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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 26, Issue 4 - Dec 1998
Volume 26, Issue 3 - Sep 1998
Volume 26, Issue 2 - Jun 1998
Volume 26, Issue 1 - Mar 1998
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Drying Characteristics of Large Western Redcedar Timber During Radio Frequency/Vacuum Drying
Jung, Hee-Suk ; Avramidis, Stavros ; Cai, Liping ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 1~8
Western redcedar timber, 26 by 26cm in cross section and by 200cm long, was dried in a laboratory radio-frequency/vacuum kiln under 65torr of ambient pressure and a fixed frequency of 6.78MHz for the potential rapidly dry large timber. All process data were collected and saved in a computer through a data acquisition system. The temperature in the middle of timber was higher than temperature at the quarter point of timber length and thickness. Temperature gradients developed in the longitudinal and transverse direction of timber. The pressure in the middle of timber was higher than pressure at the quarter point of timber length. The pressure in the middle of timber was lower in the early stage of drying, and higher in the latter stage of drying than pressure at the quarter point of timber thickness. Power density was very highest during heating period and then gradually decreased. The drying curve was approximately linear and the total drying time was 27 hours from an initial moisture content(MC) of 48.6 percent to a final Me of 19.2 percent with only a few mild internal checks in the middle location of timber.
Estimating MOE of Thermal Degraded Wood by Stress Wave Method
Lee, Jun-Jae ; Kim, Jeong-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 9~15
The strength and stiffness of structures would be weakened by thermal degradation of wood members which are exposed to a variety of heat including a fire. For this reason, thermal degraded wood members can't pertinently support the load. However, it is easy to repair or rehabilitate wood structures. So, the degraded wood members which can't support the load can be replaced with new members. For the sake of this advantage, there is a need for nondestructive evaluation(NDE) technique, which is very effective to assess wood members in service. In this paper, it was considered whether the stress wave method is adequate to estimate static bending MOE of thermal degraded wood. As the result, the relationship between static bending MOE and MOEsw in elevated temperature was found out significant. Therefore, the application of stress wave method for estimating static bending MOE of thermal degraded zzwood would be possible. However, it is thought that further research for the effects of exposure temperature, time, and thermal degradation on the relationship between static bending MOEb and MOEsw would be needed.
Effects of Finishing of Violin Plate on Its Adsorption and Vibration Modes
Kwon, Ju-Yong ; Jung, Hee-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 16~25
This study was carried out to compare vibrational properties and adsorption among shellac, cashew finished plate and untreated plate of Sitka spruce(Picea sitchensis Carr). By the method of statistical regression modeling, the fundamental resonance frequency of finished plate was higher than that of untreated plate. The fundamental resonance frequency of cashew finished plate was higher than that of shellac finished plate. By the method of modal analysis, mode frequency ratio of cashew finished plate was higher than that of shellac finished plate. Amounts of adsorption of finished plate was lower than that of untreated plate, and amount of adsorption of cashew finished plate was lower than that of shellac finished plate. It was clarified that the vibrational properties and adsorption of finished plate were superior to those of untreated plate. The vibrational properties and adsorption of cashew finished plate was superior to those of shellac finished plate.
Chemical Characteristics of Cell-Wall Polysaccharides in Differentiating Xylem of Populus deltoides M.
Eom, Tae-Jin ; Park, Yun-Je ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 26~32
The chemical composition of differentiating xylem of Populus deltoides M. were investigated and compared with those from sapwood. The cell wall polysaccharides were extracted sequentially from a differentiating xylem and sugar composition was analyzed with G.L.C, H.P.L.C and gel chromatograpy. The pectin substance and hemicellulose are rich in the cell wall of differentiating xylem. The
extract polysaccharides from differentiating xylem were composed with xylose-glucose residues which seem to be xyloglucan and a pectin. The arabinogalactan and the mannan were extracted with
solution and also the xylan was extracted with KOH solution. Sugar composition of each fractions in gel filteration of purified
polysaccharide suggests that the xyloglucan can be extracted with
from differentiating xylem.
Resistance to Pine Gall-midge and Phenolic Acid Content in Pine Needles
Eom, Tae-Jin ; Son, Doo-Sik ; Lee, Sang-Woo ; Seo, Jae-Durk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 33~40
The phenolic acids in needles of five pine species such as Pinus densiflora, P. thunbergii. P. virginiana. P. rigida. and P. koraiensis were analyzed seasionally (March, June, September and December) in order to investigate the resistant factors against pine gall-midge(Thecodiplosis japonensis Uchida et Inouye). The interrelation of resistance to pine gall-midge and the content of phenolic acids in pine needles was investigated in the artificial hybride pine species. The contents of salicylic acid in susceptible species (P. densiflora and P. thunbergii) to pine gall-midge which watered with salicylic acid solution in a pot was determined. The results can be concluded as follows, 1. There was a little change in total phenolic constituents of resistant and susceptible pines seasonally. The each content of benzoic acid, salicylic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in June was the highest through four seasons. 2. In June, resistant species showed higher content of salicylic acid than susceptible species, while the content of gallic acid was the highest in December. 3. Among the 21 artificial hybrids(P. densiflora
P. virginiana. P. thunbergii
P. virginiana), the hybrides of the higher salicylic acid content showed the lower rate of pine gall formation. 4. Pine gall formation of the susceptible species which were watered with salicylic acid solution remarkably decreased.
Induction of Laccase from Wood-Rotting Fungi with 2,5-Xylidine
Cho, Nam-Seok ; Kim, Y.S. ; Pang, M.H. ; Choi, Y.J. ; Nam, J.H. ; Leonowicz, A. ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 41~47
Some white-rot fungi, screened at the Laboratory of Forest Products Microbiological Chemistry, Chungbuk National University were cultured and added the inducer of laccase enzyme, 2,5-xylidine. The fungi named by CB-13, CB-20, CB-99, CB-100 and CB-123 strains showed positive results in the decolorization of aromatic compounds, carminic acid and Rhemazol brilliant blue R. Concerned to the inducing effect of 2,5-xylidine on laccase activity, CB-20, CB-100 and CB-123 strains showed very high activity by addition of 2,5-xylidine, whilst CB-13, CB-99 and CB-124 strains produced relatively high laccase enzymes, regardless of inducer addition. There were no any laccase activities on CB-25, CB-64 and CB-139, even in addition of inducer. It is confirmed that some screened fungi have decolorizing ability on aromatic compounds, carminic acid and Rhemazol brilliant blue R. Also, the addition of inducer, 2,5-xylidine, has increased the activity of laccase enzyme which is secreted from some white-rot fungi.
Effect of Filler Types on Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Adhesive for Plywood
Oh, Yong-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 48~52
Residues such as walnut, pinenut and peanut shells were used as a filler in adhesive for bonding radiata pine plywood. The nutshell residues were prepared by simply drying to 8% moisture content and grinding the dry material using a laboratory Wiley mill with a
(200 mesh) screen. The nutshells residues were compared to a commercial filler commonly used in adhesives by the structural plywood and laminated veneer lumber industry in the United States. The adhesive mixes were made by following the recommended procedure of Georgia-Pacific Resins, Inc., using phenol-formaldehyde resin. For each filler type, three-ply plywoods, 6 mm nominal thickness and 30 by 30 cm in size, were fabricated at two press times (4 and 5 min) and around 30 minute assembly time. Evaluations of the nutshell residues were carried out by tension shear tests after cyclic boil tests on plywood. The results of the performance test included tension shear strength and wood failure. All plywoods made with the nutshell fillers were comparable to those made with the control filler. These results indicate that nutshell residues would be suitable as filler for plywood adhesives.
Biodegradation of Pentachlorophenol by Various White Rot Fungi
Choi, In-Gyu ; Ahn, Sye-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 53~62
In this research, 7 species of white rot fungi were used for determining the resistance against pentachlorophenol (PCP). Three fungi with good PCP resistance were selected for evaluating the biodegradability, and biodegradation mechanism by HPLC and GC/MS spectrometry. Among 7 fungi, there were significant differences on PCP resistance on 4 different PCP concentrations. In the concentrations of 50 and 100ppm (
g of PCP per g of 2% malt extract agar), most fungi were easily able to grow, and well suited to newly PCP-added condition, but in that of more than 250ppm, the mycelia growths of Ganoderma lucidum 20435, G. lucidum 20432, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Daldinia concentrica were significantly inhibited or even stopped by the addition of PCP to the culture. However, Trametes versicolor, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, and Inonotus cuticularis still kept growing at 250ppm, indicating the potential utilization of wood rot fungi to high concentrated PCP biodegradation. Particularly, P. chrysosporium even showed very rapid growth rate at more than 500ppm of PCP concentration. Three selected fungi based on the above results showed an excellent biodegradability against PCP. P. chrysosporium degraded PCP up to 84% on the first day of incubation, and during 7 days, most of added PCP were degraded. T. versicolor also showed more than 90% of biodegradability at 7th day, and even though the initial stage of degradation was very slow, I. cuticularis has been approached to 90% at 21 st day after incubation with dense growing pattern of mycelia. Therefore, the PCP biodegradability was definitely dependent on the rapid suitability of fungi to newly PCP-added condition. In addition, the PCP biodegradation by filtrates of P. chrysosporium, T. versicolor, and I. cuticularis was very minimal or limited, suggesting that the extracellular enzyme system may be not so significantly related to the PCP biodegradation. Among the biodegradation metabolites of PCP, the most abundant one was pentachloroanisole which resulted in a little weaker toxicity than PCP, and others were tetrachlorophenol, tetrachloro-hydroquinone, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid, suggesting that PCP may be biodegraded by several sequential reactions such as methylation, radical-induced oxidation, dechlorination, and hydroxylation.
Biodegradation of 4,5,6-Trichloroguaiacol by White Rot Fungi, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Inonotus cuticularis
Ahn, Sye-Hee ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 63~72
In order to evaluate the biodegradability and mechanism of 4,5,6-trichloroguaiacol (TCG) produced from bleaching process in pulp mill by Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Trametes versicolor, and Inonotus cuticularis, changes in TCG and its metabolites during biodegradation were analyzed by HPLC, and GC/MS spectrometry. By three fungi, the maximum biodegradability against TCG were very quickly reached, compared with other chlorinated aromatic compounds such as PCP. Within 24 hrs, T versicolor indicated up to 95% of TCG removal rate, and P. chrysosporium and I. cuticularis also showed more than 80%, and 90%, respectively. Particularly, in case of T. versicolor, the removal rate of TCG after 1 hr. incubation was reached to approximately 90%, implying very rapid metabolization of TCG. However, by analyzing the filtrates extracted from TCG containing culture by GC/MS, the major metabolites at initial stage of biodegradation were dimers, indicating that the added TCG monomers were quickly polymerized. The others were trichloroveratrole, dichloroguaiacol, and trichlorobenzoic acid, suggesting that TCG may be biodegraded by several sequential reactions such as polymerization, oxidation, methylation, dechlorination, and hydroxylation. In other experiments, the extracellular fluid which did not contain any fungal mycelia was used to evaluate the effect of mycelia on TCG biodegradation. The extracellular fluid of T. versicolor also biodegraded TCG up to 90% within 24hrs, but those of P. chrysosporium and I. cuticularis did not show any good biodegradability. T versicolor showed the highest value of laccase, and other two fungi indicated a little activity of lignin peroxidase (LiP) and manganese peroxidase (MnP). In addition, the laccase activity of T. versicolor was very linearly proportional to the removal rate of TCG during incubation, in other words, showing the induction effect against TCG. Consequently, the biodegradation of TCG was very dependent upon the activity of laccase.
Studies on the Technical Development of the Traditional Korean Golden Varnish(Hwangchil) (III) - Main Component Analysis of Korea Golden Varnishes Traditonally Refined from the Exudates of Dendropanax morbifera Lev. -
Lim, Kie-Pye ; Jung, Woo-Yang ; Hong, Dong-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 73~80
In order to reconstruct the traditional technology of Korean golden varnish coatings, this study was carried out to separate and determine some main coloring components of the exudates of D. morbifera and its traditionally refined golden varnishes using a process of solvent extractions, chromatographies and spectrometries. The results obtained are as follows: 1. The exudate and its traditional-refined golden varnishes appear to have a kind of natural polyacetylenes because it has some triple bond peaks in FT-IR spectrometry. 2. Some yellowing spots of the polar-solvent extrats from the exudates and refined varnishes separated on TLC appeared under natural drying condition, but those of non-polar solvent extract such as hexane did not. 3. A traditional refining method for reconstructing a Korea golden varnishes was thought to be better than solvent separation because the former had higher triple-bond peaks than the latter in FT-IR spectrometry. 4. One of main conponents in the hexane-extracts of the traditional-refined varnishes and the exudates had the same molcular weighr of 204, but the fragmentation patterns was a little different between the exudate and the refined. in LC-MS soectrometry.
Species for Tree Saps in Mt. Sobaek Area and Its Sap Resources
Kim, Hong-Eun ; Kwon, Ki-Chul ; Park, Cheol-Ha ; Cho, Nam-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 81~92
Lately public interest in tree saps of maple and birch trees has been increased for sap drink as a natural medical beverage. To ensure tree sap drink for commercial production, species which are available in resources, their ecological regeneration characteristics in the natural forest stand, and tree sap resources should be investigated. Species for the collecting tree saps and their distribution were surveyed in the areas of Mt.Sobaek, Tanyang-gun, Chungcheongbuk-do. Mt.Sobaek area was selected to the proper place to survey as the feasible area for tapping tree saps for the natural beverage. Feasible tree species of this area are Betula costata, Betula schmidtii, Comus controversa, Acer mono, and Acer pseudosieboldianum based on the estimated tree sap amounts. Average and maximum species diversities of surveyed area were 4.2 and 5.39, respectively. Its evenness 0.78 referred that there are actively progressing ecological regeneration among diverse tree species. Tree saps are mainly harvested at the areas of upper and lower Wonmanteo. In terms of species, the most high sap amounts were from birch sap, next Comus controversa, the 3rd Acer mono. Many measures were suggested ecologically and technically, for commercial or practical production of tree sap drinks, though Mt.Sobaek area was evaluated as improper place because of geographical and transportational limitation.
Factors Affecting on Sap Flows of Birch Trees, Betula platyphylla as a Healthy Beverages
Cho, Nam-Seok ; Kim, Hong-Eun ; Min, Du-Sik ; Park, Cheol-Ha ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 93~99
Lately public interest in tree saps of maple and birch trees stimulated to increase demands for sap drink as a natural medical beverage. In order to understand factors affecting tree sap flows, birch species, particularly Betula platyphylla in Mt.Sobaek area, were monitored for daily sap flows according to factors, such as DBH, tapping hole sizes and direction of hole drilling on the trunks. The chemical constituents of saps were also analyzed. The sap flow initiated from the end of March and finished at the end of April. The flow maxima appeared from April 14th to April 26th. Total amounts of the sap flow obtained from birch tree were over 1,800 ml per day per one tree. Sap flows were increased with increasing DBH and tree age. Six milimeter drilled hole resulted in the highest sap flows. Sap flows increased with increases of diameter and height of the trees. Hole drilling to downward side(south-facing) of tree produced almost doubled sap flows than that of upward one(north-facing), while rightside drilling produced same amounts of saps to that of leftside one. Six mm drilling gave the best results not only in maximum flows but also effective hole occluding rates. The saps have in the range of 4.5 to 5.6 pH and l.0 - 2.0% of saccharinity. Sucrose, glucose, fructose and high mineral contents were found in the saps of birch tree. The tree saps could be utilized not only medicinal drink, but also one of the healthy beverages.
Analysis of Cytotoxic Constituent of Berberis koreana Palibin
Kim, Young-Kyoon ; Kwak, Byung-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 26, issue 3, 1998, Pages 100~107
Methanol extracts of five Berberidaceae species were examined against tissue factor inhibitory and tumour cell growth inhibitory activity. Methanol extracts of Berberis koreana Palibin showed a strong cytotoxicity activity against SK-MEL-2 (Melanoma) tumour cell lines with more than 90% in
and against A549 (Lung carcinoma), SK-OV-3 (Ovarian cancer), XF498 (CNS cancer) and HCTl5 (Colon cancer), other Berberidaceae species except B. koreana species have no effect on the tumour cells. Biologically active compound, therefore, was isolated through the activity guided fractionation and purification. The structure was confirmed by NMR. FT-IR and MS to 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzyl)-ethyl alcohol. It showed cytotoxicity activity against SNU-C4 tumour cell lines with 50.7% in
. Methanol extracts of 5 Berberidacae species have no effect on the tissue factor inhibitory activity.