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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 4 - Dec 1974
Volume 2, Issue 3 - Sep 1974
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Jun 1974
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Mar 1974
Selecting the target year
A Study on the Anatomical Structure of the Important Commercial Woods in Malaysia
Chung, Byung-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 4~4
In this paper, the microscopic structure of wood was investigated for following species in Malaysia.
Effect of Air Circulation Velocity on the Rate of Lumber Drying in a Small Compartment Wood Drying Kiln
Chung, Byung-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 5~7
1. This study indicates that above the fiber saturation point the drying rate can be increased with increasing the velocity of the air circutation, i.e., the drying rate of sample boards is proportional to the air velocity, but below the fiber saturation point, the effect of the velocity of air circulation is very low as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. 2. Under the controlled temperature and humidity in the kiln, the more the sample boards have moisture, the higher drying rate of it can be obtained. In other words, this means that even though in the case of drying various moisture content of wood, at the final drying stage, approximately the same percentage of moisture content of wood can be secured by employing the higher velocity of air circulation. 3. This study shows that the rate of drying in kiln changes distinctly at the fiber saturation point, i, e., above the fiber saturation point, the drying curve shows concave aginst the X axsis, but below the fiber saturation point, in the range from 30 percent of moisture content to 20 percent of moisture content, the curve shows convex as shown in Fig. 3. As the drying progresses, however, the drying curve shows concave again below 20 percent of moisture content. This means that inflection point of drying curve may be located clearly at the fiber saturation point, i.e., 30 percent of moisture content. As mentioned above, the 30 percent of moisture content of wood at which the inflectional point appears can be recognized as a critical point, i. e., the fiber saturation point at which all free water was removed from wood. The existence of inflectional point indicates that the evaporation of hygroscopic water in a cell wall is more difficult than the evaporation of free water in a cell cavity and the minor space of cell wall. The convex curve in the range of moisture content from 30 percent to 20 percent means that the evaporation of capillary condensed water has a tendency of the same rates of drying approximately, but as approaching to the 20 percent of moisture, the transfusion of moisture from wood becomes difficult because of having less moisture in cell wall. Below 20 percent of moisture content, the drying curve shows concave again, which means that it is difficult to remove the moisture located nearer to the surface of cellulose molecules and the surface bound water. These relations were revealed in Fig. 4. In comparison AC curve which does not have the two inflection points with BD curve which has two inflection points, i.e., Band D, they are mentioned already, by existence of the inflection points, the curve BD shows that the change of drying rate in the interval from 20 percent of moisture content to 30 percent of moisture content is not greater than in the case of the curve AC in the same interval. At the inflection point of 30 percent of moisture content, it can be noticed that the changing of the drying rate is very conspicuous. This phenomenon also can be recognized, as it is noticed by the Fig. 3, the drying rate from green to 30 percent of moisture content is very great. But the inclination of the curve is very slow from 30 percent of moisture content to 20 percent of moisture content, i.e., the inclination of the curve becomes almost horizontal lines. Acknowledgments Gratitude is expressed to Fred E. Dickinson, Professor of 'Wood Technology, School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan, USA for his suggestion to carry out this study.
Studies on the Kiln Drying Characteristics of Several Commercial Woods of Korea
Chung, Byung-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 8~12
1. If one unity is given to the prongs whose ends touch each other for estimating the internal stresses occuring in it, the internal stresses which are developed in the open prongs can be evaluated by the ratio to the unity. In accordance with the above statement, an equation was derived as follows. For employing this equation, the prongs should be made as shown in Fig. I, and be measured A and B' as indicated in Fig. l. A more precise value will result as the angle (J becomes smaller.
where A is thickness of the prong, B' is the distance between the two prongs shown in Fig. 1 and CH is the value of internal stress expressed by percentage. It precision is not required, the equation can be simplified as follows.
2. Under scheduled drying condition III the kiln, when the weight of a sample board is constant, the moisture content of the shell of a sample board in the case of a normal casehardening is lower than that of the equilibrium moisture content which is indicated by the Forest Products Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture. This result is usually true, especially in a thin sample board. A thick unseasoned or reverse casehardened sample does not follow in the above statement. 3. The results in the comparison of drying rate with five different kinds of wood given in Table 1 show that the these drying rates, i.e., the quantity of water evaporated from the surface area of I centimeter square per hour, are graded by the order of their magnitude as follows. (1) Ginkgo biloba Linne (2) Diospyros Kaki Thumberg. (3) Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc. (4) Larix kaempheri Sargent (5) Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. It is shown, for example, that at the moisture content of 20 percent the highest value revealed by the Ginkgo biloba is in the order of 3.8 times as great as that for Castanea crenata Sieb. & Zucc. which has the lowest value. Especially below the moisture content of 26 percent, the drying rate, i.e., the function of moisture content in percentage, is represented by the linear equation. All of these linear equations are highly significant in testing the confficient of X i. e., moisture content in percentage. In the Table 2, the symbols are expressed as follows; Y is the quantity of water evaporated from the surface area of 1 centimeter square per hour, and X is the moisture content of the percentage. The drying rate is plotted against the moisture content of the percentage as in Fig. 2. 4. One hundred times the ratio(P%) of the number of samples occuring in the CH 4 class (from 76 to 100% of CH ratio) within the total number of saplmes tested to those of the total which underlie the given SR ratio is measured in Table 3. (The 9% indicated above is assumed as the danger probability in percentage). In summarizing above results, the conclusion is in Table 4. NOTE: In Table 4, the column numbers such as 1. 2 and 3 imply as follows, respectively. 1) The minimum SR ratio which does not reveal the CH 4, class is indicated as in the column 1. 2) The extent of SR ratio which is confined in the safety allowance of 30 percent is shown in the column 2. 3) The lowest limitation of SR ratio which gives the most danger probability of 100 percent is shown in column 3. In analyzing above results, it is clear that chestnut and larch easly form internal stress in comparison with persimmon and pine. However, in considering the fact that the revers, casehardening occured in fir and ginkgo, under the same drying condition with the others, it is deduced that fir and ginkgo form normal casehardening with difficulty in comparison with the other species tested. 5. All kinds of drying defects except casehardening are developed when the internal stresses are in excess of the ultimate strength of material in the case of long-lime loading. Under the drying condition at temperature of
and the lower humidity. the drying defects are not so severe. However, under the same conditions at
, the lower humidity and not end coated, all sample boards develop severe drying defects. Especially the chestnut was very prone to form the drying defects such as casehardening and splitting.
A Study on the Efficiency of Smoke-pipe, Internal-fan Type Dry Kiln Heated with Smokeless Coal
Jo, Jae-Myeong ; Yoo, Pill-Soo ; Chung, Byeong-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 13~21
1. In the past, the smoke-pipe type dry kiln being characterized by the low cost of installation and easy operation was only used by the small scale of wood processing enterprisers for drying softwood and finishing air-dried stocks that were belonged to easy drying properties. The smoke-pipe type dry kiln usually was not suitable for drying hardwoods and green woods because of the difficulties of controlling drying conditions. 2. However, the smoke-pipe type dry kiln heated with smokeless coal which was designed and constructed by the authers was demonstrated to maintain higher accuracy of controlling temperature and humidity than the other smillar types of kiln. Also, since it was constructed with home made equipments, it is supposed to offer the opportunity to install the kiln by the small scale of wood processing enterprisers who could not install the dry kiln because of economical and technical difficulties. Thus, it is expected that promoting the spread of installing the dry kiln will realize the rational use of wood.
A Study on Quality Improvement of Exporting Wood Products
Chung, Byung-Jae ; Lee, Eun-Chol ; Oh, Kwang-In ; Kim, Jong-Yeung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 22~24
1. Object and importance of the research. The exports of plywood are increasing annually and it has ranked first in the world market because of the high quality product developed and manufactured using modern techniques. However, it is known that the exports of the other wood products, except plywood, is inactive because of their low quality. Accordingly, to increase the exports of various wood products investigations were carried out on kiln drying techniques to improve the quality of the wood. 2. The details and scope of the research Wet wood should be kiln dried before use to prevent various drying defects such as distortion, shrinkage etc, which would develop after processing, and also wet wood is not suitable for cutting, gluing and finishing. Therefore, the kiln drying properties of lumber from such species as Persimmon, Oak, Ramin and Meranti which are used in large quantity for manufacturing exporting wood products have been studied. Also the real state of kiln drying industry in Korea was investigated. 3. Results and proposal for practical use of the research 3. 1 Results of the research 3.1.1 The end checks and the time for drying from intial moisture content of about 40 percent to 5 percent moisture content in ovendry were investigated as Table 1. 3.1.2 The kiln dried results, for 30mm stock, which are presented by using kiln schedule Table 2 are as Table 3. 3.1.3 The kiln schedule for Persimmon which has a normal drying properties is given in Table 4. However, the persimmon which has easy checking properties should be air dried under a relative humidity of above 85% until reaching about 25 percent moisture content. 3.1.4 The kiln schedules for ramin, meranti and oak are given respectively as follows. Ramin kiln schedule ............ Table 5 and Table 6 Meranti kiln schedule ............ Table 7 Oak kiln schedule ............ Table 8 3.2 Proposal for practical use of the research Firms using the above species should be informed the results of the research so they can be used to preventing drying defects and shortening drying time.
A Study on the Fabrication of the Laminated Wood Composed of Poplar and Larch
Jo, Jae-Myeong ; Kang, Sun-Goo ; Kim, Ki-Hyeon ; Chung, Byeong-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 25~31
1. Various gluing qualities applying Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 were studied on aiming the strength relationships of laminated woods resulted by single species [poplar (Populus deltoides), larch(Larix leptolepis)], mixed species of (poplar and larch), preservatives, treated poplar the scarf joint with mixed species of poplar and larch and the scarf joint treated with preservatives. 1. 1 On the block shear and on the DVL tension test, the mean wood failure ratio showed an excellent value i.e., above 65% and the tangential strength for larch was higher than that of radial, but it was reversed for poplar as shown in Tables 1 and 2. 1. 2 The lamina treated with Na-PCP reduced slightly the strength but the limited strength allowed for manufacturing laminated wood was not influenced by treating Na-PCP as shown in Tables 3 and 4. 1. 3 The safe scarf ratio in the plane scarf joint was above 1/12 for larch and 1/6 for poplar regard less of the chemical treatment or untreatment as shown in Tables. 5, 6, 7 and 8. 2. In the normal and boiled state, the gluing quality of the laminated wood composed of single[poplar (Populus deltoides), larch (Larix leptolepis)] and double species (poplar and larch) glued with Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 were measured as follow, and also represented the delamination of the same laminated wood. 2.1 The normal block shear strength of the straight and curved laminated wood (in life size) were more than three times of the standards adhesion strength. And, the value of the boiled stock was decreased to one half of the standard shear adhesion strength, but it was more than twice the standard strength for the boiled stock. Thus, it was recognized that the water resistance of the Resorcinol Plyophen #6000 was very high as shown in Tables 9 and 10. 2. 2 The delamination ratio of the straight and curved laminated woods in respect of their composition were decraesed, in turn, in the following order i. e., larch, mixed stock (larch+poplar) and poplar. The maximum value represented by the larch was 3.5% but it was below the limited value as shown in Table 11. 3. The various strengthes i.e., compressive, bending and adhesion obtainted by the straight laminaced wood which were constructed by five plies of single and double species of lamina i. e., larch (Larix leptolepis) and poplar (Populus euramericana), glued with urea resin were shown as follows: 3. 1 If desired a higher strength of architectural laminated wood composed of poplar (P) and larch (L), the combination of the laminas should be arranged as follows, L+P+L+P+L as shown in Table 12. 3.2 The strength of laminated wood composed of laminas which included pith and knots was conside rably decreased than that of clear lamina as shown Table 13. 3.3 The shear strength of the FPL block of the straight laminated wood constructed by the same species which were glued with urea adhesives was more than twice the limited adhesion strength, thus it makes possible to use it for interior constructional stock.
Study on the Controlling Mechaniques of the Environmental Factors in the Mushroom Growing House in Chonnam Province
Chung, Byung-Jae ; Lee, Eun-Chol ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 32~34
The important results which have been obtained in the investigation can be recapitulated as follows. 1. As demonstrated by the experimental results and analyses concerning their effects in the on-ground type mushroom house, the constructions in relation to the side wall and ceiling of the experimental house showed a sufficient heat insulation on effect to protect insides of the house from outside climatic conditions. 2. As the effect on the solar type experimental mushroom house which was constructed in a half basement has been shown by the experimental results and analyses, it has been proved to be effective for making use of solar heat. However there were found two problems to be improved for putting solar house to practical use in the farm mushroom growing: (1) the construction of the roof and ceiling should be the same as for the on ground type house, and (2) the solar heat generating system should be reconstructed properly. 3. Among several ventilation systems which have been studied in the experiments, the underground earthen pipe and ceiling ventilation, and vertical side wall and ceiling ventilation systems have been proved to be most effective for natural ventilation. 4. The experimental results have shown that ventilation systems such as the vertical side wall and underground ventilation systems are suitable to put to practical use as natural ventilation systems for farm mushroom house. These ventilation systems can remarkably improve the temperature of fresh air which is introduced into the house by heat transfers within the ventilation passages, so as to approach to the desired temperature of the house without any cooling or heating operation. For example, if it is assuming that X is the outside temperature and Y is the amount of temperature adjustment made by the influence of the ventilation system, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the following regression lines. Underground iron pipe ventilation system. Y=0.9X-12.8 Underground earthen pipe ventilation system. Y=0.96X-15.11 Vertical side wall ventilation system. Y=0.94X-17.57 5. The experimental results have 8hown that the relationships existing between the admitted and expelled air and the
concentration can be described with experimental regression lines or an exponent equation as follows: 5.1 If it is assumed that X is an air speed cm/sec. and Y is an expelled air speed in cm/sec. in a natural ventilation system, since the Y is a function of the X, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the regression lines shown below: 5.2 If it IS assumed that X is an admitted volume of air in
/hr. and Y is an expelled volume of air in
/hr. in a natural ventilation system, since the Y is a function of the X, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the regression lines shown below. 5.3 If it is assumed that expelled air speed in emisec. and replacement air speed in cm/sec. at the bed surface in a natural ventilation system are shown as X and Y. respectively, since the Y is a function of the X. the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the following regression line: GE(100%)-CV (50%) ventilation system. Y=-0.54X+0.84 5.4 If it is assumed that the replacement air speed in cm/sec. at the bed surface is shown as X, and
concentration which is expressed by multiplying 1000 times the actual value of
% is shown as Y, in a natural ventilation system, since the Y is a function of the X, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the following regression line: GE(100%)-CV(50%) ventilation system. Y=114.53-6.42X 5.5 If it is assumed that the expelled volume of air is shown as X and the
concencration which is expressed by multiplying 1000 times the actual of
% is shown as Y in a natural ventilation system, since the Y is a function of the X, the relationships that exist between X and Y can be expressed by the following exponent equation: GE(100%)-CV(50%) ventilation system. Y=
5.6 The experimental results have shown that the ratios of the cross sectional area of the GE and CV vent to the total cubic capacity of the house, required for providing an adequate amount of air in a natural ventilation system, can be estimated as follows: GE(admitting vent of the underground ventilation) 0.3-0.5% (controllable) CV(expelling vent of the ceiling ventilation) 0.8-1.0% (controllable) 6. Among several heating devices which were studied in the experiments, the hot-water boilor which wasmodified to be fitted both as hot-water boiler and as a pressureless steam-water was found most suitable for farm mushroom growing.
해외임지(海外林地) 개발(開發)의 현황(現況)
Lee, Gyeong-Sang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 35~39
리기다 소나무의 쇄목(碎木)펄프 (신문지용(新聞紙用))이용개발(利用開發)
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 2, issue 2, 1974, Pages 43~45