amount of Geohumus mixed. The results of the experiment showed, with some exceptions, that Geohumus helped to improve soil water content, reduce plant stress, and extend plant survival period.
Growth Characteristic of Warm-season Turfgrass in Saemangeum Reclaimed Land
Bae, Eun-Ji ; Han, Jeong-Ji ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Park, Yong-Bae ; Choi, Su-Min ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 13~23
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.13
This study was conducted to investigate the growth characteristics of warm-season turfgrasses and to find out suitable turfgrass species on Saemangeum reclaimed land. Twenty native zoysiagrass(Zoysia sinica, Z. matrella, Z. japonica, Medium-leaf type zoysiagrass(hybrid zoysiagrass)) and bermudagrass(Cynodon dactylon) collected from Korea were used in this study. Total stolon length and the number of stolon per square meter, relative growth rate of shoot and stolon, and coverage rate were analyzed for 2 year. C. dactylon showed not only the most growth response with high relative growth rate of shoot and stolon, which were 19.9% and 66.3%, but also resulted in higher level of turf visual quality compared to others. Whereas Z. japonica showed the least growth response with low relative growth rate of shoot and stolon, which were 2.4% and 0.7%. Although all warm-season turfgrasses took root and grew up well, there were different growth rates between the interspecies. Z. sinica `Z2034`, Z. matrella `Z4091`, Z. japonica `Z1064`, Medium-leaf type zoysiagrass `ZN6019` and C. dactylon `BN7014` were the greatest growth rate of shoot and stolon. These results will be useful for selecting salt tolerant breeding lines and also used to develop a turfgrass cultivar with strong salinity tolerance through continuous monitoring.
Fundamental Research of Preservation & Utility Facilities in Wetland Protected Area - 5 Wetland Protected Areas were Used as Main Subjects -
Cho, Dong-Gil ; Park, Yong-Su ; Shim, Yun-Jin ; Lee, Ji-Hyun ; Lee, Dong-Jin ; Kim, Sang-Hyuk ; Cha, Jin-Yeol ; Park, Mi-Young ; Song, Yu-jin ; Nam, Chun-hee ; Kim, Jong-cheol ; Moon, Sang-kyun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 25~43
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.25
This research was completed to provide fundamental data regarding the guidelines to installing and managing utility facilities & structures in wetland protected area to advance the functions and sustainable use of ecology services by preserving the ecology within wetland protected area. There were 5 on-site researching areas that were used as the main subject with these areas chosen and considered from 21 inland wetlands that have been designated and are being managed from the Ministry of Environment and by their designated dates as a wetland protected area. The utility facilities in these wetland areas were categorized by their types and a detailed on-site investigation was proceeded with investigation items chosen whereas these facilities are working by their roles from their location, size, used materials, types, information contents and etc., The results showed that regarding informational structures, several locations of information boards were distanced from the main exploring routes which did not consider the visitor`s eye level which had their readability dropped and by sunlight, time lapse and water penetration, many information boards were damaged or corrupted so that it was hard to confirm the information noticed or understanding an image. Insufficient observation and educational structures were installed that considered the ecological characteristics of wild animals and their living conditions. Regarding convenience facilities, there were parking lots that were installed on the fore-land and to decrease non-point solution sources, some parking lots needed to be located in protected lowlands while some facilities` shape and colors did not harmonize with their natural surroundings, creating a sense of awareness, which will need some more consideration. As for safety facilities, they were very insufficient compared to other facilities. This means that additional safety structures are needed so that related personnel can be aware of where a visitor is located when an accident occurs. Protectional facilities strongly needed new structures and a management system to cut off entrances and do surveillance so that visitors do not go into areas outside of the managed areas and bring damages to restricted locations. Research labs needed to expand the use of automatic weather systems and water gauge equipments to build fundamental data regarding floodgates that are intimated to the forming of wetlands. Sensor cameras and other types of monitoring systems are needed to monitor the majority types of animals living in the wetlands as well.
An Analysis of Correlation between Pinus thunbergii Forests and Soil Conditions by TWINSPAN and CCA Ordination in West Coast of South Korea
Kim, Min-Ha ; Park, Chong-Min ; Jang, Kyu-Kwan ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 45~59
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.45
Vegetation and soil conditions of four sites in west coastal forests in South Korea, were examined to analyze the relationship between Pinus thunbergii forests structure and soil conditions. The P. thunbergii forests were divided into four clusters; 1) P. thunbergii - Prunus sargentii var. sargentii, 2) P. thunbergii - Robinia pseudoacacia, 3) P. thunbergii - P. densiflora and 4) P. thunbergii - Quercus serrata. The soil of each site was poor in chemical characteristics but good enough for land plants to grow because of its low salt concentration. According to the results by CCA Ordination, certain excessive soil nutrition has influenced on vegetation and specific species distribution. Forty eight species were found in the whole sites of coastal forests and some species appeared in every site. They are P. thunbergii, R. pseudoacacia, Rhus chinensis, Idesia polycarpa and Morus alba. For the tree species importance value, P. thunbergii was followed by R. pseudoacacia, Q. serrata, P. densiflora, Celtis sinensis, M. alba, I. polycarpa and Q. mongolica in order.
The Optimal Seeding Quantity of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya Miquel and Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria MATSUMURA as Leguminous Woody Plants for the Cut-slope Revegetation
Yu, Byeong-Deuk ; Shim, Sang-Ryul ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 61~71
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.61
The purpose of the research is to identify the optimal seeding quantity of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria as leguminous woody plants for the cut-slope revegetation. To investigate the coverage ratio and appearance frequency, we divided Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria into five treatment groups with various quantities of
. For each treatment group, we mixed the identical quantities of herbaceous flowers (Lotus corniculatus var. japonicus, Dianthus sinensis, Aster yomena and Pennisetum alopecuroides) seeds and cool-season turfgrasses (Festuca arundinacea and Poa pratensis) seeds. In this result, as the seeding quantity of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria increased in the spray, the coverage ratio for leguminous woody plants appeared to increase whereas the coverage ratio decreased in herbaceous flowers and cool-season turfgrasses. However, when the seeding quantity of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria exceeded
in the spray, the coverage ratio of leguminous woody plants rather decreased compared to four treatment groups less than
seeding ratio. Based on the longitudinal data of coverage ratio in five treatment groups, we observed the gradual process of a short-term succession in which the dominant species shifted in the following order: First, cool-season turfgrasses; Second, herbaceous flowers; Third, leguminous woody plants. Comparing the appearance frequency of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria, Lespedeza cyrtobotrya appeared more frequent in 2014 whereas Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria appeared to be relatively more frequent in 2015. As a result, Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria was discovered to be a dominant species among woody plants. In this study, we observed that the optimal seeding quantity of Lespedeza cyrtobotrya and Indigofera pseudo-tinctoria was
. Moreover, the coverage ratio of 29.1%~35.4% and appearance frequency of 4.6plants~5.8plants were found in the condition of optimal seeding quantity.
Terrace Fields Classification in North Korea Using MODIS Multi-temporal Image Data
Jeong, Seung Gyu ; Park, Jonghoon ; Park, Chong Hwa ; Lee, Dong Kun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 73~83
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.73
Forest degradation reduces ecosystem services provided by forest and could lead to change in composition of species. In North Korea, there has been significant forest degradation due to conversion of forest into terrace fields for food production and cut-down of forest for fuel woods. This study analyzed the phenological changes in North Korea, in terms of vegetation and moisture in soil and vegetation, from March to Octorber 2013, using MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) images and indexes including NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), NDSI (Normalized Difference Soil Index), and NDWI (Normalized Difference Water Index). In addition, marginal farmland was derived using elevation data. Lastly, degraded terrace fields of 16 degree was analyzed using NDVI, NDSI, and NDWI indexes, and marginal farmland characteristics with slope variable. The accuracy value of land cover classification, which shows the difference between the observation and analyzed value, was 84.9% and Kappa value was 0.82. The highest accuracy value was from agricultural (paddy, field) and forest area. Terrace fields were easily identified using slope data form agricultural field. Use of NDVI, NDSI, and NDWI is more effective in distinguishing deforested terrace field from agricultural area. NDVI only shows vegetation difference whereas NDSI classifies soil moisture values and NDWI classifies abandoned agricultural fields based on moisture values. The method used in this study allowed more effective identification of deforested terrace fields, which visually illustrates forest degradation problem in North Korea.
Development and Adaption of Sustainablility Evaluation Indicators for Chungcheongbuk-Do Province - Adopting Quantitative & Qualitive Indicators -
Moon, Seok-ki ; Yu, Byong-Deuk ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 85~100
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.85
Local Agenda 21 organizations have been founded at the most divisions of local government in Chungcheongbuk-Do, but there has been no methods to monitor the total Sustainable Development trends. For the alternative solution of that problem in the Province, this study purposed (1) to develop Indicators fit to this Province (2) to examine the availability of the developed indicators adopting to each division section. Indicators were developed and examined by fields and Quantity / Quality considerations. As a 1st step, committee-composed with field professionals each-selected and developed Quantitative Sustainable Development Indicators(SDIs) optimized to Chungbuk-Province through critical discussions proposing Qualitative Indicators as a suggestion. In 2nd step, developed Indicators were applied and tested upon each divisions. Statistic data were used to calculate indices. 3rd step is adoption stage of Qualitative Indicators which were tested with questionnaire survey analysis. As a results, SDIs for Chungcheongbuk-Do -38 Quantitative SDIs within 4 provisions of 11 items with 8 Qualitative indicators categorization be put off- is developed. With the application test, 5 Quantitative Indicators- were found to be not adaptable because of lack or none of statistic data. Among the 8 Qualitative Indicators, 3 pairs found to be similar results in each pair which needed to be integrated into one. With them, bio-species related and health related Indicators were proposed to be newly added. Nation wide Sustainability comparison between divisions and Ecological Indicator selection are another themes to be considered.
Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Mountain Mulberry Seeds (Morus bombycis Koidz)
Song, Min-Jeong ; Kim, Kyung-Hoon ; Hur, Young-Jin ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 101~109
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.101
This is the fundamental research on restoring damaged vegetation areas in the vicinity of DMZ using local native plant species. This research is aimed at identifying effective plant growth regulators (PGR) for seed germination and seedling growth of mountain mulberry, and developing effective methods for managing its germination and growth. Mountain mulberry seeds were collected from the regions in the DMZ vicinity, and tests with seven treatments using four PGRs including
, kinetin, ABA and NAA, were conducted. The germination rate was calculated in two different ways of both in a growth chamber and in a greenhouse after seven days observation, and the growth characters such as leaf width/length, seedling width/length and fresh/dry weight, have been surveyed in a greenhouse for three months. Although in the growth chamber the highest germination rate was shown at a group with the kinetin treatment, it was not significantly different to that of the control group. Groups with ABA or NAA presented relatively low germination rates. As for the greenhouse test, the germination rates of all groups ranged 20~30% without significant difference each other, the reason of which might be due to low absorption by the effect of a soil drench method used in this study. The entire growth characters with the treatments of
of kinetin and
were significantly different to the control. NAA treatment only showed better growth of seedling width compared to the control. Consequently, the most effective PGRs for the germination and growth of mountain mulberry near the DMZ was kinetin. Further research on examining the most effective concentration of them was needed.
Understanding the Managing Conditions and Improvement Strategies of Domestic Protected Areas in Korea - Focus on Ecological and Landscape Conservation Areas and Wetland Protected Areas -
Choi, Ji-Eun ; Chae, Hee-Myung ; Cho, Dong-Gil ; Kim, Su-Ryeon ; Song, Yu-Jin ; Moon, Sang-Kyun ; Kim, Jong-Cheol ; Park, Yong-Su ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 111~120
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.111
This study is aimed at using the grasped problems of protected areas in Korea as the basic data for management planning and system improvement of protected areas by grasping realistic problems through the interview with the persons in charge on the basis of general problems of domestic protected areas. To this end, this study deducted major problems in urgent need of improvement, and improvement direction through the survey of the persons in charge of protected areas. This study result is as follows: The major problems, which should be preferentially improved, were found to be shortages of management infrastructure, cooperation between interested parties, and threat factors in protected areas, etc. Such problems are interconnected with each other, thus coming up complexly; therefore, it`s necessary to make a comprehensive approach to the problems after confirming the causal relationship of the identified problems. In addition, for the purpose of effective management of a protected area, it`s necessary to implement priority management of major problems through different management intensity from the planning phase. Also, it`s important to enhance the effectiveness of planning by considering a possible potential threat factor in the outside of protected areas, and referring to the contents of the development plan for the relevant area in time of management planning. Lastly, there is the need for systematic improvement of an institution through thorough status review of the actual state of management planning fulfillment in order to increase the effectiveness of planning in a follow-up study hereafter.
Evaluation Method Development for Ecological Restorations by Damaged Types
Choi, Jaeyong ; Lee, Sanghyuk ; Lee, Sol Ae ; Ji, Seung Yong ; Lee, Peter Sang-Hoon ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 121~133
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.121
It was required to evaluate ecological restorations in a comprehensive way in order to systematically manage conservation areas such as DMZ and national parks in South Korea. In this research we developed a new approach to evaluating ecological restorations with more various indexes than vegetation covering-related indexes. By analyzing damaged areas in the vicinity of DMZ, major damaged types were identified as six classes: landform modification, surface loss, soil pollution, soil physio-chemical modification, vegetation decline and vegetation damaged. From literature review, 39 indexes were selected and were grouped into four divisions: soil property, vegetation growth & structure, habitat property and landscape structure & functions. By conducting a survey with the selected indexes targeting relevant experts, data on relative importance among the divisions and indexes by damaged type were collected. As a result, it was found that the orders and values of weighted values of the divisions were different by damaged type: for example, soil property (0.402), vegetation growth & structure (0.209), habitat property (0.225), landscape structure & function (0.163) for "landform modification"; but soil property (0.171), vegetation growth & structure (0.401), habitat property (0.270), landscape structure & function (0.158) for "vegetation decline". Similarly, evaluation indexes showed different orders and values of relative importance, easiness in field measurement and representativeness for the division by damaged type, and the values were used for calculating importance factor for each index. In the evaluation table, score1 and score2 were made by the importance factors of indexes multiplied by distribution values which present grades and by the weighted values of divisions. In conclusion, while dealing with the damaged type was considered significant for evaluating and managing restorations, further tests on this table with a range of cases were needed to improve its quality.
Current Status and User Satisfaction Analysis of Neighborhood Park for Barrier Free Friendly Park - A Focus on Cheonho Park, Gandaemae Park and Hunlyunwon Park -
Kang, Hyun-Kyung ; Lee, Su-Ji ; Back, Seung-Jun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 135~153
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.135
This study is aimed at grasping improvement factors of Cheonho Park, Gandaemae Park and Hunlyunwon Park as barrier free friendly parks. For this study, current status of parks, users` state and satisfaction were analyzed in October, 2014 and September, 2015. To detect current status, period of designing, whole size, facility pavement green space area, and main spaces were examined. As for BF status, mediation facilities, leading and guidance facilities, convenient facilities and BF pedestrial passage were analyzed. Also, It examined user behavior and satisfaction by accessibility, convenience and safety items. As a result of status analysis, three parks were designed in 1997~1998. The size of parks were
. As for mediation facilities, the slopes of walking-passage in Cheonho Park and Gandaemae Park were flat. The rate of leading-guidance facilities was 72.7%~93.4%. In the three parks, the effective width of safe pedestrian space within BF pedestrial passages was more than 1.8m. In Cheonho Park and Gandaemae Park, more than 50% of soil and urethane were used as paving materials. Users were the most satisfied with accessibilities in Cheonho Park due to flat-typed walking passages. In convenience, when it comes to using benches and pergolas, it showed significantly different satisfaction in every park. In safety, there were also considerable difference in every park. Overall, it was analysed that the satisfaction with information for safety and facilities was significantly low. Against this backdrop, this study suggests three considerations to recreate parks as barrier free friendly parks. 1) Flat-typed walking passages and enough parking areas near parks should be constructed. 2) Additional rest furniture for convenience should be installed and complemented. 3) Walking oriented-spatial safe facilities for safety should be differently supplemented.
Definition of Invasive Disturbance Species and its Influence Factor: Review
Kim, Eunyoung ; Song, Wonkyong ; Yoon, Eunju ; Jung, Hyejin ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 155~170
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.155
This study established the definition of invasive disturbance species for a sustainable management and biodiversity, and derived the influence factors caused by the species. To define the species, the paper reviewed similar words such as alien species and invasive species, using standard definitions. Also reviewed the results of recent research on the factors of the species. The paper defined the invasive disturbance species as an species whose establishment and spread threaten ecosystems, habitats or species with economic or environmental harm including native and non-native. Through the reviews, The factors were classified as geographic (altitude, slope, and soil, etc.), climate (temperature, precipitation, climate change, etc.) and, anthropogenic (land use, population, road, and human activity, etc.), and species & vegetation structure (species property, local-species richness, and canopy, etc.). Especially, human activity such as urbanization and highways may be associated with both higher disturbance and higher propagule pressure. In the further study, it is required development of mitigation strategies and vegetation structure model against invasive disturbance species in urban forest based on this study.
Establishment of Additional Protected Areas and Applying Payment for Ecosystem Services(PES) for Sustainability of Suncheonman-Bay
Mo, Yongwon ; Park, Jin Han ; Son, Yong-Hoon ; Lee, Dong Kun ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 171~184
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.171
Suncheonman-Bay and its surrounding areas play important roles as habitats for migratory birds. However, sustainable management of these areas is difficult because of the development pressure of private lands. Therefore, the areas surrounding Suncheonman-Bay must be classified as additional protected areas; for this, it is necessary to gather concrete and objective evidence and ensure protected area management. Further, compensation measures must be considered when acquiring a private property as an additional protected area. In this study, we distinguish protected areas, such as core, buffer, and transition areas, within a private area by using data from the Winter Waterbird Census of Korea and MARXAN software, a spatial conservation prioritization tool. We applied ecosystem services to apply Payment for Ecosystem services (PES) as compensation measures. Watershed conservation (supply), climate control (regulation), supporting habitats (support), and recreation (culture) etc. were evaluated by calculating the economic value of these ecosystem services. Eastern, western, and northern forests and rice fields of Suncheonman-Bay were shown to have a number of core areas for the preservation of endangered species. The ecosystem service value of the additional protected areas was estimated at 17.5 million KRW/ha/year. We believe that our study result could be used to establish protected areas to preserve major habitats, as well as include areas adjacent to such major habitats that play a vital role in endangered species conservation. In addition, through this study, we highlight the need for an objective basis to establish protected areas.
Analysis on the Type of Damaged Land in DeMilitarized Zone(DMZ) Area and Restoration Direction
Sung, Hyun-Chan ; Kim, Su-Ryeon ; Kang, Da-In ; Seo, Joung-Young ; Lee, Sang-Mi ;
Journal of the Korea Society of Environmental Restoration Technology, volume 19, issue 1, 2016, Pages 185~193
DOI : 10.13087/kosert.2016.19.1.185
Purpose of this study is to classify damaged lands according to the cause of the damage and their influences based on characteristic of the damaged lands in DeMilitarized Zone(DMZ) area, and utilize this study as a fundamental study for establishment of ecosystem restoration system. Literature review and field survey have been conducted to review the damage status of DMZ area. For field survey, first year and second year have been conducted, in which type of the damage has been reviewed in this study. In the result, types of damage have been classified into 6 categories: `alteration of initial landform`, `loss of surface layer`, `land pollution`, `alteration of soil chemical property`, `decline of vegetation`, and `invasion of foreign species`. Restoration for each damage type is as following. First, for alteration of initial landform, the land is restored to the original landform prior to the damage and connection to surrounding ecosystem is considered. Second, for loss of surface layer, lost surface layer is restored or further loss is prevented with stabilization. Third, for land pollution, source of the pollution is eradicated or self-circulation with purification of polluted land is encouraged. Fourth, for alteration of soil chemical property, soil is restored of its original property with eradication of the pollution source and improvement of soil. Fifth, for decline of vegetation, current vegetation and anticipated alteration in future are considered and number of wild species is to be increased based on structure and characteristic of nearby vegetation. Sixth, for invasion of foreign species, prevention of dominance by risky species and facilitation ecological stability with ecological management are to be considered. Influence according to the cause of damage has occurred in secondary(indirect) influence or simultaneous occurrence of several damage types. Considering all these aspects, when type of the damage is complex, restoration process for each of former mentioned 6 damage types with solitary influence should be considered in unison.