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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 10, Issue 4 - Dec 1982
Volume 10, Issue 3 - Sep 1982
Volume 10, Issue 2 - Jun 1982
Volume 10, Issue 1 - Mar 1982
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The Mechanical Properties for Commercial Woods in Korea
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 1~2
The Mechanical Properties of Paulownia tomentosa and Paulownia coreana in Korea
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 3~3
The Equilibrium Moisture Content - Relative Humidity Relationship of Tropical Woods
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 4~12
1. Under the request of the Dept. of Navy, U.S.A. this investigation has been done as a part work of the Navy Research Project of Tropical Woods at the Wood Technology Laboratory, School of Forestry, Yale University, New Haven, Conn., U.S.A. 2. In order to determine the equilibrium moisture content and hysteresis loop of three tropical woods (Ocotea, Tablebuia, and Hymenaea) which have not been tested the physical properties, this investigation has made with small thin specimens (1.5"
0.4) under four different controlled relative humidity conditions (that is, 21%, 53%, 60%, and 83%). 3. As the result, the equilibrium moisture content and hysteresis loop of three tropical woods have been shown in the Table and Figures 2, 3 and 4. 4. According to the results, it is concluded that there are the considerable differences in the equilibrium moisture content under the same relative humidity condition and the type of hysteresis loop between different species which have been tested. 5. Desorption of lumber with slightly oscillating humidity of each species tested, has shown on the Table 9 and it has almost the same tendency of results showing the difference between species as the small specimen. 6. Although it is hard to compare the difference of results, E.M.C., and hysteresis between tropical wood and woods from temperate zone, there are, however, still some difference between species. 7. The author wishes to acknowledge my indebtedness to Prof. Wangaard, and Prof. Dickinson for the competent guidance and good advice on this study, and also to Mr. Clanchs for the help in getting materials for the experiment.
A Study on the Effect of Water Soluble Extractive upon Physical Properties of Wood
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 13~44
1. Since long time ago, it has been talked about that soaking wood into water for a long time would be profitable for the decreasing of defects such as checking, cupping and bow due to the undue-shrinking and swelling. There are, however, no any actual data providing this fact definitly, although there are some guesses that water soluble extractives might effect on this problem. On the other hand, this is a few work which has been done about the effect of water soluble extractives upon the some physical properties of wood and that it might be related to the above mentioned problem. If man does account for that whether soaking wood into water for a long time would be profitable for the decreasing of defects due to the undue-shrinking and swelling in comparison with unsoaking wood or not, it may bring a great contribution on the reasonable uses of wood. To account for the effect of water soluble extractives upon physical properties of wood, this study has been made at the wood technology laboratory, School of Forestry, Yale university, under competent guidance of Dr. F. F. Wangaard, with the following three different species which had been provided at the same laboratory. 1. Pinus strobus 2. Quercus borealis 3. Hymenaea courbaril 2. The physical properties investigated in this study are as follows. a. Equilibrium moisture content at different relative humidity conditions. b. Shrinkage value from gre condition to different relative humidity conditions and oven dry condition. c. Swelling value from oven dry condition to different relative humidity conditions. d. Specific gravity 3. In order to investigate the effect of water soluble extractives upon physical properties of wood, the experiment has been carried out with two differently treated specimens, that is, one has been treated into water and the other into sugar solution, and with controlled specimens. 4. The quantity of water soluble extractives of each species and the group of chemical compounds in the extracted liquid from each species have shown in Table 36. Between species, there is some difference in quantity of extractives and group of chemical compounds. 5. In the case of equilibrium moisture contents at different relative humidity condition, (a) Except the desorption case at 80% R. H. C. (Relative Humidity Condition), there is a definite line between untreated specimens and treated specimens that is, untreated specimens hold water more than treated specimens at the same R.H.C. (b) The specimens treated into sugar solution have shown almost the same tendency in results compared with the untreated specimens. (c) Between species, there is no any definite relation in equilibrium moisture content each other, however E. M. C. in heartwood of pine is lesser than in sapwood. This might cause from the difference of wood anatomical structure. 6. In the case of shrinkage, (a) The shrinkage value of the treated specimen into water is more than that of the untreated specimens, except anyone case of heartwood of pine at 80% R. H. C. (b) The shrinkage value of treated specimens in the sugar solution is less than that of the others and has almost the same tendency to the untreated specimens. It would mean that the penetration of some sugar into the wood can decrease the shrinkage value of wood. (c) Between species, the shrinkage value of heartwood of pine is less than sapwood of the same, shrinkage value of oak is the largest, Hymenaea is lesser than oak and more than pine. (d) Directional difference of shrinkage value through all species can also see as other all kind of species previously tested. (e) There is a definite relation in between the difference of shrinkage value of treated and untreated specimens and amount of extractives, that is, increasing extractives gives increasing the difference of shrinkage value between treated and untreated specimens. 7. In the case of swelling, (a) The swelling value of treated specimens is greater than that of the untreated specimens through all cases. (b) In comparison with the tangential direction and radial direction, the swelling value of tangential direction is larger than that of radial direction in the same species. (c) Between species, the largest one in swelling values is oak and the smallest pine heartwood, there are also a tendency that species which shrink more swell also more and, on the contrary, species which shrink lesser swell also lesser than the others. 8. In the case of specific gravity, (a) The specific gravity of the treated specimens is larger than that of untreated specimens. This reversed value between treated and untreated specimens has been resulted from the volume of specimen of oven dry condition. (b) Between species, there are differences, that is, the specific gravity of Hymenaea is the largest one and the sapwood of pine is the smallest. 9. Through this investigation, it has been concluded that soaking wood into plain water before use without any special consideration may bring more hastful results than unsoaking for use of wood. However soaking wood into the some specially provided solutions such as salt water or inorganic matter may be dissolved in it, can be profitable for the decreasing shrinkage and swelling, checking, shaking and bow etc. if soaking wood into plain water might bring the decreasing defects, it might come from even shrinking and swelling through all dimension.
A Study on Anatomical and Physical Properties of Exotic Species (First Report; Pinus banksiana)
Shim, Chong-Supp ; Jo, Jae-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 45~45
There are many important exotic species in Korea, such as white pine, pitch pine, jack pine, oak, ash, etc. Some of them are already being used for various construction purposes, in spite of their history imported to and cultivated in Korea being very young. No study was carried out on the various properties of these exotic species, which arc needed for their proper use at present.
A Study on Anatomical and Physical Properties of Imported Woods
Shim, Chong-Supp ; Jo, Jae-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 46~47
1. The physical and anatomical properties investigated in this study are the ones, which may give more effect on absorption of preservatives, such as variation of annual ring, specific gravity, shrinkage, E.M.C. of desorption and adsorption at 70 percent relative humidity condition, general and minute properties of wood. 2. On this study, the positive effects of wood structure, in particular, the appearances of tyloses in vessel element upon the absorption of creosote were observed. 3. Thirteen percent sodium chloride solution treatment and boiling hot water treatment have shown poor results to improve the preservative absorption characteristics of tested species however, some slight difference between treated and control could be seen. (see Tables 6 and 7).
Anatomical Identification of Imported Cross Tie Woods for Rail Road in Korea
Lee, Phil-Woo ; Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 48~51
Studies on Properties and Qualities of Common Hardwoods in Korea
Jung, Hee-Suk ; Park, Hi-Yang ; Jo, Jae-Myeong ; Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 52~67
We have relatively heavy stocks of hardwood which consist of inferior and nonproductive natural hardwood species in Korea. As conception above to develope these forest resources, the study was carried out to obtain the basical data for the reasonable and efficient utilization of hardwoods. The sample trees were selected 11 natural hardwood species grown in Kangwon-do region and Kwangnoong Experimental Forest. We have investigated anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of them. Especially, Quercus species which is a major species in the forests was investigated on qualities of trees, logs and lumbers, recevery of bucking and lumber yield, etc.
Studies on the Properties of Populus Grown in Korea
Jo, Jae-Myeong ; Kang, Sun-Goo ; Lee, Yong-Dae ; Jung, Hee-Suk ; Ahn, Jung-Mo ; Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 68~87
In Korea, this is the situation at moment that the total demand of timber in 1972 is more than 5 million cubic meters. On the other hand, however, the available domestic supply of timber at the same year is only about, 1 million cubic meters. A great unbalancing between demand and supply of timber has been prevailing. To solve this hard problem, it has been necessitiated to build up the forest stocks as early as possible with fast grown species such as poplar. Under circumstances, poplar plantations which have been carryed on government and private have reached to large area of 116,603 hectors from 1962 up to date. It has now be come a principal timber resources in this country, and required the basic study on various properties of wood for it's proper utilization, since it has not been made of any systematic study on the properties of Populus grown in Korea. In order to investigate the properties such as anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of nine different species (P. euramericana Guiner I-214. P. euramericana Guiner I-476, P. deltoides Marsh, P. nigra var. italica (Muchk) Koeme, P. alba L.,P. alba
glandulosa P. maximowiczii Henry, P. koreana Rehder, P. davidiana Dode) of poplar for their proper use and development of new ways of grading processing and quality improving, this study has been made by the Forest Research Institute.
A Study on the Physical Properties of Heartwood and Sapwood of Red Pine(Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) Grown in Gangweon - do
Shim, Chong-Supp ; Jung, Hee-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 88~95
In order to investigate the physical properties of pine wood (Pinus desiflora S. et Z.) grown in Gangweondo this study has been carried out. The properties studied are percentage of latewood portion occupied in each cross section, specific gravity, crushing strength and relationships between them, respectively. The results summarized are as follows: As far as percentage of latewood portion and specific gravity are concerned, no differences between heartwood and sapwood have been seen, however, the crushing strength of the sapwood has shown larger value than that of the heartwood. 2. Width of annual ring have a defined effect on percentage of latewood and crushing strength, but specific gravity is not influenced significantly by width of annual ring. Percentage of latewood and crushing strength increased with decreasing width of annual ring (Tables 2 & 3). 3. Linear relationships between specific gravity and percentage of latewood, crushing strength and percentage of latewood, crushing strength and specific gravity for both heartwood and sapwood of pine have respectively been seen. Furthermore heartwood and sapwood have shown different patterns of variation as the following equations and Figures 1,2 and 3.
On the Wood Properties of Genus Pinus Grown in Korea
Jo, Jae-Myeong ; Kang, Sun-Goo ; Ahn, Jung-Mo ; Lee, Chan-Ho ; Jo, Nam-Suk ; Shim, Chong-Supp ; Jung, Hee-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 96~108
Pinus is one of the most important species supplying domestic industrial timbers such as constitutional lumber, pulpwood, and mine props. It occupies nearly 50 percent of the total forest resources in Korea. With above conception, to develop this forest resources and to obtain the basic data on the reasonable and effective utilization of Pinus, this study was carried out. Five species (P. koraiensis S. et Z., P. densiflora S. et Z., P. thunbergii Parlat, P. densiflara far erecta, P. rigida Miller) grown in Kwangnoong experimental forest stand, Chungcheongnam-Do, and Gangwon-Do regions were selected as sample trees. Anatomical, physical, mechanical and chemical properties of them were investigated.
Annual Equilibrium Moisture Content of Wood in Korea
Jo, Jae-Myeong ; Kang, Sun-Goo ; Shim, Chong-Supp ; Jung, Hee-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 109~117
In order to investigate the annual mean equilibrium moisture content (EMC), the equilibrium moisture content investigated were the desorbed - and adsorbed equilibrium moisture content with two end-matched samples for red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.), Douglas fir (Pseadotsuga menziesii Franco), oak (Quercus mongolica Fischer) and red lauan (Shorea spp.) in instrument screen at forest experiment station located in Seoul, Chuncheon, Daejeon, Kyungju, Jinju and Gwangju area for four years (1970. 1 - 1973. 12). The results summarized were as follows. 1. The annual mean desorbed equilibrium moisture content of red pine, Douglar fir, oak and red lauan were 14.8, 13.7, 14.0 and 14.2 percent respectively and higher than the annual mean adsorbed equilibrium moisture content of those species. 2. The annual mean desorbed - and adsorbed equilibrium moisture content in central areas (Seoul, Chuncheon, Daejeon) were higher than those in southern areas (Kyungju, Jinju, Gwangju). 3. On the whole, the monthly mean desorbed - and adsorbed equilibrium moisture content were lowest in April and highest in August though difference of month in areas. 4. Average and range of annual national equilibrium moisture content was 12.3 ~ 14.2 ~ 15.7 percent for desorbed equilibrium moisture content and 11.3 ~ 13.2 ~ 14.7 percent for adsorbed equilibrium moisture content and 12.0 ~ 14.1 ~ 16.4 percent for calculated equilibrium moisture content based on tempera.
The Effect of Variation of Assembly Time on Glue Bond Strength
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 118~131
1. In order to investigate the effect of variation of assembly time on glue bond strength, and to determine the optimum range of assembly time with given glue, this experiment was made at the suggestion of the Wood Technology Laboratory, School of Forestry, Yale University. 2. For this investigation, three-ply-plywoods with 1/22 inch, birch veneer, phenolic resin, and soybean glue were made at the following variation of assembly time, that is, 1, 5, 10, 25, 35, 50, and 70 minutes, under both open and closed assembly manners, and the shear strength test at dry and wet were adoptted. 3. The shear strength and wood failure of each plywood panel constructed at the given assembly time have been illustrated in Tables 1, 2, 3 and 4. It has shown that there is a remarkable tendency, for increasing assembly time to give lower shear strength and wood failure throughout almost all cases. The effective range of assembly time of tested glues in this investigation for both open and closed assembly are summarized in the Table 7. Thus, allowable assembly time for Phenolic resin may be up to 10 minutes under open assembly and up to 50 minutes under closed assembly. For soybean glue, the permissible assembly time may be up to 5 minutes under open assembly and up to 15 minutes under closed assembly. The allowable assembly time for open assembly with the same glue is reduced by approximately one third or more than one third as compared with closed assembly time. This might mean that the closed asembly time for these glues is more practical than the open assembly.
The Creosote Absorption Rate for Commercial Woods in Korea
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 132~132
A Study on the Effect of Moisture Content of Wood upon the Absorption on Zinc Chloride Solution
Shim, Chong-Supp ; Shin, Dong-So ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 133~134
This experiment has been made to investigate the absorption of watersoluble zinc chloride by Pinus densiflora S. et Z. at different moisture content, under soaking process, to decide the optimum content condition for the maximum absorption of zinc chloride by the wood tested and to investigate the concentration of zinc chloride affecting each moisture content of wood. Material was cut in the Dept. of Forest, College of Agr. S.N.U. Suwon, Korea. Sample was divided into sap and heartwood group and cut
in size, having exact three dimensions, using the part of D.B.H. The numbers of sample were 20 pieces for each moisture content condition for both sap and heartwood. Especially, the samples were protected from exposure to keep moisture content in green condition. The ranges of moisture content tested were as the table 3 and 4. The conclusions were as follows: 1. With 3% zinc chloride solution, the rate of absorption decreased with the time increased, if the air seasoned Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) was treated in steeping process. Initial absorption for 30 minutes was more than 50% of total absorpon for 24 hours. 2. Rate of absorption was same under the green condition, while rate of absorption under the moisture content 7 to 30% varied. 3. Although it was not quite proportional change in the absorption with the difference of moisture content, the great change in the absorption occured by seasoning. With exception sap green condition, sapwood twice more permeable than the heartwood in the oven dried condition and it has been observed the nearly same amount of absorption at the moisture content of 7%, 10% and 15% respectively in heartwood. 4. It was better from water in wood from view-point of absorption of zinc chloride solution, but it was difficult practically to obtain the smallest moisture content, and then it was decided that values of allowable moisture content, on the basis of mean absorption, were 15% to 20% in the sapwood, and in the heartwood, 10% to 15%. The mean absorption for each moisture content in the sap and the heartwood were as following. 5. In general, the concentration of zinc chloride after steeping was nearly same between moisture content and sap and heartwood respectively.
A Study on the Preservative Treatment of Wood by Osmose Process
Shim, Chong-Supp ; Jo, Jae-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 135~151
In order to investigate the effectiveness of Osmose process for the practical treatment of wood this study has been made using water soluble preservatives such as Malenit and chromated zinc chloride. The results obtained in this investigation are as follows: 1. The penetration of Malenit in sapwood has been observed deeper than that of chromated zinc chloride for all species tested in this investigation. 2. The penetration of preservatives applied in soft wood, ie. Pinus densiflora and Larix leptolepis has been observed better results than that of hard wood, i.e., Quercus accutissima and Carpinus laxiflora. 3. The longer stack covering, despite of preservatives applied and size of wood tested, has given better penetration for all species tested, and the fastest diffusion has been occured in 15 days from they day started. Following after 15 days diffusion had gradualy become slower. 4. The length of time needed for effective penetration has taken 45 days for all species tested, reaching twenty millimeters (20mm) in depth in case of Malnit, that means also more than 50% of penetration into sapwood portion. However it has taken 45 days fer Pinus densiflora and Larix leptolepis, reaching fifteen millimeters (15mm) and 60 days for Quercus accutissima and Carpinus laxiflora, reaching same fifteen millimeters in case of chromated zinc chloride, that means also less than 50% (except 50% for Larix) of penetration into sapwood portion. 5. Deeper penetration of preservatives from the wood surface has been observed in the larger wood than the smaller wood for all species tested, although the penetration ratio between the width of sapwood and the length penetrated has been observed smaller in larger wood than smaller wood. 6. The relation between moisture content of wood and the penetration of preservatives into wood tested has shown the linear regression, that is, the more moisture content brought the deeper penetration. 7. Following the result obtained at this investigation osmose process with Malenit applied has indicated as a useable process for the none pressure treatment of wood.
The Effect of Pretreatment of Veneer on the Improvement of Plywood Quality
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 152~164
1. In order to make the improvement of plywood quality, this study has been made. The pretreatments applied to the veneers are as follows. a) The soaking treatment of the veneer in 30 percent methanol solution for 24 hours was applied to remove some resinous materials which may cause many stain discolouring on the face of finished plywood. b) The preservative treatment of the veneer in 2 percent malenit solution for 2 to 3 minutes was adopted to make resistance against decay and insect damages. c) The fire retardant treatment of the veneer in 40 percent ammonium phosphate solution for 2 hours was applied to give retardation effect against fire burning. 2. The results summarized in this study are as follows. a) One percent resinous materials was extracted, after the soaking of the veneers in 30 percent diluted methanol. b) No marks of the dirty stains of resinous materials on the face of the treated plywood was shown, although many quite dirty stains on the face of untreated plywood have contrary seen. c) However, the strip shear test strength of the treated plywood was not decreased. It means that there is no difference in the strength between the treated plywood and the untreated plywood. The strength values were 25.08 kg/
and 24.98 kg/
, respectively. d) The strip shear test strength of plywood made of the treated veneers in 2 percent malenit solution was not decreased. e) The slight decrease of the strip shear test strength of the treated plywood made of the treated veneer in 40 percent ammonuim phosphate solution was shown. However, the remarkable difference of the fire retardation activities between the treated specimens and the untreated specimens has seen as in Table 10, that is, the fire proofed specimens had taken about 28 seconds to start to burn, while the untreated specimens had taken 15 seconds to reach to burning. This means that the fire retardation effect of the fire proofed plywood was greater than that of the unproofed plywood.
The Effect of the Preservative Treatment of the Plywood on Shear-Strength and Decaying Properties
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 165~165
In order to improve decaying properties of the plywood, the effectiveness of the Malenit treatment on the shear strength and decaying properties of the plywood has been investigated. The results are as follows. 1. No decrease of the shear strength of the plywood has shown despite of plywood treatment with Malenit right after plywood made or veneer treated with the same preservative prior to plywood manu. factured. 2. The effectiveness of Malenit treatment on decaying property of the plywood has shown much greater than that of the untreated plywood and red pine sapwood. 3. Weight decreases of the test specimens due to the infection of the different fungi have seen in different ways. If fungi infected weight decreases of the specimens are different in it's degree due to the fungi.
Studies on the Effect of Diffusion Process to Decay Resistance of Mine Props
Shim, Chong-Supp ; Shin, Dong-So ; Jung, Hee-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 166~166
This study has been made to make an observation regarding present status of the coal mine props which is desperately needed for coal production, despite of great shortage of the timber resources in this country, and investigate the effects of diffusion process on the decay resistances of the mine props as applied preservatives of Malenit and chromated zinc chloride. The results are as follows. 1. Present status of the coal mine props Total demand of coal mine props in the year of 1975 was approximately 456 thousand cubic meters. The main species used for mine props are conifer (mainly Pinus densiflora) and hardwood (mainly Quercus). Portions between them are half and half. With non fixed specification, wide varieties of timber in size and form are used. And volume of wood used per ton of coal production shows also wide range from 0.017 cubic meter to 0.03 cubic meter. 2. Decay resistance test a) The oven dry weight decreased between untreated specimen and treated specimen has not shown any significantly, although it has shown some differences in average values between them. It may be caused by the shorter length of the test. b) The strength of compression test between untreated specimen and treated specimen has also shown the same results as shown in case of weight decrease. Reasons assumed are the same. c) The amounts of the extractives in one percent of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) between untreated and treated specimen have shown the large value in case of untreated specimen than that of treated. 3. The economical benifit between untreated and treated wood when applied in field has seen better in long tenn base in case of treated wood, although the primary cost of treated wood add a little bit more cost than that of the untreated wood.
Study on Press-drying and Air-drying of Italian Poplar Rotary Veneer
Jung, Hee-Suk ; Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 167~167
Italian poplar (Populus euramericana) rotary veneers were press-dried and air-dried to study drying curves, thickness shrinkage and width shrinkage of them under several drying conditions such as drying temperatures and veneer thicknesses. The results of the study are summarized as follows; 1. In press-drying, drying times from green condition to about final moisture content of 10 percent with veneer thickness of 0.6mm by platen temperatures required about 10 minutes at platen temperature of
, 3 minutes at
, 1 minute at
, respectively. 2. In press, drying, drying times from green condition to about final moisture content of 10 percent by veneer thicknesses required 2 minutes at veneer thickness of 0.6mm, 4 minutes at 1.2mm,6 minutes at 1.8mm and 9 minutes at 3.6mm, respectively. 3. In air-drying, drying times from green condition to air-dried moisture content by veneer thicknesses required 15 hours at veneer thickness of 0.6mm, 18 hours at 1.2mm and 23 hours at 2.4mm, respectively. 4. Thickness shrinkage of press-drying was remarkably greater than that of air-drying, but width shrinkage of press-drying was rather smaller. 5. Difference of thickness shrinkage among platen temperatures was insignificant, and width shrinkage at platen temperature of
was the least.
Studies on the Properties of Mechanical Pulp from Italian Poplar Wood(Populus euramericana I-476) by the Age of Tree
Shin, Dong-So ; Jo, Byoung-Muk ; Ahn, Won-Yong ; Moon, Chang-Guk ; Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 168~179
The first step to utilize the growing resources of Italian poplar (Populus euramericana I-476) for pulp-Woods, its characteristics and adaptabilities to the pulp industry must be investigated completely. The plantation methods are important for its fast growing in stock, and no less important is the cutting age for its utilization as pulpwood. In this paper, the stone groundwood pulping, refiner groundwood pulping and chemi-groundwood pulping characteristics by the age of tree, along with their physical and chemical characterstics were tested, and relationships between the age groups were analyzed to find out the optimum felling age. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The coefficient of pliability was a little higher in the case of younger trees. 2. The water retention value of each pulp was directly proportional to its physical strength, but this tendency was not detected between the age groups of sample woods. 3. Generally, the physical strength of younger wood pulp was lower regardless of the pulping process. But in the case of pretreatment with NaOH, Asphund and CGP pulp from 5 year old sample wood were stronger in physical strengths than those of GP and Asplund pulp with no pretreatment from 10 years old sample wood. 4. The tear factor of Asplund pulp with alkali pretreatment was higher than that of CGP pulp but the breaking length and the burst factor was similar in all processes. Considering the pulp yield and its brightness, CGP process seems to be advantageous. 5. The dissimilarity of physical strength between 7 and 10 years old wood pulp was not very large in all pulping processes but the physical strength of 5 year old wood pulp was very weak. In the of groundwood pulping from Italian poplar woods, 5 year old wood pulp should be mixed with other long fiber pulp for making a good paper.
Studies on the Fire Retardant Treatment of Wet Forming Mat for Hardboard
Shin, Dong-So ; Lee, Hwa-Hyoung ; Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 180~188
This study was carried out to make hardboard fire retardants and to examine the properties of the hard-board treated with them. The fire retardant treatment was achieved by surface impregnation of water soluble retardant chemicals into the forming mat with 55 percent of moisture content. followed by the hot pressing process. Ammonium monophosphate, ammonium diphosphate, sodium borate, and boric acid were used as the fire retardants. Fire retardant test was carried out by using the differential thermal analysis thermogram. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Fire retardant-treated hardboard showed higher values of the specific gravity. water absoption, and flexural strength than those of untreated hardboard. Especially, the treatment of ammonium monophosphate gave the best results in the flexural strength, and a 10 gr/
loading of the fire retardant compound of ammonium monophoshate, ammonium diphosphate, and sodium borate drew the best flexural strength value among the three different experimental loadings of 10, 20 and 30 gr/
. 2. There were no definite differences in moisture content between the fire retardant-treated hardboard and the untreated hardboard. 3. The fire retardant compound of ammonium monophosphate, ammonium diphosphate, and sodium borate resulted in the best fire retardancy, and its fire retardancy was increased in proportion to the increase of loading.
Upgrading the Quality of Silk Worm Oak(Quercus acutissima Carr.) Fiberboard through Paraformaldehyde Treatment by the Dry Forming Process
Koo, Ja-Oon ; Shin, Dong-So ; Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 189~189
This study was carried out to determine the possibility of making fiberboard through the dry forming process, utilizing the tannin-like material of the Asplund pulp from the silk worm oak as a binder. The fiberboard was made through paraformaldehyde treatment, spray of NaOH solution and adjustment of mat moisture content, by hot-pressing at
, and 50-6-50kg/
pressure with 6-min. (0.6-1.8-3.6) three-stage pressing cycle. The results are summarized as follows: 1. The modulus of rupture value of fiberboard treated with NaOH solution was greater than that of untreated. The value was increased in proportion to the paraformaldehyde content from I to 5%, but there was no increasing between 5 and 7% paraformaldehyde content. The value became higher along with the increase of mat moisture content from 15% to 25%. 2. The water adsorption of fiberboard treated with NaOH solution was lower than that of untreated. The value was de"creased in proportion to the paraformaldehyde content from 1 to 5%, but there was no decreasing between 5 and 7% paraformaldehyde content.. 3. A good quality fiberboard (modulus of rupture value of about 250kg/
) was made through 5% paraformaidehyde treatment and 3% treatment of 10% NaOH solution, when the mat moisture content was 25%. was 25%.
Photo - Interpretation and Identification of Three Species on Panchromatic Film
Shim, Jong-Supp ; Han, Kap-Joon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 190~193
Conclusion: The results of this study are encouraging for the development of a set of interpretable diagnostic criteria for a reasonably reliable identification of some species. The present study has been limited in the characteristics studied and was made on relatively poor photography. Further study on high quality photography, over wider areas and including such additional characteristics as crown texture and shadow intensity should prove useful. A preliminary examination has been made of some photo-image characteristics of a number of important tree species on large scale (1:9,000) contact prints of panchromatic mm. The characteristics studied were crown image tone, and shape. Image tone was estimated against a standard grey-scale and shows within-species consistency and a range between species. Crown shapes were subjectively assessed but there appears to be a within-species consistency and interpretable between-species differences. The results of this trial suggest that it should be practicable to make a number of important species distinctions by photo-interpretation with a useful degree of reliability. Other characteristics beside those studied might be usefully examined. Photography: Hand-printed glossy contact prints of vertical 1:9,000 scale panchromatic photography of Kwangnung Experimental Forest flown May 1964. The filter used is unknown (probably minus-blue). The camera is unknown but was probably a military type K-17 or K-22 with 6"(apostfophy) lens. The photography shows notably poor resolution. Species: 143 individual trees ranging through 11 species (7 softwood, 4 hardwood) were included in the study. A range of size classes were included for each species.
Principal Conclusions of Timber Consumption Survey
Shim, Chong-Supp ; Lee, Yong-Dae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 194~195
Recommendaton: These are the highlights of the findings of the Timber Consumption Survey carried out by the Project in 1966, and covering consumption for the period from 1961 to 1965. The survey was oriented towards consumption for structural, commercial and industrial purposes and existing estimates for local (village-level) consumption as fuel and the like were adopted. A full report on the survey was submitted to the Bureau of Forestry in 1966. Long-term Trends: After allowance for anticipated population increase, this ten year's increase in industrial wood consumption represents a gain of about 30% in per capita consumption (from 0.0913 cu.m. per capita to 0.118 cu.m. per capita). This is only about half the expected general economic growth of about 75% (7% per annum). It is therefore likely (a) that the 1975 estimate is conservative, (b) that the consumption demand beyond 1975 may be expected to build up at a greatly increased rate. Estimated income elasticity coefficients are high, and with expected ir,creases in prosperity and population, the consumption is expected to rise to 10 million cu. meters by the year 2,000. Consumption Pattern: The breakdown of industrial consumption (1965) is given in Table 4-2, showing sawnwood consumption as the most important in 1965. The upward trend in all sectors over the 1961-65 period is expected to continue. The general consumption pattern is expected to change through 1975 with a sharp increase in the relative importance of pulp products (to 30% of total consumption) offset by declining relative importance of sawlogs. The following recommendations follow from the study: (i) Industrial forests. - A programme of establishment of consolidated industrial forests should be initiated as a matter of urgency. (ii) Fuelwood forests - Properly sited, protected and managed fuelwood forest, worked on a 20-year rotation, should be established as a nation wide basis. (iii) Hardwood utilization - Detailed investigations are required into the use of indigenous hardwoods for the pulp, particle board and hardboard industries. (iv) Mining timber - Preservation treatment of all mining timber should be enforced by law. (v) Sawmills - Licencing restrictions should be enforced to reduce the number of small, inefficient sawmills. b. Extension work should be undertaken bv government to improve sawmilling practices.
The Utilization of Naturally Grown Hardwood Timber Trees and Shrubs in Korea
Shim, Chong-Supp ; Lee, Phil-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 196~196
There is a heavy stocked wood volume in the forest of Kang-Won Province compared with the other forests of Korean Provinces. It mainly, however, consists of non-productive and inferior hardwoods and shrubs which grows naturally. -This naturally grown hardwood forest should be cut and reforested with more economical confierous and diciduous tree species by artificial and natural regeneration under the positive government support. This study was carried out to survey the reasonable and economical utilization measures on harvesting wood products when existing hardwood forest should be cut primarily. This is the rust report on the resources and the classification of tree species by the uses of wood growing in the hardwood forest of Kang-Won Province. According to the investigation, 321 hardwood species are growing in this forest, and 141 species of them are extremely not suitable for wood production. The usable species as fuel wood was 180, and these are able to classify into the 22 groups by the uses of wood.
A Study on the Establishment of Forest-Foundation
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 197~197
A Study on Planning for Improving Management of Private Forest
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 198~199
On the Forest Development Act (a Proposal) and Law of Forest Development Fund (a Proposal)
Park, Tai-Sik ; Lee, Eung-Rae ; Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 200~200
Influence of Artificial Afforestation and Management of Natural Forests to the Increase of Forest Protit
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 201~202
Influence of Green Tract of Land and National Park on Management of Forestry
Shim, Chong-Supp ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 10, issue 3, 1982, Pages 203~203