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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 27, Issue 4 - Dec 1999
Volume 27, Issue 3 - Sep 1999
Volume 27, Issue 2 - Jun 1999
Volume 27, Issue 1 - Mar 1999
Selecting the target year
Wood Quality of Column in Storage Halls of Tripitaka Koreana Woodblock
Park, Sang-Jin ; Jung, Ki-Ho ; Kim, Jae-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 1~8
Species of the pillars in the 4 different buildings(Sudaridjang, Beopbojeon, Dongsaganjang, Seosaganjang) in which Tripitaka Koreana wood blocks are conserved were identified. 1. In 114 pillars, including 6 partially piled-up pillars, 73(64%) was Zelkova serrata, 17(14.9%) was Pinus koraiensis, 16(14%) was Pinus densiflora, 5(4.4%) was Abies holophylla, 2(1.8%) was Quercus sp., and 1(0.9%) was Pinus rigida. 2. The pillars from Sudarajang were consist of various species such as Pinus densiflora, Pinus Koraiensis, Abies holophylla, Quercus sp., and Zelkova serrata, whereas all 47 out of 48 pillars from Beopbojeon were consist of only one species-Zelkova serrata. 3. We can be inferred from the characteristics of the identified species that Beopbojeon whose pillars are made of only Zelkova serrata was built at least before the mid-Koryo dynasty followed by Sudarajang, but Dongsaganjang and Seosaganjang might be built far later than that time.
The Relationship between Anatomical Characteristics and Bending Strength in Major Species of Korean Lepidobalanus
Oh, Seung-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 9~17
This study was carried out to get some basic information on mechanical properties of Korean Lepidobalanus for the rational utilization of their woods, Five species of Quercus variabilis, Q. aliena, Q. serrata, Q. mongolica, Q. acutissima belonging to Lepidobalanus were investigated in this research. Relationship of anatomical characteristics with bending strength was analyzed using stepwise regression technique. All possible combination of 21 independent variables were regressed on bending strength. The summarized results in this study were as follows: 1) In the proportion of wood structural elements, the most important factors on bending strength appeared to be proportion of wood fiber in earlywood in Q. variabilis and Q. serrate, proportion of ray in earlywood in Q. aliena, proportion of vessel in earlywood in Q. mongolica and proportion of wood fiber in latewood in Q. acutissima, respectively. 2) In the other quantitative anatomical characteristics, the most important factors on bending strength appeared to be number of pore per
in latewood in Q. variabilis, microfibril angle in Q. aliena and Q. mongolica, length of wood fiber in Q. serrata and height of uniseriate ray in Q. acutissima, respectively.
Formation Conditions of Na-cellulose II with Three Fold Helix
Kim, Nam-Hun ; Lee, Myoung-Ku ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 18~23
The formation conditions of Na-cellulose II with three fold helix were investigated by an x-ray diffraction method. Na-cellulose II was formed through Na-cellulose I. It seems that the concentration of sodium hydroxide in Na-cellulose II is higher than both those of Na-cellulose I and Na-cellulose III. Na-cellulose II was formed well by different rinsing and drying methods even though the sample treatment was carried out in very short periods of time. Metal-complexed Na-cellulose swollen in the mixture of
and sodium hydroxide is stable in wet state, and changed to a different polymorph by drying.
Suitability Analyses of Domestic Hardwoods as Furniture Parts
Kim, Gyu-Hyeok ; Kim, Jin-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 24~29
A model to classify domestic hardwood species for furniture applications was developed by using discriminant analysis. The results indicated that among those 36 domestic hardwoods, which have the desired properties for use in furniture parts, 15 species would possibly substitute for temperate hardwoods imported from North America and 21 species for tropical hardwoods imported from southeast Asia and western Africa.
The Bending Strength Properties and Acoustic Emissions to Sloped Finger-Jointed Pinus densiflora S. et Z.
Byeon, Hee-Seop ; Ahn, Sam-Keun ; Kim, Jong-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 30~36
This paper describes the relationship between the bending strength properties of sloped finger-jointed woods and the acoustic emissions (AEs) generated during the test. Pinus densiflora pieces were cut in sloped-finger types and glued with four kinds of adhesives (polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl-aeryl, oilic urethane and resorcinol-phenol resin). The results were as follows: The lower the bending strength(load) was, the earlier the generation time of AE event count got and the higher the increasing rate of AE event count became in the sloped finger-jointed specimens bonded with polyvinyl acetate and oilic urethane resin adhesives. Therefore, the slope from load-AE cumulative event count curve was very steep. The AE event count for resorcinol-phenol resin adhesive obtained even from low load level was abundant. The AE event count continuously increased as load increased and the event count was much more than one in the other conditions. The slope from load-AE cumulative event count curve was very gentle compared with other conditions. The patterns of AE event count and count were very similar. The relationship between the MOR and the AE parameter from load and AE cumulative event count in the early stage of the sloped finger-jointed specimens bonded with polyvinyl acetate, oilic urethane and resorcinol-phenol resin adhesives was much greater than that between the MOE and the MOR. Therefore, the AE signals obtained during bending test are useful for estimating the strength of sloped finger-jointed specimens.
Effect of fire - retardant treatment and redrying on the mechanical properties of radiata pine
Chung, Doo-Jin ; Jo, Jae-Sung ; Yun, Ki-Eon ; Kim, Jae-Jin ; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 37~49
The effect of fire-retardant treatment and redrying on the mechanical properties of radiata pine sapwood were evaluated. Small, clear specimens were treated with three different fire-retardant(FR) chemicals, borax-boric acid(BRX), minalith(MIN), and pyresote(PYR), with target retentions of 30 and 60kg/
, and then redried at maximum dry-bulb temperature of
. Each specimen, including untreated and water-treated controls, was tested in static bending and in compression parallel to grain. The extent of strength reduction was dependent on the type of FR chemicals, retention, and redrying temperature, and a highly significant interaction existed between FR treatment and redrying temperature. Modulus of rupture(MOR) and work to maximum load(WML) were significantly decreased by FR treatment and redrying. None of three FR chemicals adversely affect modulus of elasticity (MOE) and maximum crushing strength(MCS). MOE of BRX treatment and MCS of both BRX and PYR treatment increased significantly compared to untreated controls. No significant differences existed between retention levels except for MOE and MCS of some combinations of FR chemicals and redrying temperatures. Although MOE and MCS was not significantly affected by any of the redrying temperatures, these properties were generally decreased with the increase in redrying temperature. The significant reduction in MOR and WML was observed in BRX treatment when dried at temperatures of
and above, and in MIN and PYR treatment when dried at temperatures of
and above. Consequently, BRX-treated radiata pine should not be redried at temperatures >
, and MIN- and PYR-treated radiata pine should not be redried at temperatures >
where bending strength and energy-related properties are important design considerations.
Temperature Effect on Ultrasonic Stress Wave Velocity of Wood
Kang, Ho-Yang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 50~55
Since ultrasonic stress wave velocity varies with wood temperature and moisture content, ultrasonic stress wave could be a tool to predict wood moisture content if temperature effect could be eliminated. This temperature effect was investigated by measuring the velocities of ultrasonic stress waves transmitting through air, a metal bar and a dimension lumber at various temperatures. For air the velocity and amplitude of the ultrasonic stress wave increase with temperature, while for a metal bar and a dimension lumber those decrease as temperature increases. However all three materials showed velocity hystereses with a temperature cycle. The effect of temperature and moisture content on stress wave velocity of a dimension lumber was depicted in the form of a three dimensional graph. The plot of stress wave velocity vs. wood moisture content was well fitted by two regression equations: a exponential equation below 46% and a linear equation above 46%.
Study on the Machinability of Korean Domestic Bamboo Species
Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Kim, Byung-Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 56~63
Machinability of three Korean domestic bamboo species, Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel, Phyllostachys nigra var. henonis Stapf. and Phyllostachys bambusoides S. et Z., was studied to investigate the possibility of utilization of Korean domestic bamboo species as raw material for industry. Splitting force reached a maximum within the first inch of knife travel and diminished thereafter. Parallel-sided wedge-type knife with sharpness angle of 15 degree required the lowest maximum splitting force. Roughnesses of surfaces developed during planing and sawing of bamboo were lower than those of Pinus radiata D. Don and quality of ripped surface was better than that of cross-cut surface on bamboo. 62.5 hours were required to dry 12mm-thick Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel from moisture content of 60% to moisture content of 10% at
Phenol-Formaldehyde (PF) Resin Bonded Medium Density Fiberboard
Park, Byung-Dae ; Riedl, Bernard ; Park, Sang-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 64~71
This study was conducted to manufacture MDF panels bonded with PF resins which provide excellent durability and dimensional stability with panels, and to identify benefits and weaknesses of using PF resins for MDF panels that have been manufactured with urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins for interior applications due to its low dimensional stability under moisture conditions. The results showed that the performance of PF-bonded MDF panels satisfied the performance requirement. A six-cycle aging test also revealed that PF-bonded MDF panels had high durability. Thickness swelling after 24 hours submersion in cold water was less than 2 percent, showing good dimentioanl stability. The identified weaknesses of using PF resins were relatively high resin content and long hot-pressing time. An acceptable resin content appeared to be 8 percent which can increase the production cost of PF-bonded MDF panels. The hot-pressing time (7 minutes) used in this study is relatively long compared to that of UF-bonded MDF panels. This result also indicates that hot-pressing process has to be optimized to control various pressing variables.
Effects of Resin Compositions and Additives on Gelation Properties and Bonding Characteristics of Urea-Melamine-Formaldehyde resin adhesives
Roh, Jeang-Kwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 72~78
To accelerate the curing and to improve the bonding properties of urea-melamine-formaldehyde (UMF) resin adhesives for plywood, the effects of resin compositions and additives on gelation time and bonding strength were discussed. The gelation time of UMF resin prepared by simultaneous reaction with urea(U), melamine(M) and formaldehyde(F) at M/U molar ratio 0.2 was shortened as the molar ratio of formaldehyde to urea was increased. However, at F/U molar ratios higher than 2.5, the amounts of free fomaldehyde of resin could not satisfy with KS standard, Therefore, it was difficult to increase the amount of formaldehyde in resin composition for the purpose of fast gelation time. With increasing the molar ratio of melamine to urea(M/U) from 0.3 to 0.6 at constant F/U molar ratio 3.4, the gelation time of UMF resin was slightly decreased, while gradually increased at M/U molar ratio higher than 0.6. The gelation properties of UMF resin and bonding strength of UMF-bonded plywood could be enhanced by using ammonium chloride and p-toluene sulfonic acid as a curing-agent together with wheat flour and corngluten powder as a extender.
Studies on the Physical Properties of Molded Packaging Material Using Rice-Straw Pulp
Oh, Seung-Won ; Kang, Chin-Ha ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 79~87
To use the agricultural residues as the raw material of molded packaging material, the packaging trays were manufactured from rice-straw pulp. The physical properties were measured to compare non-treated trays with the addition trays, such as the addition of starch, rosin size, carboxymethyl cellulose(CMC), polyethylene glycol(PEG), alkylketene dimer(AKD), polyacryl amide(PAM). The results were as follows : 1. In the addition of starch, air permeability at addition of 5% was highest. Bursting strength and tensile strength were smaller than non-treated trays. 2. In the addition of rosin size, air permeability, bursting strength and tensile strength were smaller than non-treated trays. 3. In the addition of CMC, air permeability was higher than non-treated trays. Bursting strength and tensile strength were similar to non-treated trays. 4. In the addition of PEG, air permeability was higher than non-treated trays. Bursting strength at addition of 3% was the highest and tensile strength was smaller than non-treated trays. 5. In the addition of AKD, air permeability at addition of 1% and 5% was higher than non-treated trays. Bursting strength and tensile strength were smaller than non-treated trays. 6. In the addition of PAM, air permeability at addition of 0.01% was the highest. Tensile strength at addition of 0.01% were higher than non-treated trays. 7. The water absorption of the trays decreased with increasing adding of natural additives.
Properties of Indigenous Korean Paper(Hanji) - Classification of Oebal(single frame)Papermaking Methods -
Cheon, Cheol ; Kim, Seong-Ju ; Jin, Young-Mun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 88~104
This study was carried out to classify the Hanjis into three groups that were indigenous Hanji, traditional Hanji, and improved Hanji handmade by paper making method according to the physical properties of each paper sheet such as tensile, bursting and tearing strength, folding endurance and fiber orientation in each layer. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. The multi-layered Hanjis made by "Oebal" Hanji making method in different direction of fiber orientation have good properties in tearing resistance. 2. The multi-layered Hanji in different direction of fiber orientation has good properties in the tearing resistance, but the burst index and the breaking length results were lower than the single layered Hanjis. 3. The different fiber orientation and multi-layered method didn't increase, the three indexes(burst index, tear index, breaking length). Only, the different direction of fiber orientation decreased the difference of width and length strength (tensile, tear) of the Hanji. 4. "Dochim"(Korean finishing touch process for indigenous Hanji by fulling round sticks) greatly increase folding endurance(double folds, not
) and good effect to tensile strength and burst strength. 5. The today's Oebal Hanji were the maximum of 2 layers and the indigenous Oebal Hanji were 16 layers the maximum. In addition, average of the indigenous Oebal Hanji was 4 layers(all 4-layer Hanji were the different fiber orientation of each layer). 6, The indigenous Hanji(multi-layered, and different fiber orientation) was good condition with "Dochim". Dochim increased tensile strength and burst strength of the indigenous Hanji. So the three-strength indexes were similar level("--"). 7. When the number of layer which were same fiber orientation increase, the increased Hanji became similar strength pattern("V", breaking length and burst index was higher than tear index) with "Ssangbal" Hanji. 8. The single layered papers that made by "Oebal" Hanji making method were similar strength pattern with Ssangbal Hanji. 9. There was no way to find the width and length direction of multi-layered Hanji by comparison between the difference of tensile strength and the difference of tearing resistance. 10. The compared pattern of tensile strength and tearing resistance of indigenous Oebal Hanji was different from today's Oebal Hanji. Especially, the tearing resistance of all indigenous Oebal Hanji(16 samples) was stronger on width of tearing resistance. And in the half of indigenous Oebal Hanji samples, the width of tensile strength and tearing resistance was stronger than length strength (Indigenous Oebal: '
' 50%, '
Today's Oebal: '
' 12%, '
'65%). In 65% today's Oebal, the length direction of tensile strength and tearing resistance was stronger than the width direction.
Studies on the Antimicrobial Activities of the Extractives from Magnolia (Magnolia kobus DC. var. borealis Sarg.)
Kim, Yun-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 27, issue 1, 1999, Pages 105~114
Antimicrobial activities of the organosoluble extracts, seperated fractions and isolated lignans from the leaves tissue of Magnolia kobus DC. var. borealis Sarg. were investigated. The results are summarized as follows : 1. The inhibitory components against the spore growing test were concentrated on light petroleum ether and diethyl ether soluble fractions. The light petroleum ether solubles of the leaves tissue had terpenes compound, so, that they caused growing inhibition. These appearance showed high values of Rf on TLC bioautography and GC analyses with monoterpenes. 2. In the lignans, syringaresinol(X III), medioresinol(VI), phillygenin(VIII), kobusinol A(X) showed relatively high inhibitory effects in the spore growing test, and these are all showed structural characteristic of the phenolic hydroxyl group of guaiacyl and syringyl skelecton. 3. The light petroleum ether soluble fraction showed the strongest inhibitory effect against the antimicrobial activity in the seperated fractions. 4. The inhibitory effects of the lignans against the bacteria showed not so pronounced independantly, but the extracts and separated fractions contained with these lignans showed something synergism.