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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Elastomers and Composites
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Rubber Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Dec 2009
Volume 44, Issue 3 - Sep 2009
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Jun 2009
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Mar 2009
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Self-healing Elastomers As Dream Smart Materials
Kim, Il ; Shin, Nam-Ho ; Jo, Jung-Kyu ; Hur, A-Young ; Li, Haiqing ; Ha, Chang-Sik ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 196~208
Sophisticated polymeric materials with 'responsive' properties are beginning to reach the market. The use of reversible, noncovalent interactions is a recurring design principle for responsive materials. Recently developed hydrogen-bonding units allow this design principle to be taken to its extreme. Supramolecular polymers, where hydrogen bonds are the only force keeping the monomers together, form materials whose (mechanical) properties respond strongly to a change in temperature or solvent. In this review, we describe some examples of hydrogen-bonded supramolecular polymers that can be utilized for self-healing materials. Synthesis of a rubber-like material that can be recycled might not seem exciting. But one that can also repeatedly repair itself at room temperature, without adhesives, really stretches the imagination. Autonomic healing materials respond without external intervention to environmental stimuli in a nonlinear and productive fashion, and have great potential for advanced engineering systems.
Preparation of Polyolefin Based Segmented Copolymers Through Controlled Radical Polymerization Technique
Hong, Sung-Chul ; Lee, Seong-Hoon ; Cho, Hyun-Chul ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 209~221
Polyolefins are important commodity polymers with the largest volume of business owing to their outstanding combination of cost performance and excellent physical properties. However, the lack of functional groups often has limited their end uses, such as compatibilizer, modifier and adhesive, where the interaction with other materials is especially important. The incorporation of functional groups as polymer segments to afford block or graft polyolefin copolymers has been extensively investigated in the context of the functional polyolefin hybrids. Living polymerization processes have been considered to be an efficient method to prepare the polyolefin hybrids with precisely controlled architecture and compositions. Among the living polymerization techniques, controlled/"living" radical polymerization (CRP) methods are very effective not only because of the controllability of polymerization but also because of the versatility of monomers and polymerization conditions. In this review paper, progresses on the preparations of polyolefin graft or block copolymers through CRP techniques are summarized. The commodity polymers such as polyisobutylene, polyethylene and polypropylene are combined with polar segments such as polyacrylate, polymethacrylate, polystyrene to yield functionalized polyolefins.
Technology Trend for the Preparation of Polymeric Particles by SPG Technique
Lee, Sang-Kug ; Kim, Sung-Wook ; Choi, Kyoung-Ho ; Lim, Eun-Hee ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 222~231
Shirasu-porous-glass (SPG) membrane emulsification is highly attractive in the field of toner industries, foods and drug delivery systems because of its easy control of particle size in micro-scale, narrow size distribution and multiple emulsion. The particle size and morphology of emulsion droplets can be controlled by changing the type of initiators, additives, monomers, crosslinkers and inhibitors in SPG membrane emulsification. In this paper, principles of SPG membrane emulsification, influence of process parameters and industrial applications have been addressed.
Advanced Synthetic Technology for High Performance Energy Tire Tread Rubber
Lee, Bum-Jae ; Lim, Ki-Won ; Ji, Sang-Chul ; Jung, Kwon-Young ; Kim, Tae-Jung ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 232~243
The specialized and diversified synthetic and compounding technologies are used to meet the requirements for the advanced high performance tire tread materials with better balance of fuel economy(rolling resistance), safety(wet traction) and wear resistance. These techniques involve the methodology for the improvement of chemical and physical interaction between filler and the rubber matrix using coupling agents as well as a variety of chemically-modified solution SBRs. The research trends about the high performance functional SBRs and coupling agents which can interact with the surface of fillers and their working mechanism were investigated in the conventional carbon black-filled rubber and silica-filled SBR systems developed recently as "green tire".
Micro/nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surface
Lim, Hyun-Eui ; Park, Joon-Sik ; Kim, Wan-Doo ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 244~251
Recently, there are a lot of studies on the engineering application of biomimetic functional surface in the world. The nature-inspired functional surfaces offer many solutions for copying with problems which are faced with human such as environmental contamination, energy depletion, exhaustion of water, and food shortage by giving the high quality function to industrial products. In this paper, we introduce the superhydrophobicity of nature surface and review the research on theoretical modeling and fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with micro/nanostructure.
Bifunctional Silane (TESPD) Effects on Silica Containing Elastomer Compound Part II: Styrene-co-Butadiene Rubber (SBR)
Jeon, Duk-Kyu ; Kim, Kwang-Jea ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 252~259
Bifunctional silane (TESPD) is added into silica filled SBR compound and its effects with respect to the vulcanization properties, the processability, and the physical properties are investigated. The addition of the TESPD into silica filled SBR compound increases the degree of crosslinking by formation of a strong 3-dimensional network structure with silica surface via coupling reaction, which results in an improved mechanical property. It also improves the processabilities compared to the Control compound.
Physical Properties of Silicone Rubber/Clay Composites According to the Clay Type and Modification
Yoon, Jin-San ; Kim, Eung-Soo ; Kim, Eun-Jeong ; Lee, Tae-Hwa ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 260~268
Modification of clay surface was attempted by treating the clay with bis[(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)tetra sulfide (TSS) to raise the hydrophobicity and to induce a chemical reaction between the clay and the high temperature vulcanization-type silicone rubber matrix with purpose of improving the compatibility between the components, and thereby Na-
were synthesized by treating Na-MMT and Fe-MMT with TSS, respectively. Silicone rubber/clay composites were prepared by compounding the clays with silicone rubber. Thermal stability and mechanical properties were evaluated as a function of the clay types and the surface modification.
A Study on the Thermal Life-Time Expectation of a NR Rubber Material using Isothermal TGA and TMA
Ahn, Won-Sool ; Park, Ki-Ho ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 269~273
A study on the life-time expectation of a CR-modified NR rubber composite through the change of thermal degradation characteristics was performed using both isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermomechanical analysis (TMA). Master curves at reference temperature of
could be obtained with shift factor
, which was determined empirically using Time-Temperature Superposition Principle (TTSP). Activation energies could be calculated from the slope of Arrhenius plot of shift factor and showed similar values of
= 41.2 and
= 54.5 kJ/mol, respectively. It was considered from the results that chemical degradation resulting weight loss of the sample might be closely related to a physical degradation such as the dimensional change of the sample.
Preparation of Nylon Elastomer and Its Application in the Electrospinning Process
Park, Jun-Seo ; Ketpang, Kriangsak ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 274~281
Nylon 6 and nylon elastomer were prepared by anionic polymerization route. Nylon elastomers, composed of hard segment of polyamide(PA) and soft segment of polyether(PE), were synthesized by use of TDI terminated polyol with caprolactam. The morphology of the electrospun webs of nylon and nylon elastomers, observed by FE-SEM, showed that the porous electrospun web was composed of nanofibers, whose diameter were in the range of 100 to 180 nm. Their behavior of melting and crystallization and the chemical structure of nylon elastomers were investigated by DSC and ATR FT-IR. Result of tensile testing indicated that nylon has higher tensile strength and lower elongation than nylon elastomers. Atmospheric plasma(APP) with
as reactive gas modified the surface of electrospun nylon and electrospun nylon elastomers allowing them higher hydrophilicity, while APP with
as reactive gas modified the surface of polymers allowing higher hydrophobicity.
The Study on the Pressure-Sensitive Adhesion Property of Waste FKM Powder and SBS Modified Asphalt
Chung, Kyung-Ho ; Kang, Min-Kyu ; Han, Kyung-A ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 282~289
The pressure-sensitive adhesive(PSA) tapes are widely used as floor-sealing material in Korean constructive industry. However, the general PSA tapes can not seal the apertures completely. This is one of main reasons to cause imperfect finishing. In order to solve the problems, the asphalts were modified by FKM powder and SBS in this study. The physical properties of modified asphalts were examined by measuring the softening point, viscosity, tensile strength and adhesion strength of FKM and SBS modified asphalt. The softening point of SBS modified asphalt was increased greatly due to the formation of network structure in asphalt. Also, the change of adhesion strength of SBS modified asphalt with temperature was not so great comparing to those of pure asphalt and FKM modified asphalt. The best results of pressure-sensitive adhesion could be obtained by the SBS(linear) modified asphalt containing 6 wt.% of linear type SBS.
Characterization of Fe-ACF/
composite Photocatalysts Effect Via Degradation of MB Solution
Zhang, Kan ; Meng, Ze-Da ; Ko, Weon-Bae ; Oh, Won-Chun ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 290~298
In this paper, the Fe-activated carbon fiber (ACF)/
composite catalysts were prepared by a sol-gel method. The synthesized photocatalysts were used for the photo degradation of Methylene blue solution under UV light. From Brunauer-Emmett-Teller measurements (BET) data, it was shown the blocking of the micropores on the surface of ACF by treatment of Fe and Ti compound. As shown in SEM images, the ferric compounds and titanium dioxides were fixed onto the ACF surfaces. The result of X-ray powder diffraction showed that the crystal phase contained a mixing anatase and rutile structure and the 'FeO+
' from the composites. The EDX spectra for the elemental analysis showed the presence of C, O, and Ti with Fe peaks. Degradation activity of MB could be attributed to +OH radicals derived from electron/hole pair's reactions due to photolysis of
and photo-Fenton effect of Fe.
Thermal and Mechanical Properties of EPDM and CR Compounds with Various Fillers and Its Contents for V-rib Belt
Seo, Kwan-Ho ; Hwang, Byung-Kook ; Hong, Ki-Heon ; Park, Hae-Youn ; Jeon, Il-Ryeon ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 299~307
The effects of reinforcing materials on durability and mechanical properties of V-rib belt were investigated. Cotton fiber and ZnO were used as a filler for CR, and cotton and aramid fiber were used for EPDM rubber compounds. These materials were prepared as a specimen and V-rib belt for heat resistant and mechanical test. High contents of ZnO give improved wear resistance, and higher contents of cotton fiber showed higher durability in high rotation speed but lower wear resistance for CR rubber compounds. Using the aramid and cotton fiber together in EPDM rubber compounds, thermal and wear resistance were improved simultaneously. The material containing EPDM matrix showed better durability and wear resistance than those of containing CR matrix comparing in the same cotton fiber contents.
A Study on Synthesis and Properties of Acrylic Rubber
Cho, Ur-Ryong ; Lee, Ki-Mun ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 308~314
The acrylic rubber was synthesized by emulsion polymerization using n-butyl acrylate, n-butyl methacrylate, acrylonitrile, glycidylmethacrylate, and allyl methacrylate. When the contents of acrylonitrile were increased at fixed amount of crosslinking monomers, the Tg of polymers was increased with the contents of acrylonitrile, Mooney viscosity, hardness, and tensile strength also were increased. But the elongation was decreased due to the reduction of chain flexibility. The addition of the monomer for crosslinking, glycidylmethacrylate whose Tg is
resulted in the increased Tg of the polymer, and increased Mooney viscosity, hardness, and tensile strength, but the elongation at break was decreased with the glycidylmethacrylate contents. It was shown that this phenominon was attributed to the increment of crosslinking density by glycidylmethacrylate through the measurement of rheometer.
Influence of Blend Mode of Extender Oil on the Properties of EPDM/PP-Based Thermoplastic Vulcanizates
Na, Sung-Su ; Song, Ki-Chan ; Kim, Su-Kyung ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 315~322
Influence of blend mode of extender oil on the properties of thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs), based on an ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer (EPDM) and a polypropylene (PP), was studied. The EPDM/PP TPVs were prepared in an open roll mill using two different modes in blending sequence of paraffinic oil and phenolic curative, i.e., Oil-Cure and Cure-Oil modes. Degree of cross-linking by gel fraction and properties such as hardness, tensile strength, elongation at break, and melt flow rate were investigated as a function of extender oil content for the two modes. Little influence of the blend mode of extender oil on the degree of cross-linking and mechanical behaviors was observed. However, the use of Cure-Oil mode in the preparation of EPDM/PP TPVs resulted in a marked increase in the level of processability as reflected by melt flow index, as compared to the use of Oil-Cure mode.
Non-Newtonian Rheological Properties of Poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel
Kim, Nam-Jeong ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 323~328
The rheological properties of complex materials such as polymer melts show complicated non-Newtonian flow phenomena when they are subjected to shear flow. These flow properties are controlled by the characteristics of flow units and the interactions among the flow segments. The non-Newtonian flow curves of poly(vinyl alcohol) hydrogel were obtained in various concentrations and temperatures by using a cone-plate rheometer. By applying non-Newtonian flow equation to the flow curves for PVA hydrogel samples, the rheological parameters were obtained. The PVA hydrogel samples are shear thinning under increasing shear rate modes which result in thixotropic behavior.
Synthesis and Characterization of Thermotropic Liquid Crystalline Polyurethanes
Lee, Jong-Back ; Lee, Kwang-Hyun ; Kang, Byung-Chul ; Lee, Dong-Jin ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 329~335
Four series of novel liquid crystalline polyurethanes were synthesized by the polyaddition reaction of diisocyanates such as 2,6-tolylene diisocyanate (2,6-TDI), 2,5-tolylene diisocyanate (2,5-TDI), 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate (2,4-TDI), and 1,4-phenylene diisocyanate (1,4-PDI) with 4,4'-bis(5-hydroxypentoxy)biphenyl (BP5). 4,4'-bis(5-hydroxypentoxy)biphenyl exhibited a smectic type mesophase. Mesophase was found for all synthesized liquid crystalline polyurethanes except 1,4-PDI/BP5. The structures and the thermal properties of polyurethanes were studied by using FT-IR and
NMR spectroscopy, DSC measurements and a polarizing microscope equipped with a heating stage.
Flow Behavior of Polystyrene and Poly(butyl methacrylate) Composite Particles Filled with Varying Concentrations of Carbon Black
Park, Moon-Soo ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 44, issue 3, 2009, Pages 336~342
We measured shear viscosity of polystyrene (PS) and poly(butyl methacrylate) (PBMA) particles, with a capillary rheometer, prepared by suspension polymerization with 1.0 wt% hydrophobic silica as a stabilizer by varying the initiator concentration at
. PS particles with weight average molecular weight of 66,500 g/mol displayed a Newtonian behaior at low shear rates at
. With increasing molecular weight, PS particles showed shear thinning over the entire range of shear rates. For PBMA particles, steady shear measurement was carried out at
. PBMA particles with weight average molecular weight of 156,700 g/mol showed a Newtonian behaior only at low shear rates. PBMA particles also showed shear thinning with an increase in molecular weight and its pattern similar to that of PS. When carbon black was incorporated into PS and PBMA polymers, steady shear measurement was conducted at
. An increase in carbon black concentration in PS and PBMA composite particles exhibited a progressive increase in shear viscosity. The increase in shear viscosity, however, was less pronounced compared to an increase as a function of molecular weight. Preparing PS composites containing carbon black by internal mixing resulted in an increase in shear viscosity. Its increase, however, was found to be less than that shown in PS composite particles. We speculate that this is caused by an enhanced dispersion of carbon black particles with an internal mixer. Yield behavior was not observed in any of the samples we selected in this experiment.