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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Elastomers and Composites
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Rubber Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 34, Issue 5 - Dec 1999
Volume 34, Issue 4 - Oct 1999
Volume 34, Issue 3 - Jul 1999
Volume 34, Issue 2 - May 1999
Volume 34, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
Conductive Carbon Block Filled Composites( II ) - Concentrated on Processabilily -
Kim, Jin-Kuk ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 34, issue 2, 1999, Pages 113~120
Nobody doubts to say that one of the most important performance polymers is a conductive polymer. The manufacturing process of the commercial conductive polymers has been known by mixing with the conductive materials, but it doesn't noticeably appear of a conductive function. One of the reasons is the lack of comprehension In compounding a carbon black with polymer rosins. This paper involves the understanding of compounding technology of the conductive carbon black filled composite. Our experimental results indicate that the fibrous shaped carbon black was hard to process but appeared of a superior conductivity compared to a stick or a sphelulite shaped carbon black. Therefore, it was processed with a processing oil in compounding, which led to a better processability and a better conductivity. This study was accomplished that the solution process compared to the melting process.
Vulcanization and Mechanical Properties of High Molecular Weight Slyrene-Butadiene Rubber/Low Molecular weight Styrene-Butadiene Rubber Mixtures
Lee, Hwa-Woo ; Kim, Byeong-Cheol ; Hong, Suk-Pyo ; Lee, Dai-Soo ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 34, issue 2, 1999, Pages 121~127
Characteristics of high molecular weight styrene-butadiene rubber(HM-SBR)/low molecular weight styrene-butadiene rubber(LM-SBR) mixtures were studied to investigate how to modify the processability and the mechanical properties of styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). Mooney viscosity of the HM-SBR/LM-SBR mixtures and torque increase due to the vulcanization decreased by increasing the LM-SBR content of the mixtures. Shore A hardness and rebound properties were decreased by increasing the LM-SBR content of the mixtures. It was found that the value of tan
of the mixtures in rubbery state was increased, while glass transition temperatures of the vulcanized blends were constant by increasing the LM-SBR content of the mixtures. It was postulated that the decrease of Mooney viscosity by increasing the LM-SBR content of the blends was due to plasticizing effects of the LM-SBR and the increased polydispersity of the mixtures. Change of mechanical properties of the vulcanized HM-SBR/LM-SBR mixtures was attributed to the decreased crosslink densities of the mixtures by increasing the LM-SBR content of the mixtures.
Enhanced Adhesion of Tire Cords via Plasma Polymerizations
Kim, R.K. ; Sohn, B.Y. ; Han, M.H. ; Kang, H.M. ; Yoon, T.H. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 34, issue 2, 1999, Pages 128~134
Steel tire cords were coated via RF plasma polymerization of acetylene and butadiene gas in order to enhance adhesion to rubber compounds. Adhesion of tire cords was measured by TCAT and T-test as a function of type of gas, plasma powder, treatment time, gas pressure and Ar gas etching. Some samples were subjected to aging study in distilled water at
for a period of 7 days. After testing, tire cords were analysed by SEM to elucidate the adhesion mechanism. The highest adhesion values were obtained at 20W, 2min and 25mtorr for acetylene plasma polymerization, and l0W, 4min, 25mtorr for butadiene plasma polymerization. However, Ar plasma etching did not affect adhesion, while the adhesion of tire cords increased rather than decreased, contrary to expectations. It was not possible to elucidate failure mode by SEM, owing to the rough surface of the tire and the thin plasma polymer coating layer.
The Potential Energy Recovery and Thermal Degradation of Used Tire Using TGA
Kim, Won-Il ; Kim, Hyung-Jin ; Hong, In-Kwon ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 34, issue 2, 1999, Pages 135~146
The thermal degradation kinetics of SBR and tire were studied using a conventional thermogravimetric analysis in the stream nitrogen at a heating rate of 5, 10, 15,
, respectively. Thermogravimetric curves and their derivatives were analyzed using various analytical methods to determine the kinetic parameters. The degradation of the SBR and tire was found to be a complex process which has multi-stages. The Friedman method gave average activation energies for the SBR and tire of 247.53kJ/mol and 230.00kJ/mol, respectively. Mean-while, the Ozawa method Eave 254.80kJ/mol and 215.76kJ/mol. It would appear that either. Friedman's differential method or Ozawa's integral method provided satisfactory mathematical approaches to determine the kinetic parameters for the degradation of the SBR and tire. Approximately 86% and 55% of oil products were obtained at a final temperature of
and a heating rate of
for the SBR and tire respectively.
Wax Barrier Effect on Migration Behaviors of Antiozonants in NR Vulcanizates
Choi, Sung-Seen ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 34, issue 2, 1999, Pages 147~155
Waxes compounded into rubber migrate to the surface and form a protection film on the rubber surface. In general, antiozonants were used with wax to protect ozonation of rubber. Influence of wax barrier formed on the surface of a rubber vulcanizate on migration of antiozonants was studied using natural rubber (NR) vulcanizates containing various type waxes. IPPD (N-isopropyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine), HPPD (N-l,3-dimethylbutyl-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine), SBPPD (N,N'-di(sec-butyl)-p-phenylenediamine), and DMPPD (N,N'-di(1,4-dimethylpentyl)-p-phenylenediamine) were employed as antiozonants. Migration experiments were performed at constant temperatures of 60 and
for 10, 20, 30 days using a convection oven. The migration rates of the antiozonants in the vulcanizate without wax are faster than those in the vulcanizates containing waxes. The antiozonants migrate slower in the vulcanizate containing wax with a high molecular weight distribution than in the vulcanizate with a low one. The migration rates of DMPPD and SBPPD are faster than those of HPPD and IPPD.
Current and Future Trends of Accelerators and Antidegradants for the Tire Industry
Hong, Sung-W. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 34, issue 2, 1999, Pages 156~176
Rubber chemicals such as accelerators, antidegradants, vulcanizing agents, processing agents and retarders are very important to the production and protection of tires and rubber goods. The use of accelerators and antidegradants are evaluated in various tire components. This paper will focus on how to vulcanize tires economically and maintain the physical properties of each tire component without severe degradation due to oxygen, heat and ozone. Also, new non-nitrosoamine accelerators and non-staining antiozonants will be discussed. Lastly, the future requirements of antidegradants and accelerators in the tire industry will be reviewed. Tires have been vulcanized with Sulfenamides as primary accelerators and either Guamdine's or Thiurams as secondary accelerators to achieve proper properties at service conditions. However, interior components such as the carcass can be vulcanized with Thiazoles as a primary accelerator to cure faster than the external components. Using the combination of Sulfenamide with secondary accelerators in a tire tread compound and the combination of a Thiazole and Guanidine in a carcass compound will be presented with performance data. Uniroyal Chemical and another Rubber Chemical Manufacturer have developed, "Tetrabenzyl Thiuram Disulfide," (TBzTD) as a non-Nitrosoamine accelerator, which could replace Nitrosoamine generating Thiurams. This new accelerator has been evaluated in a tread compound as a secondary accelerator. Also, Flexsys has developed N-t-butyl-2-benzothiazole Sulfenamide (TBSI) as a non-Nitrosoamine accelerator which could replace 2-(Morpholinothio) -benzothiazole (MBS), a scorch delayed Sulfendamide accelerator. TBSI has been evaluated in a Natural Rubber (NR) belt skim compound vs. MBS. An optimum low rolling resistant cure system has been developed in a NR tread with Dithiomorpholine (DTDM). Also, future requirements for developing accelerators will be discussed such as the replacement of DTDM and other stable crosslink systems. Antidegradants are divided into two different types for use in tire compounds. Internal tire compounds such as apex, carcass, liner, wire breaker, cushion, base tread and bead compounds are protected by antioxidants against degradation from oxygen and heat due to mechanical shear. The external components such as sidewall, chafer and cap tread com-pounds are protected from ozone by antiozonants and waxes. Various kinds of staining and non-staining antioxidants have been evaluated in a tire carcass compound. Also, various para-phenylene diamine antiozonants have been evaluated in a tire sidewall compound to achieve the improved lifetime of the tire. New non-staining antiozonants such as 2, 4, 6-tris-(N-1, 4-dimethylpentyl-p-phenylene diamine) 1, 3, 5 Trizine (D-37) and un-saturated Acetal (AFS) will be discussed in the tire sidewall to achieve better appearance. The future requirements of antidegradants will be presented to improve tire performance such as durability, better appearance and longer lasting tires.
The Use of Chemical Additives to Protect SBS Rubbers Against Ozone Attack
Moakes, C.A. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 34, issue 2, 1999, Pages 177~182
SBS thermoplastic elastomers offer an inexpensive alternative to vulcanised rubbers for many undemanding applications. They are, however, particularly susceptible to attack from atmospheric ozone leading to cracking as soon as any strain is applied. In most rubber applications some strain is unavoidable. In this paper a compounding approach to protecting SBS thermoplastic rubbers against ozone is described. An explanation is offered for why a protective effect Is observed only when certain combinations of additive are used. SBS elastomers are the most affordable class of thermoplastic rubbers. To achieve finished products resistant to ozone and without compromising the light colours often demanded, recourse must be made to blending with other saturated elastomers or replacement by hydrogenated (SEBS) types. The latter is a significantly more expensive alternative. Under laboratory conditions where the rate of ozone attack is increased by several decades, unprotected SBS begins to crack within a few hours. Several different protective agents are examined here, the best of which, a cyclic enol ether,
AFD, can extend the resistance to any cracking to several weeks by the use of a few percent by weight of additive. The systems reported neither discolour the polymer nor stain other materials with which it may be in contact. Use of the protective systems described here could enable SBS elastomers to compete in many applications with the more expensive SEBS polymers.