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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Elastomers and Composites
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Rubber Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 39, Issue 4 - Dec 2004
Volume 39, Issue 3 - Sep 2004
Volume 39, Issue 2 - Jun 2004
Volume 39, Issue 1 - Mar 2004
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Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Treatment of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate (EVA) to Enhance Adhesion Energy between EVA and Polyurethane
Kim, Jeong-Soon ; Uhm, Han-S ; Kim, Hyoung-Suk ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 39, issue 1, 2004, Pages 3~11
Plasma treatment is frequently used to increase surface functionality and surface activity. It enables to improve various surface properties such as catalytic selectivity, printability, and interfacial adhesion between various materials. Surface or the ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) is exposed under an atmospheric pressure plasma torch (APPT), generated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD), and the treated surfaces are systemically investigated. Argon, air, and oxygen are used as a processing gas. Properties of the treated EVA surfaces are investigated by the zeta-potential measurements and surface free energies. It is shown that the plasma treatment leads to a drastic increase of surface functional groups of EVA, as the increase of its adhesion energy (
). Therefore, it is concluded that the APPT process is an effective means to improve adhesion of EVA and polyurethane (PU).
The Influence of Plasma Surface Modification on Frictional Property of Natural Rubber Vulcanizates
Nah, C. ; Kim, D.H. ; Mathew, G. ; Jeon, D.J. ; Jurkowski, B. ; Jurkowska, B. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 39, issue 1, 2004, Pages 12~22
The plasma surface modification of natural rubber vulcanizate was carried out using chlorodifluoromethane in a radio-frequency (13.56 MHz) electrodeless bell type plasma reactor. The modification was qualitatively assessed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The frictional force of the plasma-treated surface was found to decrease with the time of plasma treatment. An increase in the surface polarity, as evidenced by the decrease in contact angle of a sessile drop of water and ethylene glycol on the natural rubber vulcanizate surface, was noted with the plasma modification. In the case of similar plasma treatment of glass surface, only a reduction in the polarity was observed. The use of geometric and harmonic mean methods was found to be useful to evaluate the London dispersive and specific components of surface free energy. Irrespective of the method used for evaluation, an increasing trend in the surface free energy was noted with increasing plasma treatment time. However, the harmonic mean method yielded comparatively higher values of surface free energy than the geometric mean method. The plasma surface modification was found to vary the frictional coefficient by influencing the interfacial, hysteresis and viscous components of friction in opposing dual manners.
Numerical Approach Technique of Spherical Indentation for Material Property Evaluation of Hyper-elastic Rubber
Lee, Hyung-Yil ; Lee, Jin-Haeng ; Kim, Dong-Wook ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 39, issue 1, 2004, Pages 23~35
In this work, effects of hyper-elastic rubber material properties on the indentation load-deflection curve and subindenter deformation are first examined via finite element (FE) analyses. An optimal data acquisition spot is selected, which features maximum strain energy density and negligible frictional effect. We then contrive two normalized functions, which map an indentation load vs. deflection curve into a strain energy density vs. first invariant curve. From the strain energy density vs. first invariant curve, we can extract the rubber material properties. This new spherical indentation approach produces the rubber material properties in a manner more effective than the common uniaxial tensile/compression tests. The indentation approach successfully measures the rubber material properties and the corresponding nominal stress-strain curve.
Preparation and Characterization of Elastomeric Solid Electrolyte Based on
Chang, Young-Wook ; Joo, Hyun-Seok ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 39, issue 1, 2004, Pages 36~41
Solid polymer electrolytes were prepared by UV irradiation of the blends consisting of poly(ethylene oxide)(PEO), epoxy diacrylate(EDA) and
. Conductivities of the electrolyte films were measured as a function or blend composition, salt concentration and temperature. The electrolyte having the composition of poly(ethylene oxide) (70% by weight)/epoxy diacrylate (30% by weight) with mole ratio of 10 of ethylene
exhibited a high ionic conductivity of
. This blend is transparent and shows elastomeric properties. Morphological studies by means of differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and polarized optical microscopy indicated that the cured epoxy chains in the blends inhibit the crystallization of poly (ethylene oxide) and thereby induce the blend systems to be completely amorphous in certain compositions.
Cure Behaviors and Mechanical Interfacial Properties of Epoxy/Polyurethane Blends Initiated by Latent Thermal Catalyst
Park, Soo-Jin ; Seok, Su-Ja ; Kang, Jun-Gil ; Kwon, Soo-Han ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 39, issue 1, 2004, Pages 42~50
In this work, the diglycidylether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and modified polyurethane (PU) blends were initiated by N-benzylpyrazinium hexafluoroantimonate (BPH). The cure and fracture toughness of neat DGEBA with the addition of PU were investigated. The cure properties of DGEBA/PU blend system were examined by DSC and near-IR measurements. The fracture touhtness were investigated by measuring the critical stress intensity factor (
) and the critical strain energy release rate (
). According to the results, the maximum values of owe activation energy (
) and conversion (
) were found at 10 phr of PU. Also the
showed a similar behavior with the results of conversion. These results were probably due to increase of crosslinking density in the blends resulted from increase of the hydrogen bonding between the hydroxyl groups of DGEBA and isocyanate groups of PU.
Mechanical Properties of Organoclay filled NR/BR Blends
Kim, W. ; Kim, S.K. ; Kim, S.K. ; Chuug, K.H. ; Byun, J.Y. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 39, issue 1, 2004, Pages 51~60
The cure, viscoelastic and mechanical characteristics of organoclay filled NR/BR blends were studied and compared with the properties of carbon black and silica filled NR/BR blends. The nanocomposites with extensive exfoliation state can be fabricated by a solution mixing method. In the composites, the amount of filler content was fixed to 10 phr. Degree of intercalation and exfoliation was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD results indicated exfoliation of the silicate layers into the rubber matrix. While the degree or intercalation and exfoliation is lowered by the conventional mixing method, extensive exfoliation can be obtained by the solution mixing method. It was found that the clay filled NR/BR compound showed better viscoelastic (tan
) and mechanical properties than the carbon black or silica filled NR/BR compounds.
Asphalt Sealant Containing the Waste Edible Oil
Kim, Seong-Jun ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 39, issue 1, 2004, Pages 61~70
This work is about the development or asphalt sealant using the waste edible oil. Asphalt sealant has been used for crack filler and bridge deck joint sealer Several plasticizers such as aromatic or paraffin process oils, DOP, Bunker C fuel oil, and waste edible oil were compounded with the basic components such as asphalt(AP-5), a thermoplastic elastomer(SBS triblock copolymer), a tackifying agent(petroleum resin), and stabilizers. Penetration, softening point, ductility, and elongation by tensile adhesion of those asphalt sealant compounds were measured. Their properties were changed largely depending on both the type and content of plasticizers. Waste edible oil and DOP were the best plasticizers for the low temperature tensile adhesion characteristics. Penetration and elongation by tensile adhesion of asphalt sealant compounds increased with the increase of waste edible oil content and decreased with the increase of talc content. The manufacture of asphalt sealant with low penetration and excellent low temperature tensile adhesion was possible by the recipe optimization.
A Comparative Study on Polyurethane Coating Films Prepared Using 4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) and 1,3-Propanediolbis(4-aminobenzoate) as Crosslinking Agents
Lee, Youn-Sik ; Lee, Sung-Il ; Kim, Duk-Bae ; Park, Young-Deok ; Kim, Jung-Kee ; Hahn, Yoon-Bong ; Nahm, Kee-Suk ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 39, issue 1, 2004, Pages 71~76
4,4'-Methylenebis(2-chloroaniline)(MOCA) has been widely used as a crosslinking agent, but classified as a toxic chemical. Thus, its use will be limited in the near future. In this research, polyurethane coating films were prepared using 1,3-propanediolbis(4-aminobenzoate)(PDBA) as an alternative to MOCA. The base part was prepared by melting MOCA or PDBA in polyoxypropylene(
=2000), followed by the addition of the various additives. The NCO-terminated toluene diisocyanate prepolymer was used as a curing agent. The polyurethane coating films were prepared by mixing the base part with the curing agent in an appropriate ratio at room temperature. The polyurethane coatings prepared using PDBA exhibited higher initial viscosity, but much longer pot lift, compared to those prepared using MOCA under the same conditions, due to lower reactivity of PDBA. The tensile strength and tear strength of the coating films were much weaker. However, the pot life, tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength of the coating films, prepared using PDBA in the presence of an increased amount of Pb(II)-octoate, were close to those of the coating films prepared using MOCA. Thus, it was concluded that PDBA can substitute MOCA in the preparation of polyurethane coatings as long as the reactivity of PDBA is enhanced using appropriate amounts of the catalyst or other appropriate catalyst.