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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Wetlands Research
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Wetlands Society
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Nov 2014
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Aug 2014
Volume 16, Issue 2 - May 2014
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Feb 2014
Selecting the target year
Analysis of Water Quality improvement of Upper Stream for the Chung-ju Dam according to Reducing Pollution Using QUAL2E Model
Han, Chang-Wha ; Park, Jong-Seok ; Shin, Jun-Shik ; Lee, Jae-Joo ; Hwang, Ui-Gyu ; Rhee, Kyoung-Hoon ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.001
The research grasps water quality contamination source by investigating the data that are superordinate laws and the related plans implemented for establishing water quality improvement measures of upper stream for Chung-Ju Dam, present conditions of the hydraulic and hydrology, the present conditions and plans of environment basic facilities, and present conditions of main contamination source's occurrence load and discharge load, etc. The research used the QUAL2E simulation which is being widely applied to simulation of river water quality because the QUAL2E has high credibility among water quality simulations known throughout the country. On basis of this research, regulations and politic alternatives are required in order to water quality improvement upper stream for the Chung-ju dam, especially establishing processing facilities in the region where loading amount is concentrated should be considered with the additional research regarding cost-efficient facility of pollution source.
Effects of Elevated CO
and Temperate on the Growth of Endangered Species, Cicuta virosa L. in Korea
Park, Jae Hoon ; Hong, Yong Sik ; Kim, Hae Ran ; Jeong, Jung Kyu ; Jeong, Heon Mo ; You, Young Han ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.011
The effect of elevated
and temperature on ecological characteristics of Cicuta virosa L., the endangered plant were examined under ambient
+ambient temperature(AC-AT), ambient
+elevated temperature(AC-ET) and elevated
+elevated temperature for two years. Shoot length and the number of umbels were not different in three environmental gradients. The number of tillers was high in the order of EC-ET, AC-ET and AC-AT. The number of compound umbel was the lowest in the EC-ET. Fruit set rate was the highest in the AC-AT. These results mean that unsexual propagation of C. virosa may increase by promoting growth of tillers, rather than seed production under future global warming. This population growth study will be used as the important data for the research of Korean endangered species.
Calibration of Gauge Rainfall Considering Wind Effect
Shin, Hyunseok ; Noh, Huiseong ; Kim, Yonsoo ; Ly, Sidoeun ; Kim, Duckhwan ; Kim, Hungsoo ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 19~32
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.019
The purpose of this paper is to obtain reliable rainfall data for runoff simulation and other hydrological analysis by the calibration of gauge rainfall. The calibrated gauge rainfall could be close to the actual value with rainfall on the ground. In order to analyze the wind effect of ground rain gauge, we selected the rain gauge sites with and without a windshield and standard rain gauge data from Chupungryeong weather station installed by standard of WMO. Simple linear regression model and artificial neural networks were used for the calibration of rainfalls, and we verified the reliability of the calibrated rainfalls through the runoff analysis using
. Rainfall calibrated by linear regression is higher amount of rainfall in 5%~18% than actual rainfall, and the wind remarkably affects the rainfall amount in the range of wind speed of 1.6~3.3m/s. It is hard to apply the linear regression model over 5.5m/s wind speed, because there is an insufficient wind speed data over 5.5m/s and there are also some outliers. On the other hand, rainfall calibrated by neural networks is estimated lower rainfall amount in 10~20% than actual rainfall. The results of the statistical evaluations are that neural networks model is more suitable for relatively big standard deviation and average rainfall. However, the linear regression model shows more suitable for extreme values. For getting more reliable rainfall data, we may need to select the suitable model for rainfall calibration. We expect the reliable hydrologic analysis could be performed by applying the calibration method suggested in this research.
The Study for the Long-Term Rainwater Storage Quality Effect after Chlorination
Park, Heesoo ; Kim, Sungpyo ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 33~39
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.033
The purpose of this study is to monitor the rainwater flowing from the roof of buildings and to maximize the effectiveness of the rainwater storage. This study also analyses the changes in rainwater characteristics before and after subsequent chlorination disinfection. The stored rainwater was disinfected by chlorine and then analyzed for COD, TN, TP, enteric bacteria, and general microbial population changes over time. There was an observed 99% reduction of enteric bacteria and common microbes within two weeks after chlorine injection. Thus, chlorine disinfection of rainwater improves water quality for long-term storage and future use.
Analysis of Fluid Flows in a High Rate Spiral Clarifier and the Evaluation of Field Applicability for Improvement of Water Quality
Kim, Jin Han ; Jun, Se Jin ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 41~50
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.041
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the High Rate Spiral Clarifier(HRSC) availability for the improvement of polluted retention pond water quality. A lab scale and a pilot scale test was performed for this. The fluid flow patterns in a HRSC were studied using Fluent which is one of the computational fluid dynamic(CFD) programs, with inlet velocity and inlet diameter, length of body(
) and length of lower cone(Lc), angle and gap between the inverted sloping cone, the lower exit hole installed or not installed. A pilot scale experimental apparatus was made on the basis of the results from the fluid flow analysis and lab scale test, then a field test was executed for the retention pond. In the study of inside fluid flow for the experimental apparatus, we found out that the inlet velocity had a greater effect on forming spiral flow than inlet flow rate and inlet diameter. There was no observable effect on forming spiral flow LB in the range of 1.2 to
(body diameter) and Lc in the range of 0.35 to
, but decreased the spiral flow with a high ratio of
0.75. As increased the angle of the inverted sloping cone, velocity gradually dropped and evenly distributed in the inverted sloping cone. The better condition was a 10cm distance of the inverted sloping cone compared to 20cm to prevent turbulent flow. The condition that excludes the lower exit hole was better to prevent channeling and to distribute effluent flow rate evenly. From the pilot scale field test it was confirmed that particulate matters were effectively removed, therefore, this apparatus could be used for one of the plans to improve water quality for a large water body such as retention ponds.
Evaluation of Combined Vertical and Horizontal Flow Zeolite-Filled Reed Bed with Intermittent Feeding for Sewage Treatment
Seo, Jeoung-Yoon ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 51~59
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.051
A sewage was treated using serially combined vertical and horizontal flow zeolite-filled reed bed. The sewage from the student dormitory of Changwon National University was fed into the reed bed for 10 minutes every 6 hours at the hydraulic load of 314
. The reed bed depth was 100cm and the zeolite mixture was filled in the reed bed. The mixture consisted of the same volume of two types of zeolite ; 0.5~1mm and 1~3mm in diameter. pH value decreased in vertical bed, while it increased in horizontal bed. But DO concentration in the effluent of both beds was higher than that in the influent. Average removal efficiencies of the entire treatment system were 99.22% SS, 95.56% BOD, 91.02%
, 45.87% T-N, 99.88%
and 71.17% T-P. Most of T-N in the effluent was
. However, the concentration of
in the effluent was lower than 0.04 mg/L. All removal efficiencies did not show a remarkable seasonal change.
The Construction and Management of Artificial Wetland Using Emergent Macrophytes for High Biomass Production
Hong, Mun Gi ; Heo, Young Jin ; Kim, Jae Geun ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 61~72
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.061
To present a guideline on the construction and management of artificial wetlands for high biomass production, three emergent macrophytes (Phragmites australis, PA; Typha angustifolia, TA; and Zizania latifolia, ZL) were planted under two substrates conditions (general soil with and without moss peat) and two water levels (5 cm and 20 cm) and monitored for three years. ZL showed greater growth performance rather than the others not only at early growth phase in the first year [shoot height, 200 cm; above-ground dry weight (AGDW), 500
] but also in the last year (ZL, 1,100
; TA, 770
; and PA, 450
of AGDW). ZL with rapid growth at the early growth phase was not affected by naturally introduced weeds, whereas slower and poorer growth of PA and TA at the early growth phase resulted in relatively higher introduction and establishment of natural weeds. In turn, such introduced weeds negatively contributed to the growth of PA and TA particularly under shallow water (5 cm) with the substrate condition including moss peat. We suggest a plant material with rapid and great growth at the early phase such as ZL for reducing possible negative influences by the natural weeds and wild animals for high biomass production in constructed wetlands. A pre-growing process in greenhouse prior to planting might be an useful option to raise the competitiveness of those species when planting PA and/or TA. In addition, we recommend that integrated weed management system with utilizing various options at the most appropriate timing must be applied for maintaining sustainable high biomass production at the artificial wetlands.
A Study on the Development of GIS based Integrated Information System for Water Quality Management of Yeongsan River Estuary
Lee, Sung Joo ; Kim, Kye Hyun ; Park, Young Gil ; Lee, Geon Hwi ; Yoo, Jea Hyun ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 73~83
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.073
The government has recently carried out monitoring to attain a better understanding of the current situation and model for prediction of future events pertaining to water quality in the estuarine area of Yeongsan River. But many users have noted difficulties to understand and utilize the results because most monitoring and model data consist of figures and text. The aim of this study is to develop a GIS-based integrated information system to support the understanding of the current situation and prediction of future events about water quality in the estuarine area of Yeongsan River. To achieve this, a monitoring DB is assembled, a linkages model is defined, a GUI is composed, and the system development environment and system composition are defined. The monitoring data consisted of observation data from 2010 ~ 2012 in the estuarine area of Yeongsan River. The models used in the study are HSPF (Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran) for simulation of the basin and EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code) for simulation of the estuary and river. Ultimately, a GIS based system was presented for utilization and expression using monitoring and model data. The system supports prediction of the estuarine area ecological environment quantitatively and displays document type model simulation results in a map-based environment to enhance the user's spatial understanding. In future study, the system will be updated to include a decision making support system that is capable of handling estuary environment issues and support environmental assessment and development of related policies.
Effect of weight of radio-transmitters on survival of Red-tongue viper snake (Gloydius ussuriensis) and Short-tailed viper snake (Gloydius saxatilis)in the radio-transmitter implantation
Do, Min-Seock ; Shim, Jae-Han ; Choi, Young-Min ; Yoo, Jeong-Chil ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 85~92
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.085
In order to study the home range of the red-tongue viper snake (Gloydis ussuriensis) and the short-tailed viper snake (Gloydius saxatilis) belonging to the viperidae of squamat in Korea, we implanted radio-transmitters which were weighed less than 5% of individual mass in them and traced their location by radio-tracking. Surgeries for transmitter insertion were performed on 5 red-tongue viper snakes and 6 short-tailed viper snakes (total 11 individuals) and the average ratio of transmitter mass to body mass were 4.2% and 2.2%, respectively. After radio-transmitter implantation, all short-tailed viper snakes survived but 4 out of 5 red-tongue viper snakes did not survive during the convalescence stage, showing only 20% of survival rate. The results suggest that the ratio of transmitter mass to body mass should be less than 3.6% at least in these species, although previous studies have recommended various ranges from 1% to 7% as the acceptable ratios.
Comparison of Two-Dimensional Model for Inundation Analysis in Flood Plain Area
Ku, Young Hun ; Kim, Young Do ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 93~102
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.093
In the flood plain, river facilities such as sports facilities and ecological park are builded up since the late 2000s. The recent increase of rainfall intensity and flood frequency results in the immersions of parks and river facilities located in the flood plain. Therefore it is necessary to perform the numerical analysis for the extreme rain storm in the flood plain. In this study, to analyze the hydraulic impact by lowering and rising of the water level at flood plain, Both the FaSTMECH, which is a quasi-unsteady flow analysis model to be used for simulating the wet and dry, and the Nays2D, which is unsteady flow analysis model, are used in this study. Also, the flow velocity distribution and the inundation are compared over a period of the typhoon. As a result, the flow velocity distribution at flood plain showed very low values compared to the flow rate in the main channel. This means that the problem of sedimentation is more important than that of erosion in the flood plain.
Evaluation of Raingauge Network using Area Average Rainfall Estimation and the Estimation Error
Lee, Ji Ho ; Jun, Hwan Don ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 103~112
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.103
Area average rainfall estimation is important to determine the exact amount of the available water resources and the essential input data for rainfall-runoff analysis. Like that, the necessary criterion for accurate area average rainfall estimate is the uniform spatial distribution of raingauge network. In this study, we suggest the spatial distribution evaluation methodology of raingauge network to estimate better area average rainfall and after the suggested method is applied to Han River and Geum River basin. The spatial distribution of rainfall network can be quantified by the nearest neighbor index. In order to evaluate the effects of the spatial distribution of rainfall network by each basin, area average rainfall was estimated by arithmetic mean method, the Thiessen's weighting method and estimation theory for 2013's rainfall event, and evaluated the involved errors by each cases. As a result, it can be found that the estimation error at the best basin of spatial distribution was lower than the worst basin of spatial distribution.
A Methodology for Rain Gauge Network Evaluation Considering the Altitude of Rain Gauge
Lee, Ji Ho ; Jun, Hwan Don ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 113~124
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.113
The observed rainfall may be different along with the altitude of rain gauge, resulting in the fact that the characteristics of rainfall events occurred in urban or mountainous areas are different. Due to the mountainous effects, in higher altitude, the uncertainty involved in the rainfall observation gets higher so that the density of rain gauges should be more dense. Basically, a methodology for the rain gauge network evaluation, considering this altitude effect of rain gauges can account for the mountainous effects and becomes an important step for forecasting flash flood and calibrating of the radar rainfall. For this reason, in this study, we suggest a methodology for rain gauge network evaluation with consideration of the rain gauge's altitude. To explore the density of rain gauges at each level of altitude, the Equal-Altitude-Ratio of the density of rain gauges, which is based on the fixed amount of elevation and the Equal-Area-Ratio of the density of rain gauges, which is based on the fixed amount of basin area are designed. After these two methods are applied to a real watershed, it is found that the Equal-Area-Ratio generates better results for evaluation of a rain gauge network with consideration of rain gauge's altitude than the Equal-Altitude-Ratio does. In addition, for comparison between the soundness of rain gauge networks in other watersheds, the Coefficient of Variation (CV) of the rain gauge density by the Equal-Area-Ratio is served as the index for the evenness of the distribution of the rain gauge's altitude. The suggested method is applied to the five large watersheds in Korea and it is found that rain gauges installed in a watershed having less value of the CV shows more evenly distributed than the ones in a watershed having higher value of the CV.
Effect of Estimation for Time of Concentration on the Design Flood
Kwon, Ki Dae ; Lee, Jun Ho ; Kang, Mi Jeong ; Jee, Hong Kee ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 125~137
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.125
In this study, that the Kraven(II) empirical formula, the existing method to estimate the time of concentration in river basin, does not reflect the characteristics of relevant basin as it presents 3 stream velocities by section of slope was verified, and the time of concentration for the actual average stream velocity considering the characteristics of the basin was compared and analyzed by applying the continuous Kraven empirical formula, which was suggested recently by 'Design Flood Estimation Guide Line, 2012, Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs' complementing the stream velocities for the easy slope and the steep slope, to the Donghwa-Cheon, the medium size river and the modality of changes in hydrograph was examined, For the Maeho-Cheon, Wuksu-Cheon and Geumpo-Cheon, the flood runoff simulation results according to the time of concentration application empirical formula considering the characteristics of relevant basin were compared and analyzed and following conclusions were able to obtain.
Study on Training levee Dimension for Reduction of River Mouth Occlusion
Choi, Chang Jin ; Choo, Yean Moon ; Kim, Sung Bum ; Jee, Hong Kee ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 139~151
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.139
In this study, virtual confluence of
type flowing into main channel was designed to comprehend occlusion phenomenon of the mouth of river, then performed numerical analysis using the RMA-2 and SED2D model of SMS according to application of 40m, 60m, 80m, 100m Training levee corresponding to main channel width ratio. Results of simulations analysis are summarized as follows. Applying appropriate Training levee length determined by numerical analysis results, Training levee dimension for occlusion reduction was studied through the analysis of velocity, water level, bed variation at the Gamchen confluence and Wichen confluence.
Characteristics and Effective Usage of Organic Indexes in Water Environments -Lakes in Nakdong River Basin-
Kang, Meea ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 16, issue 1, 2014, Pages 153~160
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2014.16.1.153
TOC environmental standard was established to understand the pollution level accurately and to improve the water quality. It was found that the relationship between COD and TOC showed a significant coefficient(
=0.639) in four lakes for drinking water located in Nakdong River basin. The relationship between COD and TOC(
=0.774) was higher with respect to the elevated concentration level when the data was added. Resulting in the oxidation(C) was
regardless of COD concentrations. It was difficult to find a significant difference by lakes. The result showed the similar organic property in study lakes. It was necessary to evaluate the level of organic matters in consideration of characteristics and utilization of lakes to use COD data wisely until TOC data be accumulated sufficiently.