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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Elastomers and Composites
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Rubber Society of Korea
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Volume & Issues
Volume 51, Issue 2 - Jun 2016
Volume 51, Issue 1 - Mar 2016
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Effect of 1,3-Diphenyl-guanidine (DPG) Mixing Step on the Properties of SSBR-silica Compounds
Lim, Seok-Hwan ; Lee, Sangdae ; Lee, Noori ; Ahn, Byeong Kyu ; Park, Nam ; Kim, Wonho ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 81~92
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.81
1,3-Diphenylguanidine (DPG) is commonly used as a secondary accelerator which not only acts as booster of cure but also activating silanization reaction. The aim of this study is to increase the interaction between silica and rubber by using DPG. In this study, mixing was proceeded in two steps. The T-1 compound is mixed DPG with silica and silane coupling agent in the kneader at high temperature which is named as
mixing step. T-3 compound is mixed DPG with curatives in the two-roll mill at low temperature which is named as
mixing step. The T-2 compound is mixed a half of DPG in
mixing step and the remainder is mixed in
mixing step. Total DPG content was equal for all compounds. When DPG is mixed with silica, silane coupling agent during the
mixing step, a decrease in cure rate and an increase in scorch time can be seen. This indicates that DPG is adsorbed on the surface of silica. during rubber processing. However, bound rubber content is increased and dynamic properties are improved. These results are due to the highly accelerated silanization reaction. However, there are no significant difference in 100%, 300% modulus.
A Study on Composites of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate Copolymer and Ethylene-Propylene-Diene Rubber with Aluminum Hydroxide as a Fire Retardant
Lee, Yu Jun ; Lee, Su Bin ; Jung, Jae Young ; Lee, Dam Hee ; Cho, Ur Ryong ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 93~98
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.93
The composites of EVA/EPDM including aluminum trioxide (ATH) as a fire retardant were manufactured for the purpose of improving low temperature property and flame resistance in the rubbery materials. The ratio of EVA to EPDM didn't affect the flame resistance of the rubber composites. The addition of ATH resulted in increase of the flame resistance. In the evaluation of the cold resistance, the increasing EPDM content showed enhancement of cold resistance in the composites due to increasing low Tg EPDM. It was found out that tensile strengths of the composites showed a maximum value at 100 phr of ATH by reinforcing effect, but a minimum value at 200 phr of ATH owing to slippage between the flame retardant by the external stress. In the measurement of solvent resistance in tetrahydrofuran, the increasing ATH content yielded enhancement of solvent resistance by reducing swelling of the composite, and increasing EPDM content also resulted from increase of the solvent resistance by reduction of polarizability as well as increase of crosslink in the composites.
Synthesis of Alkoxy Modified Silicone Using Alkali Catalyst
Lee, Kangseok ; Shim, Sang Eun ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 99~105
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.99
Alkoxy modified silicone (PAMS) was synthesized from hydroxyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (OH-PDMS) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMO) under alkali catalyst (NaOH and KOH) at room temperature (
) via condensation polymerization. Then, the structural verification of the synthesized PAMS was confirmed using
-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The reaction rate of PAMSs was studied in terms of the concentration variation of alkali catalyst. The reaction rate increased with the concentration of alkali catalyst, but no correlation between conversion and concentration of alkali catalyst was observed.
Effects of Reactive Compatibilizers on the Morphology and Properties of Natural Rubber/SiO
Lee, Min Young ; Park, Jin Young ; Song, Ki Chan ; Kim, Su Kyung ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 106~112
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.106
Maleimidopropyltriethoxysilane grafted natural rubber (MISNR) was prepared by reaction of maleic anhydride grafted natural rubber and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane. MISNR was used as the compatibilizer of natural rubber/silica composites. The composites were prepared by two-step mixing procedures. The final mixtures were cured with optimum cure condition, which was established by a rheometer. Effects of the amounts of compatibilizer in the composites on the cure characteristics, morphology, thermal stability, and physical and mechanical behaviors were investigated. The composites having MISNR had shown cure characteristics and physical and mechanical properties superior to those without MISNR. Silica particles in the former appeared to be more uniform and reduced in size compared with the latter. The effects of the types of silica were also evaluated.
Effect of Surface Treated Magneto-responsible Particle on the Property of Magneto-rheological Elastomer Based on Silicone Rubber
Choi, Soyeon ; Chung, Kyungho ; Kwon, Seunghyuk ; Choi, Hyoungjin ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 113~121
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.113
Magneto-rheological elastomer (MRE) is a material which shows reversible and various modulus under magnetic field. Comparing to conventional rubber vibration isolator, MREs are able to absorb broader frequency range of vibration. These characteristic phenomena result from the orientation of magnetic particle (i.e., chain-like formation) in rubber matrix. In this study, silicone rubber was used as a matrix of MREs. Carbonyl iron particle (CIP) was used to give magnetic field reactive modulus of MRE. The surface of the CIP was modified with chemical reactants such as silane coupling agent and poly(glycidyl methacrylate), to improve interfacial adhesion between matrix and CIP. The mechanical properties of MREs were measured without the application of magnetic field. The results showed that the tensile strength was decreased while the hardness was increased with the addition of CIP. Also, surface modification of CIP resulted in the improvement of physical properties of MRE, but the degree of orientation of CIP became decreased. The analysis of MR effect was carried out using electromagnetic equipment with various magnetic flux. As the addition of CIP and magnetic flux increased, increment of MR effect was observed. Even though the surface modification of CIP gave positive effect on the mechanical properties of MRE, MR effect was decreased with the surface modification of CIP due to decrease of CIP orientation. Throughout this study, it was found that the loading amounts of CIP affected the mechanical properties of MRE, and surface property of CIP was an important factor on MR effect of MRE.
Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Polyurethane Elastomers Prepared with Different Dianiline Chain Extenders
Ahn, WonSool ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 122~127
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.122
Thermal decomposition kinetics for two different types of polyurethane elastomers prepared with 2,2'-dichloro-4,4'-methylenedianiline (MOCA) and 3,5-dimethyl-thiotoluenediamine (Ethacure-300), based on PTMG/TDI isocyanate prepolymer, were studied using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Thermograms were obtained and analyzed using Friedman (FR) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) methods for activation energy,
. The results obtained showed that decomposition reaction of both samples was observed similarly to occur through three different stages, i.e., initial stage with vaporization of low molecular weight materials, second stage of urethane linkage decompositions, and later stage of polyol segment decompositions. However, activation energy values at each stage for the sample cured with Ethacure-300 was much lower than those for the sample with MOCA, exhibiting relatively lower thermal stability for the sample with Ethacure-300 than that with MOCA.
The Effect of Surface Area of Silicas on Their Reinforcing Performance to Styrene-butadiene Rubber Compounds
Ryu, Changseok ; Kim, Sun Jung ; Kim, Do Il ; Kaang, Shinyoung ; Seo, Gon ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 128~137
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.128
The effect of the surface area of silicas on their reinforcing performance to styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds was systematically investigated. The feasibility of the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (
) as a parameter representing the characteristics of the silicas was discussed compared to the mesopore volume, c value, oil absorption, and uptake of silane. The increase in
of silicas caused a considerable increase in Mooney viscosity, minimum torque, and hysteresis loss of the silica-filled SBR compounds, while significantly enhancing their abrasion property. These changes were explained by the attrition between the hydrophilic silica surface and the hydrophobic rubber chains. As expected, the change in
did not induce any remarkable changes in the cure, processing, tensile, and dynamic properties of the silica-filled SBR compounds because the crosslinking density of the rubber chains mainly determined these properties.
Synthesis of Copoly(amide-imide)s Based on Silica Nano Particles-polyacrylamide
Min, Jun Ho ; Park, Chan Young ; Min, Seong Kee ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 138~146
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.138
It is an inconvenience for silica nano-particles to dry again when using it in that they cohere each other through moisture in the air. Acrylamide groups were introduced to improve such inconvenience and copolymerized with silica nano-particles and then we copolymerized again with polyamic acid in order to increase thermal characteristic. Amide block copolymers were prepared using silica and (3-mercaptopropyl) trimethoxysilane (MPTMS) with a siloxane group, using 2,6-Lutidine as a catalyst. Amide block polymers and copolymers were synthesized via ATRP after brominating pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and polyamic acid of methylene diphenyl diamine (MDA), using
-bromo isobutyryl bromide. Characteristic peaks of copolymer with amide and imide groups and patterns of amorphous polymers were researched by FT-IR and XRD analyses and the analysis of surface characteristic groups was conducted via XPS. A change in thermal properties was examined through DSC and TGA and solubility for solvents was also researched.
Flame Retardancy and Thermal Properties of PVC/ATH Composites Prepared by a Modular Intermeshing Co-rotating Twin Screw Extruder
Lee, Hyeongsu ; Park, Se-Ho ; Lee, Jae-Yeul ; Park, Yuri ; Jeong, Hobin ; Jhee, Kwang-Hwan ; Bang, Daesuk ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 147~153
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.147
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has been used as a general-purpose polymer because of its lower cost, good durability and mechanical properties compared to other materials. However, PVC is vulnerable to heat deformation and generates a toxic gas like hydrogen chloride. Therefore, it is important to delay or prevent the flame retardancy and thermal degradation of the PVC during the processing. It was reported that aluminum trihydroxide (ATH) improved flame retardancy as well as smoke inhibition of the virgin polymer. In this study, PVC composites by addition of ATH were compounded in a modular intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder. The PVC composites with different concentrations of ATH (0~5 phr) were analyzed. Flame retardancy of the PVC composite significantly increased depending on the ATH concentration. LOI of the composite also increased with the concentration of ATH. There were no significant differences for the thermal properties of the PVC composites with ATH.
Effect of Monomers in Vinyl Urethane Macromonomers on Dispersion Polymerization of Polystyrene
Lee, Kangseok ; Shim, Sang Eun ;
Elastomers and Composites, volume 51, issue 2, 2016, Pages 154~160
DOI : 10.7473/EC.2016.51.2.154
The four different vinyl monomers in the reaction of isocyanate-terminated polyurethane prepolymer were used for the preparation of macromonomers and successfully employed in the dispersion polymerization of styrene. The chemical structures of vinyl monomer in macromonomers influenced on the polystyrene particle characteristics, such as the conversion, weight average molecular weights (
), polydispersity index (PDI), weight average diameter (
), and uniformity. The conversion of polystyrene increased with amounts of methyl group in vinyl monomer. Also the uniformity of polystyrene particles increased with amounts of methyl group in vinyl monomer.