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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Elastomers and Composites
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Rubber Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 38, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
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Analysis and Design of Shoes Using Non-Linear Finite Element Method
Kim, B.S. ; Moon, B.Y. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 195~205
This paper presents an analytic method and a design technique for golf shoes with air-cycled pump in the midsole. The golf shoes are modeled using the finite element method for better design by considering the configuration of the midsole and the outsole, which compose the golf shoes. Also the optimum size and shape of air-cycled pump in the midsole is examined. The values or standard human pressure for boundary conditions are adopted for the FEA(Finite Element Analysis). The unknown constants of the strain energy function of Ogden type are observed in accordance with the axial tension test. By the commercial FEM software for nonlinear analysis, MARC V7.3, the strains and the values of volume change for the midsole and the outsole are obtained, respectively. It can be concluded that results obtained by FEM in the midsole and the outsole are different depending on the characteristic of elastomer The results reported herein provide better understanding of analyzing the golf shoes. Moreover, it is believed that those properties of the results can be utilized in the shoes industry to develop the effective design method.
Heat Transfer Analysis and Design of Shoes Using Finite Element Method
Kim, B.S. ; Moon, B.Y. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 206~212
This paper presents an analytic method and a design technique for golf shoes with coolant in the insole. The golf shoes are modeled using the finite element method for precision by considering the configuration by the insole, the midsole and the outsole, which compose the golf shoes. The values of standard human foot temperature for heat transfer boundary conditions are adopted for the FEA(Finite Element Analysis). By the commercial FEM software for heat transfer analysis, MARC V7.3, the temperature and the amounts of heat flux change for the insole are obtained, respectively. It can be concluded that results obtained by FEM in the insole are different depending on the characteristic of heat transfer. The results reported herein provide better understanding of analyzing the golf shoes. Moreover, it is believed that those properties of the results can be utilized in the shoes industry to develop the effective design method.
Curing and Rheological Behavior of Epoxy Resin Compositions for Underfill
Kim, Yoon-Jin ; Park, Min ; Kim, Jun-Kyung ; Kim, Jin-Mo ; Yoon, Ho-Gyu ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 213~226
The cure and rheological behavior of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F/nadic methyl anhydride resin system with the kinds of imidazole were studied using a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and a rotational rheometer. The isothermal traces were employed to analyze cure reaction. The DGEBF/ anhydride conversion profiles showed autocatalyzed reaction characterized by maximum conversion rate at
of the reaction. The rate constants (
) showed temperature dependance, but reaction order did not. The reaction order (m+n) was calculated to be close to 3. There are two reaction mechanisms with the kinds oi catalyst. The gel time was determined by using G'-G" crossover method, and the activation energy was obtained from this results. From measurement of rheological properties it was found that the logarithmic 1:elation time of fused silica filled DBEBF epoxy compounds linearly increased with the content of filler and decreased with temperature. The highly filled epoxy compounds showed typical pseudoplastic behavior, and the viscosity of those decreased with increasing maximum packing ratio.
A Study on the Flame Retardance and Electrical Properties of Silicone Composites
Lee, Sung-Ill ; Lee, Hae-Joon ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 227~234
Silicone composites for high voltage insulator (HVI SC) were prepared by adding aluminum trihydrate(ATH) treated by surface treatment agent to base silicone compound at the ratio oi 100:20, 100:40, 100:60, 100:80, and 100:100, respectively And also, ATH was treated by various surface treatment agents, such as stearic arid, acryl silane, and vinyl silane under compounding process. Mechanical properties and electrical properties were investigated for the various contents of ATH and surface-treatment agents. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength decreased as the load of ATH increased. Volume resistivity, AC break down strength, and tracking resistance for HVI SC containing ATH treated by vinyl silane were better than those for HVI SC containing ATH treated by other surface treatment agents, such as stearic acid and acryl silane. Polymer-filler interaction of silicone composites according to surface treatment agents was studied by measuring bound rubber contend(BR). From the experimental results, BR of silicone composite containing ATH treated with vinyl silane was higher than that of the others. The degree of rule for silicone composite was investigated using Rheometer. Maximum torque of silicone composites contaning ATH treated with vinyl silane was higher than that of silicone composite contaning ATH treated with other surface agents.
A Study on the Vulcanization Reaction of Modified NR Blends by In-Situ Electrical Property Measurement
Ha, Ki-Ryong ; Suh, Soong-Hyuck ; Rho, Seung-Baik ; Lee, Seung-Hyun ; Ahn, Won-Sool ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 235~242
A vulcanization reaction characteristics of an isoprene rubber (IR)-modified natural rubber/carbon black (NR/CB) composite was studied using in-situ electrical property measuring technique. Since the electrical conductivity of the sample composite would be changed continuously during the vulcanization reaction by rearranging of the carbon black particles within the sample, volume resistivity (
) might be obtained as a function or reaction time. A stabilization time (
), maximum reaction speed time (
), and volume resistivity at that time(
) were defined from the data for the Arrhenius analysis. Volume resistivity
showed a comparatively high value of
order before the reaction started, and dramatically decreased to be stabilized within
minutes as soon as the reaction started. As the more time elapsed, thereafter,
decreased monotonously to a certain constant value through a peak,
, which was considered as the maximum reaction rate. As a result, while
values were comparatively constant as
values showed to become shorter and shorter as the reaction temperature increased, exhibiting up to ca.3 minutes at
. Meanwhile, as an effect of measuring frequency, activation energy,
showed higher values at measuring frequency of 10,000Hz than those at lower frequencies below 1,000Hz, showing to become more sensitive against the changes of reaction temperature.
Preparation and Characterization of Polyurethane Waterproof Coatings Containing Fly Ash
Lee, Sung-Il ; Kim, Duk-Bae ; Yang, Go-Su ; Kim, Wan-Young ; Byoun, Youn-Seop ; Lee, Youn-Sik ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 243~250
Polyurethane waterproof (PW) coatings are increasingly demanded in Korea for repairing cracks on old building roofs and construction of many sporting facilities. Calcium carbonate, a common filler, is incorporated in PW compositions. In this study, PW coatings were prepared by substituting a part of calcium carbonate with fly ash. The maximum amounts of calcium carbonate which can be substituted by fly ash obtained in the cyclone and bag filter dust collectors were 20 and 10%, respectively. It was found that the curing rate of PWs ran be controlled by varying the amount of Pb-octoate catalyst. The elongations at break as well as tensile strength and tear strength of PW coatings containing fly ash could also be adjusted such that their values were comparable to those of a standard PW coating by varying relative amounts of some components. However, the amount of cadmium, mercury, and lead leached from PW coatings containing fly ash obtained from the bag filter collector exceeded the respective allowed upper limits, mainly due to the initial high contents of them in the fly ash. On the other hand, PW coatings containing fly ash obtained from the cyclone collector exhibited better mechanical properties and did not release any significant amounts of the heavy metals. Thus, it was concluded that PW coatings containing fly ash can be utilized for practical applications as long as an appropriate fly ash is used.
Effect of Waste Ground Tire Rubber on Flame Retardancy and Foaming Properties of the NBR foams
Moon, Sung-Chul ; Lee, Jae-Chul ; Choi, Jae-Kon ; Jo, Byung-Wook ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 251~261
The flame retardancy and foaming properties of NBR foams containing waste ground tire rubber (GTR) were studied. When the composition ratios of NBR/GTR were ranged in
(w/w) and rubbers/flame retardants were in the range of
, the considerably optimized foam for flame retardancy was obtained with high limiting oxygen indices (LOI,
), low heat release rate(HRR), closed/semi-closed cell of uniformity, and reasonable expandability (
). The LOI was increased and the heat release rate was decreased with increasing the amount of GTR content.
A Study on the Commercialization of Polyamide 66/Polypropylene Blend
Kim, Seog-Jun ; Nam, Byeong-Uk ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 262~272
Maleic anhydride-grafted-polypropylene(PP-g-MA) were used as a blend component and a compatibilizer, respectively, for two reactive blends of polyamide 66(PA 66)PP-g-MA binary blends and PA 66/polypropylene(PP)/PP-g-MA ternary blends. The goal of this work was to investigate the property differences between binary and ternary blends. Tensile strength, flexural modulus, heat deflection temperature, impact strength, melt flow index, and the dependence of melt viscosity on the shear rate were examined. The impact strengths of binary blends were higher than those of ternary blends at all compositions, since the in situ synthesis of PP-g-PA 66 copolymer through the imide formation between the amine end group of PA 66 and the anhydride group of PP-g-MA gave the increase of molecular weight and was more popular in binary blends than in ternary blends. In case of ternary blends, most of the properties were superior to those of binary blends, owing to the better properties of PP compared with PP-g-MA. The toughened binary blends with 70/30(PA 66/PP-g-MA) and 80/20 ratios were not commercially applicable due to their poor processibility. So, the ternary blends which showed lower melt viscosities were recommended for the commercial applications.
Elastic Response of Filled and Unfilled Green Rubbers
Lee, K.Y. ; Shin, S. ; Chung, K.H. ; Yoon, T.H. ; Kaang, S. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 38, issue 3, 2003, Pages 273~280
Elastic responses on both pure natural rubber melts with different molecular weights and the rubber compounds mixed with various types of carbon blacks were investigated in this study. Furthermore, the degree of bound rubber was measured for various carbon blacks with different sizes and structures in order to study the interaction between the rubber and carbon blacks, and to study the correlation between the interaction and the elastic responses. As a loading amount of carbon black increased, the degree of bound rubber became higher, particularly far carbon-black particles with smaller sizes and higher structures. The elastic responses of the rubber melt filled with carbon black remarkably improved, as compared with those of unfilled rubber melt, specially in carbon black showing higher contents of bound rubber. Stress relaxation was more delayed and recovery behavior became more elastic, as the molecular weight of the rubber melt increased and the size of carbon-black particles was decreased. Permanent set became higher, as the molecular weight of the rubber melts decreased and the size of carbon-black particles increased.