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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 1995
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 1995
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 1995
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 1995
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A Study of Recycle of Waste Wood After Cultivating Oak Mushroom (II) - On the Structure of Cellulose Crystal Transformation of the Waste Wood -
Kim, Nam-Hun ; Lee, Won-Yang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 1~7
The crystal transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II during alkaline swelling of waste wood, which has been used for cultivating oak mushroom(Cortinellus edodes (Berk.) Ito et Imai), was investigated and compared to that of normal wood by a series of X-ray diffraction analysis. When the sapwood of cultivated wood was treated with 20% NaOH solution for 2 hours, the cellulose I can be easily transformed into Na-cellulose I than normal wood or heartwood of cultivated wood. Certainly the formation of Na-cellulose in wood is proportional to alkali swelling duration, and the formation of cultivated sapwood was faster than that of the other woods. Cellulose I in the sapwood of cultivated wood was easily transformed into cellulose II during mercerization, but the sapwood of normal wood and the heartwood of cultivated wood hardly converted to cellulose II. Namely, most of Na-cellulose I in normal wood can be reconverted to cellulose I in the process of washing and drying. Therefore, it can be concluded from this study that in cell wall lignin and hemicellulose can prevent the alkaline swelling of cellulose in wood and the transformation from cellulose I to cellulose II as well.
Finite Elements Analysis Application to the Structural Design of the Frame Type Furniture
Chung, Woo-Yang ; Eckelman, Carl A. ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 8~15
This analytical study was carried out to make quality and productivity up in designing the frame-type furniture with semi-rigid joint by understanding the mechanical and structural behavior of the joint and by evaluating the validity of application of the time-saving Finite Element Method to its structural analysis. Slope deflection equation for rigid joint was modified to describe the moment-rotation behavior of semi-rigid joint and the joint stiffness factor(Z) could be calculated to lessen the experimental expense. It was proved that Finite Element Analysis with imaginary elements having equivalent MOE to the semi-rigid joint could be the alternative method for the structural analysis of the frame-type furniture, comparing the internal rotation of the 2-dimensional beam-to-column model with two-pin(wooden dowel) from the finite element method with other available theoretical and experimental rotation value.
Heating and Cooling Time for Veneer Bolt of Some Softwoods
Jung, Hee-Suk ; Lee, Nam-Ho ; Yeo, Hwan-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 16~22
The profiles of the heating temperature in three water vat temperatures (55, 66 and 77
) and the cooling temperature under the average ambient temperature of 3
in 4 and 10cm depths from surface at the center of veneer bolts length showed similar patterns for Japanese larch (Larix leptolepis). Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinei) and Radiata pine (Pinus radiata). The difference of these core temperatures of 10cm depth from surface varied proportionally with the increase of vat temperatures. The average heating time based on final core temperature of 6
lower than vat temperature required about 14.5 hours in vat temperature of 55
and 13.5 hours in vat temperature of 66and 77
. Each internal temperature of 4 and 10cm depths from surface started to decrease from the beginning of cooling and after about two hours.
Photodegradation of Paper Treated by Photostabilizer
Kim, Bong-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 23~27
Several characteristic results of physical and optical properties of paper treated by UV light were obtained in the previous papers(Kim et al. 1988). In this paper, folding endurance and brightness of paper prepared by spraying photostabilizer were examined in order to elucidate photodegradation phenomena, UV light absorber and radical scavenger were most effective in preventing of folding endurance decrease. These results may be indicated that depolymerization of cellulose and hemicellulose chains leading to degradation of paper mechanical properties mainly caused by radical reaction. Ineffective hydroperoxide decomposer may be explained because of auto-oxidation reactions before forming stable compound from hydroperoxide.
Microwave Drying of Persimmon Blocks for Golf Club Head (II) - Drying Curves and Temperature Distribution of Persimmon Blocks -
Kang, Ho-Yang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 28~32
The presteamed or prefrozen persimmon blocks of 10cm
15cm were air-dried at room temperature until about 30% moisture content, and then were dried in a MW oven. During drying their internal temperatures were monitored with thermo-couple probes. The presteamed and prefrozen blocks didn't show any improvement in drying rate and moisture gradient when compared with the controls. Checks appeared on the surfaces of most presteamed blocks during air-drying. It has been clearly revealed that the maximum weight, loss must, be less than 2g/min during MW drying to prevent internal checking and that MW drying reduced moisture gradients inside blocks. MW dried the persimmon blocks 440 times faster than conventional kiln.
Fast-Curing of Phenol·Formaldehyde Resin Adhesives for Plywood
Roh, Jeang-Kwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 33~39
To accelerate the cure of phenolic resin adhesives for plywood, the complexation with melamine resin and the addition of cure-accelerating agents were discussed. The hot-pressing temperature and time of phenol resin could be decreased by complexation with melamine resin. but the wet glue-joints strength of phenol melamine resin was lower than that of ordinary phenol resin in case of plywood using spruce veneer at core layer. Among the tested cure-accelerating agents. the sodium carbonate showed the greatest effect on shortening gelation time of phenolic resin. In addition, in the manufacturing scale test, the hot-pressing time of phenol resin with the addition of 5 parts sodium carbonate could be shortened about 20% compared with ordinary phenol resin which had same glue-joints properties.
Analysis Model of Semi-Rigid Joint Using Finite Element Method
Yang, Han-Seung ; Lee, Phil-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 40~47
This study was carried out to develop a finite element analysis model that considers the semi-rigid characteristics of a wood-dowel joint, which is different from conventional joints that are used in the field of engineering. Wood-dowel joints are classified as semi-rigid joints that possess the following characteristics: (1) they are less stiffer than rigid joints and (2) their stiffness is determined by the dowel's diameter, depth of dowel embedment in the face member and quantity of pin dowels. In this study a finite element model that considers the changes in stiffness according to the above mentioned factors was developed and its suitability was verified by experiments using a wood-dowel joint test specimen made up of particleboards. After comparing the experimental results and the analysis results of the wood-dowel joint which was applied with the proposed finite element model, less than 10% of error was found which is considered to be negligibly small. Hence this shows that this proposed finite element model can be used to predict deformation of wood-dowel joints.
Finite Element Analysis of Adiabatic Properties for the Wall System in Wood Frame House
Shim, Kug-Bo ; Lee, Jun-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 48~57
Estimation of the Moisture Content of Wood by Density - Moisture Variation with Annual Ring Width -
Hwang, Kweon-Hwan ; Lee, Weon-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 58~65
The possibilities of the estimation of the moisture content(MC) for sitka-spruce (Picea sitchensis Carr.) by measuring density have been investigated. The method is based on the relationships between the wood density and moisture content of wood expressed by Equations (8)~(9). The purpose of this study is examining the estimation of the moisture content of wood by density and the variation of moisture content with annual ring width of wood. The following conclusions were obtained; 1. This method is very convenience because of the average moisture content of wood can be obtained by a simple estimation. This estimation can be made from the easy measurement of the weight and volume of wood. 2. Coefficient of determination between the experimental MCs and theoretical MCs which is calculated by the oven-dry densities of each specimens and Equations (8), (9) is 0.98. This Correlation is very remarkable. Therefore the model Equations on the estimation of moisture content by wood density was available. 3. Relationship between experimental MCs and theoretical MCs which is estimated by average oven-dry density of total specimens showed positive correlation(Fig.2). But from the Fig.4. we can concluded that the number of specimens is two groups. This phenomenon is considered that the variation of MC by the annual ring width from the specimens' observations. Consequently, the MCs of wood by density, is likely to be successful method. can be estimate using by the average oven-dry densities divided with the annual ring widths of wood.
A Comparison of Chromium and Copper-Containing Waterborne Wood Preservatives for Fixing and Leaching Characteristics
Ra, Jong-Bum ; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 66~72
The rate of fixation of the components were evaluated in CCA-Type B and CCFZ-treated radiata pine sapwood by quantitative analysis of solution expressed from the treated wood. The leaching characteristics of radiata pine blocks treated with CCA-Type B and CCFZ were also evaluated by the AWPA standard leaching test. Both fixation and leaching charactersistics of CCA-Type B were compared with CCA-Type C treated wood samples. The rate of CCA-Type B fixation was a little faster than that of CCFZ. However, significant amounts of arsenic was unfixed in the CCA-Type B treated samples and consequently leached. These significant quantities of arsenic liberated from the CCA-Type B treated wood during service may pose some environmental concerns. Arsenic was no longer detectable from CCA-Type C treated samples when fixation was complete, even though the fixation of CCA-Type C was slower in some degree than CCA-Type B. In summary, it could be said that CCFZ was much safer preservative than CCA-Type B by the criterion based on the relative hazard assessed by absolute amount of unfixed element present in the treated wood. Also the decision that CCA preservative has to move from Type B to Type C should be made sooner or later for continuous use of CCA preservative in the future.
Study on the Application of Microwave-Heating System for Making Bent-Wood Furniture(I) - Solid-Wood Bending Properties of Robinia pseudo-acacia L. by Microwave-Heating -
So, Won-Tek ; Chai, Jyung-Ki ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 73~82
Black locust trees(Robinia pseudo-acacia L.) are growing widely in Korea and have been used to get honey and animal feed, but they have seldom been used as manufacturing materials. This study was carried out to evaluate the possibility of using black locust as bent-wood furniture materials. Softening methods were steaming and micro-wave heating. The specimens of 15
350mm were all air-dried. For softening, specimens were steamed at 100
for 7 min, or microwave heated for 35 seconds. It is known that microwave heating softens wood much faster than steaming. The bending processing conditions are showed in Table 7. The minimum solid-bending radii of black locust were 40mm for steaming and 150mm for micro-wave heating, respectively. In conclusion the steamed black locust, showed very good solid bending properties, but the bending properties of micro-wave heated black locust were not sufficient for bent-wood furniture.
Wood Anatomy of Some Korean Angiosperm (II) - A Comparative Wood Anatomy of Juglandaceae -
Park, Sang-Jin ; Kang, Ae-Kyung ; Kim, You-Jung ; Kim, Jae-Woo ; Lee, Jung-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 23, issue 3, 1995, Pages 82~87
Anatomical characteristics of genus Platycarya, Juglans and Pterocarya of Juglandaceae occurring in Korea were described and coded based on the IAWA list. Juglandaceae are ring-porous or semi-ring-porous. Vessels have simple perforation plates and helical thickenings in some genus. Axial parenchyma cells were abundant, most apotracheal but rarely paratracheal and rays with 1-5 seriate. Platycarya is ring-porous wood with 2-3 rows of vessels in the pore zone. Helical thickenings were found only in small vessel of latewood. Axial parenchyma were commonly diffuse-in-aggregates or vasicentric. Rays 3-5 seriate. belonging to Kribs' heterogeneous II or III type with frequent occurrence of rhomboidal crystals. Juglans are semi ring-porous with few vessels in
and pores are commonly solitary. Axial parenchyma were diffuse-in-aggregate or marginal. Rays were mostly homocellular and 3-5 seriates. Pterocarya is similar to Juglans in anatomical features but the reticulate parenchyma consisting of 1 layer on transverse section and biseriate rays.