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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Elastomers and Composites
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Rubber Society of Korea
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 46, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 46, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 46, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 46, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Effect of Kenaf Fiber Loading on the Properties of Natural Fiber/Natural Rubber Composites
Cho, Yi-Seok ; Cho, Dong-Hwan ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 186~194
Natural fiber/natural rubber composites were fabricated by uniformly compounding natural rubber and cellulose- based natural fiber kenaf and then by compression molding. The effect of kenaf fiber content on their vulcanization behavior, hardness, tensile properties, tear strength and static and dynamic properties was investigated. The contents of kenaf fiber in the composites were 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 phr, compared to natural rubber and additives. The result indicated that various properties of natural rubber depended on the kenaf fiber content. With increasing kenaf fiber content, the torque for vulcanization of natural rubber was increased whereas the vulcanization time was reduced as well. The hardness, tensile modulus and tear strength of kenaf/natural rubber composites were gradually decreased with the fiber content whereas the tensile strength and elongation at break were decreased. Also, with increasing the kenaf fiber content the dynamic property of natural rubber was changed more greatly than the static property. The loss factor, which is closely related with the damping or absorption of the energy given to natural rubber, was proportionally increased with the fiber content.
Performance Evaluation of Bio-Composites Composed of Acetylated Kenaf Fibers and Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)
Chung, T.J. ; Lee, B.H. ; Lee, H.J. ; Kwon, H.J. ; Jang, W.B. ; Kim, H.J. ; Eom, Y.G. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 195~203
Eco-friendly materials or bio-composites were made with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as matrix polymer and kenaf fibers as filler. Also, acetylated kenaf fibers and compatibilizer were adopted in order to improve the interfacial adhesion between fiber and polymer. In this study, the effect of chemical modification and compatibilizer on the mechanical-viscoelastic and morphology properties of the bio-composites was discussed. The hydrophobic fibers by acetylation were known to show better interfacial bonding with the matrix polymer and resulted in improved performance and morphology. Viscoelastic property and glass transition temperature, however, were not nearly enhanced.
Effect of Coupling Agent and Fiber Loading on Mechanical Behavior of Chopped Jute Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Composites
Rasel, S.M. ; Nam, G.B. ; Byeon, J.M. ; Kim, B.S. ; Song, J.I. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 204~210
In this study, Jute fibers reinforced polypropylene (JFRP) composites were manufactured by injection molding technique. In order to improve the affinity and adhesion between fibers and thermoplastic matrices during manufacturing, Maleic anhydride (MA) as a coupling agent have been employed. Untreated and treated surfaces of jute fibers were characterized using SEM and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Physical properties like water absorption rate were studied. Tensile and flexural tests were carried out to evaluate the composite mechanical properties. Tensile test and bending test indicated that JFRP composites show higher strength and modulus than pure PP. In addition, strength and modulus were found to be influenced by the variation of MAPP content (1%, 2%, and 3%). Tensile fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscope. It ensures better interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrix by increasing the percentage of MAPP.
Preparation and Characterization of Wood Polymer Composite by a Twin Screw Extrusion
Lee, Jong-Hyeok ; Lee, Byung-Gab ; Park, Ki-Hun ; Bang, Dae-Suk ; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan ; Sin, Min-Cheol ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 211~217
Wood Polymer Composite (WPC) has attracted a great deal of attention in environmental industries due to renewable resources, processability, excellent physical properties and logging regulations for application to housing units and engineering construction materials. In this study, commercial WPCs were prepared by using a modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder. The effect of three main factors such as wood flour contents, coupling agent concentrations and pre-treatment of wood flour on the properties of WPCs was extensively investigated. It was found that tensile strength and thermal stability were decreased with increasing wood flour contents whereas the water absorption was increased. Addition of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (PP-g-MA) into WPC exhibited better physical properties. On the contrary, the water absorption was slightly decreased with PP-g-MA. Finally the sample, which was prepared with pre-treated wood flour, represented the highest tensile strength. However, the water absorption of the sample was increased due to the transition of crystalline structure of cellulose.
Mechanical Properties of Wood Flour Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Cycled Temperature Change
Lee, S.Y. ; Chun, S.J. ; Doh, G.H. ; Park, S.B. ; Choi, S.I. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 218~222
The effect of cycled temperature change on the mechanical properties of wood flour(50 wt.% and 70 wt.%) polypropylene WPC(Wood Plastic Composites) was investigated in this study. Flexural modulus and flexural strength of the WPC showed a decrease due to the degradation of interfacial adhesion between polymer matrix and wood flour by the freeze-thaw test regardless of the cycled number. At the higher loading level of wood flour, the reduction of the flexural modulus was remarkable. After the cycled heat-freeze test, it was found that the flexural modulus and flexural strength of the WPC were lower at the high temperature (
) and higher at the low temperature (
). At the low temperature (
) which is below glass transition temperature of polypropylene (
), WPC is in a glassy state which brings about the high stiffness and strength. At the high temperature (
), the flexural modulus and flexural strength of the WPC with 50 wt.% wood flour were lower because of the increase of polymer ductility.
Mechanical and Impact Properties and Heat Deflection Temperature of Wood Flour-reinforced Recycled Polyethylene Green Composites
Lee, Ki-Young ; Cho, Dong-Hwan ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 223~230
Considering of utilizing renewable resources and recycled plastics, green composites consisted of recycled polyethylene (PE) as matrix and eco-friendly natural fibers as reinforcement were processed and characterized in the present study. First, the wood flour/recycled polyethylene pellets with different wood flour contents were prepared by twin-screw extrusion processing. Using the pellets, wood flour/recycled polyethylene green composites were fabricated and the effects of wood flour loading on their flexural, tensile, impact properties, heat deflection temperature and fracture behavior were investigated. It was concluded that the flexural strength, flexural modulus, tensile modulus and heat deflection temperature of wood flour/recycled polyethylene green composites were increased with wood flour, whereas the tensile strength and impact strength were decreased. The fracture behavior observed by means of scanning electron microscopy supported qualitatively the tendency of the impact strength with wood flour loading, compared with the ductile fracture pattern of recycled polyethylene.
Thermal and Electrical Properties of Polyacrylate/Carbon Nanotube Composite Sheet
Choi, A.Y. ; Yoon, K.H. ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 231~236
The polyacrylate/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) composites were prepared and investigated for the application as a counter electrode in solar cell. The electrical conductivity of the composites was increased with increasing MWNT content and with the thickness of the sheet. The surface resistivity value of the composite at 50 wt% loading of MWNT was 0.36
/sq. The thermal decomposition temperature of the composites was also increased with the MWNT contents, and the increase of
was observed at the composite of polyacrylate/MWNT (50/50, w/w). The increase of storage modulus of the composites was observed, especially at the higher temperature compared to polyacrylate. The dimensional change of polyacrylate decreased over
, but that of the composite increased linearly with the temperature. The morphology of the composites stands for the good dispersion of MWNT into the polyacrylate matrix.
Influence of Reinforcing Systems on Thermal Aging Behaviors of NR Composites
Choi, Sung-Seen ; Kim, Jong-Chul ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 237~244
Five natural rubber (NR) composites with different reinforcing systems of unfilled, carbon black, carbon black with silane coupling agent, silica, and silica with silane coupling agent were thermally aged and change of the crosslink densities by the accelerated thermal aging was investigated. The crosslink densities on the whole increased as the aging time elapsed irrespective of the reinforcing systems. The crosslink density changes became noticeable by increasing the aging temperature. For carbon black-filled composites, the silane coupling agent made the crosslink density change to be increased. For silica-filled composites, however, the silane coupling agent made the crosslink density increment reduced at 60 and
and it hardly affect the degree of the crosslink density change at 80 and
. The activation energies for the crosslink density changes of the carbon black-filled samples increased continuously in a logarithmic fashion, whereas that of the silica-filled one showed a quasi-steady state ranges at aging times of 30-150 days. The activation energy of the unfilled sample increased exponentially with the aging time. The experimental results were explained with sulfur donation from the silane coupling agent, surface modification of the filler by the silane coupling agent, adsorption of curative residues on the silica surface, and release of the adsorbed curative residues.
Self Diffusion Coefficients and Free Hole Volumes of Poly(acrylonitrile)-poly(vinyl chloride) Copolymers
Kim, Nam-Jeong ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 245~250
The self diffusions and hole volumes of amorphous region of poly(acrylonitrile)-poly(vinyl chloride) fibers were investigated by experiments of stress relaxation. The experiments of stress relaxation were carried out using the tensile tester with the solvent chamber. The flow parameters of filament fibers were obtained by applying the experimental stress relaxation curves to the theoretical equation of stress relaxation. From the flow parameters, the hole volumes, self diffusions, viscosities and thermodynamic parameters of solid polymers were calculated. It was observed that the flow parameters of these samples are directly related to the hole volumes, self diffusions and flow activation energies of flow segments.
Effect of Poly(propylene-co-octene) as a Compatibilizer on Mechanical Properties and Weldline Characteristics of Polypropylene/Poly(ethylene-co-octene) Blends
Koo, Hyo-Seon ; Son, Young-Gon ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 251~256
Effect of poly(propylene-co-octene) as a compatibilizer in toughened polypropylene/ poly(ethylene-co-octene) (EOC) was investigated. The EOCs used were metallocene catalyzed commercial linear low density polyethylene and they are elastomeric materials. The poly(propylene-co-octene) was synthesized by metallocene catalyst in our laboratory to be used as a compatibilizer in PP/EOC blends. PP/EOC blends without compatibilizer shows very low mechanical properties in specimens with weldlines while incorporation of a compatibilizer significantly increases the mechanical properties of specimens with weldlines. However, compatibilized PP/EOC blends does not show increased impact property in a weldline free specimen and it is attributed to low molecular weight of the poly(propylene-co-octene) synthesized in present study. It is expected that the poly(propylene-co-octene) having increased molecular weight provides very good performance as an effective compatibilizer in toughened polypropylene/EOC blends.
Modification of Asphalt by in-situ Polymerization
Lee, Sang-Yum ; Mun, Sung-Ho ; Jin, Jung-Hoon ; Hong, Young-Keun ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 46, issue 3, 2011, Pages 257~261
We introduce a novel method that could modify neat asphalt. A polymer-forming monomer, dimethylphenol( DMP) was added to the neat asphalt and polymerization was occurred autonomously, without adding any external catalyst for the polymerization, only with oxygen molecules in the air. The polymer produced in the asphalt was polyphenyleneoxide( PPO) and it enhanced the mechanical properties of the asphalt. Compared with the neat asphalt, the tenacity and toughness of the DMP-modified asphalt were two and half times and three times high, respectively.