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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of Wetlands Research
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Korean Wetlands Society
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Aug 2016
Volume 18, Issue 2 - May 2016
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Feb 2016
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Habitat Fragmentation by a Levee and Its Impact on Frog Population in the Civilian Control Zone
Ju, Jaehyoung ; Kim, Jae Hyun ; Kim, Seung Ho ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 113~120
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.113
We examined whether an artificial levee constructed on prime amphibian habitat influences fragmentation. Four different sites on both sides of a levee in the Civilian Control Zone(CCZ) were probed. Sites 1 and 2 are rice paddies on one side of the levee, and Site 3 is the stream that locates in the same side. All the three sites have water conditions of seasonal variance. On the other side, Site 4 consists of rice paddies with a stable condition of water supply, irrigated through a canal. The research sites were frequented and the frog populations were closely monitored. The investigation identified five species. Pelophylax nigromaculatus was the most frequent (n=295), followed by Hyla japonica (n=220) and Glandirana rugosa (n=124). Three Bufo gargarizans and eight Rana coreana were also found. The amphibians, however, were found to relocate themselves according to water condition to rice paddies or stream only within one side of the levee. Despite having ample sources of water and foods, Site 4 lacked large populations of frogs, even when droughts came. Both the species dominance index and the richness index indicated a more favorable living condition of the one side of the levee (Sites 1 and 2) over the other.
Determination of Parameters for the Clark Model based on Observed Hydrological Data
Ahn, Tae Jin ; Jeon, Hyun Chul ; Kim, Min Hyeok ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 121~131
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.121
The determination of feasible design flood is the most important to control flood damage in river management. Concentration time and storage constant in the Clark unit hydrograph method mainly affects magnitude of peak flood and shape of hydrograph. Model parameters should be calibrated using observed discharge but due to deficiency of observed data the parameters have been adopted by empirical formula. This study is to suggest concentration time and storage constant based on the observed rainfall-runoff data at GongDo stage station in the Ansung river basin. To do this, five criteria have been suggested to compute root mean square error(RMSE) and residual of oserved value and computed one. Once concentration time and storage constant have been determined from three rainfall-runoff event selected at the station, the five criteria based on observed hydrograph and computed hydrograph by the Clark model have been computed to determine the value of concentration time and storage constant. A criteria has been proposed to determine concentration time and storage constant based on the results of the observed hydrograph and the Clark model. It has also been shown that an exponent value of concentration time-cumulative area curve should be determined based on the shape of watershed.
Revising Passive Satellite-based Soil Moisture Retrievals over East Asia Using SMOS (MIRAS) and GCOM-W1 (AMSR2) Satellite and GLDAS Dataset
Kim, Hyunglok ; Kim, Seongkyun ; Jeong, Jeahwan ; Shin, Incheol ; Shin, Jinho ; Choi, Minha ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 132~147
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.132
In this study the Microwave Imaging Radiometer using Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) sensor onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) sensor onboard the Global Change Observation Mission-Water (GCOM-W1) based soil moisture retrievals were revised to obtain better accuracy of soil moisture and higher data acquisition rate over East Asia. These satellite-based soil moisture products are revised against a reference land model data set, called Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS), using Cumulative Distribution Function (CDF) matching and regression approach. Since MIRAS sensor is perturbed by radio frequency interferences (RFI), the worst part of soil moisture retrieval, East Asia, constantly have been undergoing loss of data acquisition rate. To overcome this limitation, the threshold of RFI, DQX, and composite days were suggested to increase data acquisition rate while maintaining appropriate data quality through comparison of land surface model data set. The revised MIRAS and AMSR2 products were compared with in-situ soil moisture and land model data set. The results showed that the revising process increased correlation coefficient values of SMOS and AMSR2 averagely 27% 11% and decreased the root mean square deviation (RMSD) decreased 61% and 57% as compared to in-situ data set. In addition, when the revised products' correlation coefficient values are calculated with model data set, about 80% and 90% of pixels' correlation coefficients of SMOS and AMSR2 increased and all pixels' RMSD decreased. Through our CDF-based revising processes, we propose the way of mutual supplementation of MIRAS and AMSR2 soil moisture retrievals.
A Study on Channel Flood Routing Using Nonlinear Regression Equation for the Travel Time
Kim, Sang Ho ; Lee, Chang Hee ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 148~153
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.148
Hydraulic and hydrological flood routing methods are commonly used to analyze temporal and spatial flood influences of flood wave through a river reach. Hydrological flood routing method has relatively more simple and reasonable performance accuracy compared to the hydraulic method. Storage constant used in Muskingum method widely applied in hydrological flood routing is very similar to the travel time. Focusing on this point, in this study, we estimate the travel time from HEC-RAS results to estimate storage constant, and develop a non-linear regression equation for the travel time using reach length, channel slope, and discharge. The estimated flow by Muskingum model with storage constant of nonlinear equation is compared with the flow calculated by applying the HEC-RAS 1-D unsteady flow simulation. In addition, this study examines the effect on the weighting factor changes and interval reach divisions; peak discharge increases with the bigger weighting factor, and RMSE decreases with the fragmented division.
Determination of Flood Reduction Alternatives for responding to climate change in Gyeongan Watershed
Han, Daegun ; Choi, Changhyun ; Kim, Duckhwan ; Jung, Jaewon ; Kim, Jungwook ; Kim, Soo Jun ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 154~165
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.154
Recently, the frequency of extreme rainfall event has increased due to climate change and impermeable area also has increased due to rapid urbanization. Therefore, we ought to prepare countermeasures for flood reduction to reduce the damage. To consider climate change, the frequency based rainfall was calculated according to the aimed period(reference : 1971~2010, Target period I : 2011~2040, Target period II : 2041~2070, Target period III : 2071~2100) and the flood discharge was also calculated by climate change using HEC-HMS model. Also, the flood elevation was calculated by each alternative through HEC-RAS model, setting 5 sizes of drainage pumps and reservoirs respectively. The flood map was constructed using topographical data and flood elevation, and the economic analysis was conducted for reduction of flood damage using Multi dimension - Flood Damage Analysis, MD-FDA. As a result of the analysis on the flood control effect, a head of drainage pump was reduced by 0.06m up to 0.44m while it was reduced by 0.01m up to 1.86m in the case of a detention pond. The flooded area shrunk by up to 32.64% from 0.3% and inundation depth also dropped. As a result of a comparison of the Benefit/Cost index estimated by the economic analysis, detention pond E in period I and pump D in period II and III were deemed appropriate as an alternative for climate change. The results are expected to be used as good practices when implementing the flood control works considering climate change.
Estimation of Land Surface Energy Fluxes using CLM and VIC model
Kim, Daeun ; Ray, Ram L. ; King, Seokkoo ; Choi, Minha ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 166~172
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.166
Accurate understanding of land surface is essential to analyze energy exchanges between earth surface and atmosphere. For the quantization of energy fluxes, the various researches about Land Surface Model(LSM) have been progressed. Among the various LSMs, the researches using Common Land Model(CLM) and Variable Infiltration Capacity(VIC) model are performed briskly. The CLM which is advanced LSM can calculate realistic results with few user defined parameters. The VIC model which is also typical LSM is widely used for estimation of energy fluxes and runoff in various fields. In this study, the energy fluxes which are net radiation, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux were estimated using CLM and VIC model at Southern Sierra-Critical Zone Observatory(SS-CZO) site in California, United States. In case of net radiation and sensible heat flux, both models showed good agreement with observations, however, the CLM showed underestimated patterns of net radiation and sensible heat flux during precipitation period. In case of latent heat flux, the CLM represented better estimation of latent heat flux than VIC model which underestimated the latent heat flux. Through the estimation of energy fluxes and analysis of models' pros and cons, the applicability of CLM and VIC models and need of multi-model application were identified.
The Change Analysis of Plant Diversity in Protected Horticulture of Agricultural Ecosystems
Son, Jin-Kwan ; Kong, Min-Jae ; Kang, Dong-Hyeon ; Park, Min-Jung ; Yun, Sung-Wook ; Lee, Si-Young ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 173~182
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.173
Although the ecosystem extends numerous functions for the benefit of humankind, construction of horticultural facilities can potentially lead to the degeneration of some of these functions owing to the expansion of impervious regions and loss of habitats. Thus, this study aimed to examine the effect of construction of horticultural facilities on plant biodiversity. Analysis of the vegetation distribution characteristics showed that horticultural facilities had significantly lower plant diversity than did rice paddies. Hence, the proposed approach involved low-impact development, arrangement of habitat space, plant preservation, restricted use of chemical fertilizer, habitat creation, and reduced preservation cost. Lifestyle analysis suggested the importance of developing favorable environments for the growth of annual plants and aquatic plants. In all, 20 species of naturalized plants belonging to 10 families were identified. Furthermore, the proportion of these naturalized plants was higher in glass greenhouses and multi-span greenhouses, suggesting the advantages of employing natural soil mulching while avoiding concrete mulching. Statistical analysis was performed to validate the results, which suggested that impervious regions be converted to natural soils. Collectively, the findings of this study are expected to be used for establishing policies for the construction of eco-friendly and ecological horticultural facilities; this may aid the maintenance of sustainable agricultural landscapes and large-scale development of the reclaimed lands.
Evaluation of the Performance of Woodchip-filled Infiltration Trench Treating Stormwater from Highway
Park, Kisoo ; Kang, Heeman ; Kim, Youngchul ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 183~193
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.183
In this study, design and performance of infiltration trench using woodchip as media for treating stormwater from highway were examined through field monitoring. Average reduction efficiency for TSS, COD, BOD, TN, and TP was 88%, 94%, 85%, 80%, and 75% respectively, which is similar to values reported by other studies and design manuals even though direct comparison is not possible due to different monitoring and design conditions. Mean field infiltration rate estimated by measuring the change of water depth inside the observation well was about 40mm/hr, and the time taken for complete infiltration was about 0.83days, which corresponds well with design criteria recommended by MOE guidelines in Korea. In addition, according to analysis of infiltration rate and reduction efficiency, effective rainfall depth applied for determining water quality volume(WQv), 5mm was found to be properly established as design criteria. Woodchip must be considered and included as an alternative media together with crushed rock and gravel into the design guidelines because it has more advantages in terms of weight, porosity, cost, and easiness of management than other media materials.
Cost-effective assessment of filter media for treating stormwater runoff in LID facilities
Lee, Soyoung ; Choi, Jiyeon ; Hong, Jungsun ; Choi, Hyeseon ; Kim, Lee-Hyung ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 194~200
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.194
The impervious surface rate increased by urbanization causes various problems on the environment such as water cycle distortion, heat island effect, and non-point pollutant discharges. The Low Impact Development (LID) techniques are significantly considered as an important tool for stormwater management in urban areas and development projects. The main mechanisms of LID technologies are hydrological and environmental pollution reduction among soils, media, microorganisms, and plants. Especially, the media provides important functions on permeability and retention rate of stormwater runoff in LID facilities. Therefore, this research was performed to assess the pollutant removal efficiency for different types of media such as zeolite, wood chip, bottom ash, and bio-ceramic. All media show high pollutant removal efficiency of more than 60% for particulate materials and heavy metals. Double layered media is more effective in reducing heavy metals by providing diverse sizes of micro-pores and macro-pores compared to the single layered media. The results recommend the use of different sizes of media application is more cost-effective in LID than a single size of media. Furthermore, soluble proportion of total heavy metal in the stormwater is an important component in proper media selection and arrangement.
Assessment of Salt Resistance and Performances of LID Applicable Plants
Choi, Hyeseon ; Hong, Jungsun ; Lee, Soyung ; Kim, Lee-Hyung ;
Journal of Wetlands Research, volume 18, issue 2, 2016, Pages 201~207
DOI : 10.17663/JWR.2016.18.2.201
In LID facilities treating stormwater runoff, various kinds of plants are applied for water circulation recovery and pollutant reduction. However, rapid changes of soil moisture due to the use of porous media and spread of deicing material during winter season cause slow plant growth that detrimentally leads to many problems including death of plants. Therefore, this study was performed to evaluate the salt resistance of plants, its effects on pollutants removal, and water circulation recovery. Eight different kinds of plants applicable to an LID facility were selected for the experiment, which were Bridal wreath (Spiraea japonica, S.J), Azalea (Rhododendron indicum, R.I), Dawn Redwood (Metasequoia glyptostroboides, M.G), Sweet flag (Acorus calamus A.C), Dwarf fan-shape columbine(Aquilegia flabellata, A.F), Pink (Dianthus chinensis, D.C), Pratia pedunculata (Pratia pedunculata, P.B) and Marigold (Tagetes patula, T.P). Woody plants such as S.P, R.I, and M.G appear to have less salt resistance compared to the other herbaceous plants. Specifically, M.G achieved the highest salt resistance among the other woody plants being followed by S.P, and R.I, respectively. For herbaceous plants, T.L and D.C have the higher salt resistances than that of A.C, P.B, and A.F, respectively. Regardless of the influence of salt to most of the plants, TN and TP were reduced more than 60% and the study suggests the M.G showed high pollutant removal efficiency and provided better water circulation by means of active photosynthesis and respiration due to higher growth.