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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Wetlands Research
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Journal DOI :
Korean Wetlands Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Nov 2015
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Aug 2015
Volume 17, Issue 2 - May 2015
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Feb 2015
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A Study of Bleaching Phenomenon of Otter (Lutra lutra) Spraints in Relation to Weather Conditions and Characteristics of Sprainting Sites
Noh, Eun-Young ; Han, Sung-Yong ; Yoo, Jeong-Chil ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~10
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.001
The bleaching phenomenon of otter spraints is indicates that the age of spraints (fresh or old spraints). As previous studies on the old otter faeces (spraint) have focused only on the external changes of spraints, it has been difficult to explain the difference of the decomposition rates among old spraints. We hypothesized that the micrometeorology difference caused by various characteristics of sprainting sites such as porosity and consistency of soil could affect the extent of the decomposition rate, the solar bleaching phenomenon of spraints used as a measure of the patterns of old spraints. Sprainting sites were classified into four types (Clay, Sand, Rock and Concrete spot) and each type was divided into two groups according to the sunlight condition (Sunny site and Shady site) to measure the effect of solar radiation. Micrometeorology of the sites were evaluated by measuring temperatures and humidities of the sites during the whole season. The variations in micrometeorology of the sunny sites according to the sprainting site types were examined with correlation analyses between the factors of micrometeorology. The analyses on the bleaching phenomenon of the spraints by micrometeorology showed that the highest rate of bleaching was found at the 'Rock spot' and 'Concrete spot' of the sunny site and especially in summer, the highest rate of bleaching (
) was found at the 'Clay spot' of the sunny sites. The lowest rate of bleaching was found at the 'Sand spot' of the sunny sites. The above findings show that the difference in bleaching rates among sprainting sites was due to the seasonal or sunny condition. In addition, we found that the differences in thermal conductivity among sprainting site characteristics have resulted in different sprainting site temperature which have affected the rate of bleaching of spraints. In conclusion, this study suggests that studies of otters on their population size and home ranges using spraints as an indirect sign, should consider the effects of sprainting site characteristics and weather conditions.
Applicability Evaluation of Nitritation with Various Wastewater
Im, Jiyeol ; Gil, Kyungik ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.011
As the seriousness of water pollution resulted from nitrogen is being magnified, research has been conducted to reduce nitrogen in sewage as well as wastewater. Particularly research on innovative nitrogen removal methods that are based on the reaction of nitritation and are economically feasible and eco-friendly has been receiving attention. However, research on the applicability and efficiency of the methods based on the reaction of nitritation has not been completely done yet. Accordingly, the current study has analyzed the characteristics of sewage flowing into municipal wastewater treatment plants, primary clarifier supernatant, recycled water, and livestock wastewater and also operated a laboratory-level reactor. The result shows that recycled water and livestock wastewater contain higher-concentration nitrogen than other kinds of sewage, so they increase nitrogen loading in the water treatment line. And the result of operating a reactor shows that because of ammonium nitrogen low concentration, sewage and primary clarifier supernatant do not induce the reaction of nitritation. Also, there exist differences in the conditions of retention time inducing the reaction of nitritation by the types of sewage, and this seems to be attributed to organic compound and ammonium nitrogen concentration. Among the kinds of sewage inducing the reaction of nitritation, anaerobic digester supernatant indicates the highest efficiency.
Effect of Plant Life Cycle on Plant Settlement in Diverse Water Level
Nam, Jong Min ; Cho, Hyun Seung ; Kim, Jae Geun ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 19~25
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.019
The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of plant life cycle to plant settlement by 1 year monitoring. The subjects of monitoring are the plants (3 plant life cycle, 9 taxa) well established in the mesocosm. 18 mesocosms were divided into 3 sets and water levels were maintained at 0, 20 and 60 cm during 16 weeks from mid-May, respectively and at 0 cm except these 16 weeks. Height and population size of transplanted perennial plants (Scirpus tabernaemontani, Zizania caduciflora, Typha (Typha angustifolia and Typha orientalis)) at 1st year were not affected by diverse water level, though any more seedlings of these species were not settled at this condition. In contrast, water level condition strong influenced annual and biennial plant, relatively. As a result, timing and duration of flooding have great effect on successful settlement of annual and biennial plant without rhizome.
The 2009-based detailed distribution pattern and area of Phragmites communis-dominant and Suaeda japonica-dominant communities on the Suncheon-bay and Beolgyo estuarine wetlands
Hong, Seok Hwi ; Chun, Seung Soo ; Eom, Jin Ah ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 26~37
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.026
Halophyte distribution pattern and area in the Suncheon-bay and Beolgyo estuary coastal wetlands were analyzed using KOMPSAT-2 landsat images were taken in 2008 and 2009, and field investigations were fulfilled for confirming the precise boundaries of individual halophyte areas. The salt-marsh vegetation in those areas can be classified mainly into two dominant communities: Suaeda japonica-dominant and Phragmites communis-dominant communities. In order to identify sedimentary characteristics, tidal-flat surface leveling and sedimentary facies analysis had been conducted. The sedimentary facies of marsh area are mostly silty clayey and clay facies with a little seasonal change and its slope is very gentle (0.0007~0.002 in gradient). Phragmites communis and Suaeda japonica communities were distributed in the mud-flat zone between 0.7 m and 1.8 m higher than MSL (mean sea level): zone of 1.1~1.8 m in the former and zone of 0.7~1.3 m in the latter. In the Suncheon-bay estuarine wetland, on the basis of 2009 distribution, Phragmites communis-dominant and Suaeda japonica-dominant communities are about
in distribution area, respectively. On the other hand, Bulgyo estuarine marsh shows that the distribution areas of Phragmites communis-dominant and Suaeda japonica-dominant communities are about
and 0.031km2 in distribution area, respectively. Individual 105 and 60 dominant community areas and their distribution patterns can be well defined and indicated in the Suncheon-bay and Bulgyo estuarine marshes, respectively. The distribution pattern and area of hylophyte communities analyzed in this study based on 2008/2009 satellite images would be valuable as a base of future monitoring of salt-marsh related studies in the study area which is the most important salt-marsh research site in Korea.
The Removal of Nutrients and Heavy Metals Using Household Rain garden
Pak, Gijung ; Park, Heesoo ; Cho, Yunchul ; Kim, Sungpyo ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 38~44
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.038
In Korea, most rainfall events occur during summer which then leads to an increasing concern regarding high influx of non-point source pollutants since the pollutant loadings from these non-point sources are very significant. In particular, the first flush of roof-harvested rainfall is said to contain the most highest concentration of nutrients and heavy metals. Accordingly, it is important to develope the possible water quality management options in treating the contaminants and considering reclaimed water reuse. The rain garden could be one of suitable alternatives in addressing this issue. In this study, the development of an effective adsorption media and its application to a lab-scale rain garden was tested to evaluate the removal rate of various nutrient and organic matter (TN, TP, CODcr), and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, Pb). Results showed that carbonized peatmoss produced at higher temperature have better adsorption capacity as compared to the one produced at a lower temperature. When the carbonized peatmoss was applied as rain garden media, the highest removal of TN, TP, and CODcr was observed compared to no carbonized peatmoss applied rain garden. Therefore, this study showed that the carbonized peatmoss would be effectively applied to the rain garden for removing nutrients and heavy metals from roof-harvested rainwater.
Diagnostic assessment on vegetation damage due to hydrofluoric gas leak accident and restoration planning to mitigate the damage in a forest ecosystem around Hube Globe in Gumi
Kim, Gyung Soon ; An, Ji Hong ; Lim, Chi Hong ; Lim, Yun Kyung ; Jung, Song Hie ; Lee, Chang Seok ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 45~52
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.045
We obtained the following results from investigation on vegetation damage from 5 to 6 August, 2013, about one year after an accident that hydrofluoric acid leaked from a chemical maker, Hube Globe in Gumi. Pinus densiflora and Pinus strobus showed very severe damage. Ginko biloba, Quercus acutissima, Pinus rigida, Salix glandulosa, Hibiscus syriacus, and Lagerstroemia indica showed severe damage. Quercus variabilis, Lespedeza cyrtobotrya, and Miscanthus sinensis showed moderate damage. Quercus aliena, Smilax china, Arundidinella hirta, Ailanthus altissima, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Paulowinia coreana showed slight damage. We did not find any plants without leaf damage around there. This result means that fluoride damage still persists in this area as was known that fluoride remains for a long time in air, soil and water and exerts negative effects at all levels of an ecosystem. In addition, fluoride content contained in plant leaf depended on the distance from a fertilizer producing factory and vegetation damage tended to proportionate to the concentration in the Yeocheon industrial complex. In these respects, a measure for removal or detoxification of the remaining fluoride is urgently required around the hydrofluoric acid leak spot. Fertilizing of dolomite containing Ca and Mg, which can trap fluoride, was prepared as one of the restoration plans. In addition, phosphate fertilizing was added in order to enhance soil ameliorating effects. Furthermore, we recommend the introduction of tolerant plants as the second measure to mitigate fluoride damage. As the tolerant plants to make a new forest by replacing trees died due to hydrofluoric acid gas damage, we recommended Q. aliena and S. china, A. hirta, etc. were recommended as plant species to add mantle vegetation to the forest margin to ensure stable interior environment of the forest.
Effects of an Artificial Habitat Creation of Menyanthes trifoliata L. Using Planting Module
Heo, Jinok ; Kim, Heung-Tae ; Kim, Cheol Min ; Bae, Yeon Jae ; Kim, Jae Geun ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 53~61
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.053
Habitat creation for endangered species Menyanthes trifoliata L. using planting module represents a habitat type such as the rhizome grows horizontally to open water at the margin of the lake. The objectives of this mesocosm experiment are habitat creation with easy construction and low management effort, and to investigate the potential of providing a habitat for aquatic macroinvertebrates. Planting modules had three different substrates of bed soil, perlite and K-SOIL (artificial lightweight soil using bottom ash). These modules were established in two different size of the tub(
). According to the monitoring results, number of leaves and coverage of M. trifoliata showed significant difference with substrate and tub size. The number of leaves showed similar growth responses in bed soil (mean 22.979) and K-SOIL (mean 28.042) substrates but growth was poor in perlite substrate (mean 1.667). The number of leaves in the large tub was more than small tub (p=0.015). Similar responses were obtained with the coverage, the length of rhizome and the number of rhizome in M. trifoliata. A total of 21 taxa of aquatic macroinvertebrates including 1,145 individuals was found in the mesocosm. The Shannon diversity index and colonization index in the mesocosm were similar to the previous studies. These results suggest that the experimental mesocosm could provide sufficient habitats for aquatic macroinvertebrates. If planting modules use bed soil or K-SOIL by planting substrate, establish that taking into account open water surfaces for M. trifoliata growth and manage about 30cm of water depth control, then habitat creation for M. trifoilata will be successful.
The Comparative Studies on the Urban and Rural Landscape for the Plant Diversity Improvement in Pond Wetland
Son, Jin-Kwan ; Kong, Min-Jae ; Kang, Dong-Hyeon ; Nam, Hong-Shik ; Kim, Nam-Choon ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 62~74
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.062
Urban areas are variously under threat including deterioration of ecological functions. Many pond wetland types have been created as part of an effort to improve and restore this urban environment. This study was arranged to examine improvement plans of wetlands in urban areas by analyzing semi-natural wetlands in farm areas. As for environment for water quality, it suggested the inflow of natural water neighboring rivers or the direct inflow of rain as the improvement plans. The result which analyzed soil pH, OM, and T-N content of the soil environment mentioned that urban areas supplied artificial sluices, removed apoptotic bodies, and used artificial soil and waterproofing materials and use of natural materials in design and construction, the sluice state of the natural form, and negligence of autumn plants were suggested as the improvement plans. Florae appeared in the subject sites of the study have found that there are 35 families 69 species in urban areas and 53 families 142 species in rural areas. As the average has found that there are 18.5 families 29.3 species in 4 urban areas and 26.3 families 53.5 species in 4 rural areas, the big difference between them was analyzed. As the cause has found that there are differences in yearly plants in farming areas when compared to urban areas, creation of various basic environments including soil and water quality was suggested to make yearly plants settle down widely. Naturalized plants have found that there are no big differences between urban areas and rural areas. However, the average of the naturalized ratio in urban areas is 17.4% as the naturalized plants are about 1/4 of the appeared plants. As it was analyzed to be higher than 7.7%, the average of the naturalized ratio in farming areas as the big difference, creation of various inhabiting environments was suggested to make more yearly plants appear like the analyzed result of the life type. Consideration of placement, materials, and inhabiting environments was suggested to make creation of wetlands well appreciated to improve functions of wetlands in urban areas. It is expected that the above results of the study will be utilized in creation and improvement of the pond wetlands which can play a huge role in increase and improvement of biological diversity in urban areas.
Hydrochloric Acid Gas Removal from Iron and Steel Industry Using Micro-bubbles of a Dip Injection Wet Scrubber System
Kim, Ye-Jin ; Jung, Jae-Ouk ; Jung, Yong-Jun ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 75~79
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.075
DIWS system was introduced to treat HCl gas from the scrubber of iron and steel industry according as the regulation of air quality is expected to be changed to 2ppm. pH of condensed water at stack was increased to 6.0. While 13.3ppm of inflow HCl was introduced to DIWS system, the average exhaust gas was 0.43ppm with 96.9% of removal efficiency. Compared with HCl data of TMS, the stable removal efficiency was shown in DIWS system, but the phenomenon of data hunting was also observed with different types of TMS apparatus.
Regional Frequency Analysis for Future Precipitation from RCP Scenarios
Kim, Duck Hwan ; Hong, Seung Jin ; Choi, Chang Hyun ; Han, Dae Gun ; Lee, So Jong ; Kim, Hung Soo ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 80~90
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.080
Variability of precipitation pattern and intensity are increasing due to the urbanization and industrialization which induce increasing impervious area and the climate change. Therefore, more severe urban inundation and flood damage will be occurred by localized heavy precipitation event in the future. In this study, we analyze the future frequency based precipitation under climate change based on the regional frequency analysis. The observed precipitation data from 58 stations provided by Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA) are collected and the data period is more than 30 years. Then the frequency based precipitation for the observed data by regional frequency analysis are estimated. In order to remove the bias from the simulated precipitation by RCP scenarios, the quantile mapping method and outlier test are used. The regional frequency analysis using L-moment method(Hosking and Wallis, 1997) is performed and the future frequency based precipitation for 80, 100, and 200 years of return period are estimated. As a result, future frequency based precipitation in South Korea will be increased by 25 to 27 percent. Especially the result for Jeju Island shows that the increasing rate will be higher than other areas. Severe heavy precipitation could be more and more frequently occurred in the future due to the climate change and the runoff characteristics will be also changed by urbanization, industrialization, and climate change. Therefore, we need prepare flood prevention measures for our flood safety in the future.
A Study on the plant monitoring for artificial wetlands in the rivers
Hong, Seung-Jin ; Kim, Jung-Wook ; Jung, Ju-Young ; Kim, Duck-Hwan ; Ahn, Kyung-Soo ; Kim, Hung-Soo ; Lee, Jong-So ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 91~100
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.091
The aim of this study is to compare and analyze plant monitoring results of 2012 and 2013 for three artificial wetlands of Binae, Sedo, and Okpo areas in Namhan river, Keum river, and Nakdong river respectively. As the results, the Binae wetland in 2013 shows the same environment with 2012, that is, Willow and Common reed were dominant and the distributed plants in the wetland were Phragmites japonica Steud, Carex dispalta Boott, and Humulus japonicus in lowland of river side. Especially, Humulus japonicus was increased in summer season and Willow was increased in lowland of 초원. In Okpo wetland, Water chestnut was appeared in 2013 which it was not in 2012. Reed distribution was reduced in 2013 comparing to 2012 but Pussy willow distribution was not changed in 2013. In Sedo wetland, Secondary grassland was artificially planted in 2013 and so the colony was changed to Chinese Lespedeza and also most of plant colony was changed to Colt's-tail. Therefore, we can know that wetted transition rather than dried transition will be occurred in the Binae wetland. However, the Okpo wetland has monotonic change and so the transition will be proceeded with long time. The Sedo wetland showed wetted and dried transitions exist together. Therefore, the wetland will be changed to Reeds, Common reed, and Willow colonies.
Evaluation of Rain Garden for Infiltration Capability and Runoff Reduction Efficiency
Yoo, Chulsang ; Lee, Jinwook ; Cho, Eunsaem ; Zhu, Ju Hua ; Choi, Hanna ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 17, issue 1, 2015, Pages 101~111
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2015.17.1.101
This study conducted a field experiment to estimate the characteristics of the rain garden installed at the site near Haman, also proposed a one-dimensional model to simulate the infiltration and runoff from the rain garden. This model was used to evaluate the rain garden using the rainfall data after the installation and during the last 10 years. Also, this model was applied to the annual maximum rainfall events to quantify the size of the impervious area that the rain garden can offset the adverse effect. The results are summarized below. (1) Hydraulic conductivity of the rain garden was estimated to be about 0.0188 m/hr by the variable-stage experiment. Also, the simulation experiment using the last 10 years rainfall data over the entire roof area showed that the infiltration amount is about 90.38% out of the total rainfall. (2) Infiltration simulation of the annual maximum rainfall events during last 10 years showed that the rain garden can offset the impervious area with its size about 30 times of the rain garden surface.