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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
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Anatomical Comparison of Compression, Opposite, and Lateral Woods in New Zealand Rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum Lamb.)
Eom, Young-Geun ; Butterfield, Brian G. ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 1~13
Compression, lateral, and opposite woods in the stem and branch of rimu (Dacrydium cupressinum Lamb.), a softwood species indigenous to New Zealand, were described and compared in the anatomical aspects. Qualitatively, growth rings were wide in the compression wood, intermediate in the lateral wood, and narrow in the opposite wood. Tracheid transition from early wood to late wood was very gradual in the compression wood but was more abrupt in both the lateral and opposite woods. When viewed transversely, compression wood tracheids showed a roundish outline except at the growth ring boundary but lateral and opposite wood tracheids were angular to rectangular in outline. Intercellular spaces were occasionally detected in the compression wood except in the late wood at the growth ring boundary but were absent from both the lateral and opposite woods. Slit-like extensions of the bordered pit openings caused by the location of pit apertures within short and narrow helical grooves were observed in the compression wood tracheids but not in the opposite or lateral wood tracheids. In the compression wood tracheids, fine striations in the form of fine checks or grooves were observed on the lumen surfaces and the innermost
layer of secondary wall was absent. In the tracheids of lateral and opposite woods, the
layer was sometimes absent but occasionally highly developed. Cross-field pits in the compression wood appeared to be piceoid due to slit-like pit apertures but those in the lateral and opposite wood tracheids showed cupressoid to taxodioid. Quantitatively, compression wood tracheids were somewhat shorter than those of opposite or lateral wood in stem but not different from the opposite or lateral wood tracheids in branch. The walls were thicker in the compression wood than in the lateral or opposite wood. Uniseriate rays in the compression wood were fewer than in the lateral or opposite wood.
Effect of a Metal-strap Thicknesses on the Bending Process
Jung, In-Suk ; Kim, Jung-Whan ; Lee, Weon-Hee ; Chang, Jun-Pok ; Bae, Hyun-Mi ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 14~20
On the bending process, metal-strap plays an important role in dispersing the stress generated in wood. Therefore, the metal-strap has more influence on the property of bentwood materials. The effect of the metal-strap thickness for bentwood was examined. The effect of metal-strap on the bending properties of Korean red pine(Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.)was investigated in this research. The metal-strap thickness is divided into 4 kinds such as 1.0, 0.8, 0.6, 0.4 mm. The specimens were selected by grain such as annual ring angles, flat grain and half-edge grain specimens. As a result of this study, the bending ability of 1.0, 0.8 mm, thickness of half-edge grain specimens was better than flat grain specimens but the result of 0.6, 0.4 mm were reversed. The bending ability of half-edge grain was better than flat grain and the grade was higher. When the processed specimens were dried, the radius of curvature(ROC) was decreased became drying-stress was not perfectly dispersed. An optimum drying-condition would deminish this phenomenon.
Monitoring the Wood Drying Process with an Image Processing System (I) : Drying Characteristics of Tree Disk of Black Locust
Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Kim, Byung-Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 21~26
Acquisition of precise information on drying characteristics of wood is indispensable for the improvement of drying schedules and wood quality. Recognition of the exact moisture content at which drying defects such as checks occur during drying with given drying conditions may be essential to reduce drying losses. In this study an image-processing system was combined with a laboratory-scale wood dry kiln for experiments and the surface of tree disk of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) was monitored to investigate the behavior of check formation over all the drying process. This system showed good potential for improving drying schedules and wood product quality.
Effect of Wood-Fiber Characteristics on Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) Performance
Park, Byung-Dae ; Kim, Yoon-Soo ; Riedl, Bernard ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 27~35
Four different sources of wood-fibers from Eucalyptus, Italian poplar, hemlock, and mixed species fibers were used to study the influence of their fiber characteristics on the performance of medium density fiberboard (MDF) panels bonded with both urea-formaldehyde (UF) and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) adhesives. Included fiber characteristics were fiber length, size distribution, bulk density, and acidity. Physical and mechanical properties of MDF panels manufactured by dry process using these different fibers were determined for the comparison of board performance. Two hardwood species had a large fraction of short fibers resulting in a higher bulk density while very long hemlock fibers had lower bulk density. Fiber acidity was revealed to strongly affect the internal bond (IB) strength of MDF panels bonded with UF resins. MDF panels made from mixed species fibers showed highest IB strength of all panels prepared. UF-bonded MDF panels showed poor dimensional stability. In conclusion, the present study showed that wood-fiber characteristics such as fiber length, bulk density, and acidity affect the performance of MDF boards, and also suggested that fiber characteristics be considered for MDF panel manufacture.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Wood Fiber-Polypropylene Fiber Composite Panel
Kim, Jee-Woong ; Eom, Young-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 36~46
This study was to find a way of reusing wood and plastic wastes, which considered as a troublesome problem to be solved in this age of mass production and consumption, in manufacturing wood fiber-polypropylene fiber composite panel. And the feasibility of this composite panel as a substitute for existing headliner base panel of automobile was also discussed, especially based on physical and mechanical performance. Nonwoven web composite panels were made from wood fiber and polypropylene fiber formulations of 50 : 50, 60 : 40, and 70 : 30, based on oven-dry weight, with densities of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, and 0.7 g/
. At the same density levels, control fiberboards were also manufactured for performance comparison with the composite panels. Their physical and mechanical properties were tested according to ASTM D 1037-93. To elucidate thickness swelling mechanism of composite panel through the observation of morphological change of internal structures, the specimens before and after thickness swelling test by 24-hour immersion in water were used in scanning electron microscopy. Test results in this study showed that nonwoven web composite panel from wood fibers and polypropylene fibers had superior physical and mechanical properties to control fiberboard. In the physical properties of composite panel, dimensional stability improved as the content of polypropylene fiber increased, and the formulation of wood fiber and polypropylene fiber was considered to be a significant factor in the physical properties. Water absorption decreased but thickness swelling slightly increased with the increase of panel density. In the mechanical properties of composite panel, the bending modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE) appeared to improve with the increase of panel density under all the tested conditions of dry, heated, and wet. The formulation of wood fiber and polypropylene fiber was considered not to be a significant factor in the mechanical properties. All the bending MOR values under the dry, heated, and wet conditions met the requirements in the existing headliner base panel of resin felt.
Studies on Manufacturing Wood Particle-Polypropylene Fiber Composite Board
Lee, Chan-Ho ; Eom, Young-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 47~58
For finding both ways of recycling the wood and plastic wastes and solving the problem of free formaldehyde gas emission through manufacturing wood particle-polypropylene fiber composite board without addition of formaldehyde-based thermosetting resin adhesive, control particleboards and nonwoven web composite boards from wood particle and polypropylene fiber formulation of 50 : 50, 60 : 40, and 70 : 30 were manufactured at density levels of 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.8 g/
, and were tested both in the physical and mechanical properties according to ASTM D 1037-93. In the physical properties, control particleboard had significantly higher moisture content than composite board. In composite board, moisture content decreased with the increase of target density only in the board with higher content of polypropylene fiber and also appeared to increase with the increase of wood particle content at a given target density. Control particleboard showed significantly greater water absorption than composite board and its water absorption decreased with the increase of target density. In composite board, water absorption decreased with the increase of target density at a given formulation but increased with the increase of wood particle content at a given target density. After 2 and 24 hours immersion, control particleboard was significantly higher in thickness swelling than composite board and its thickness swelling increased with the increase of target density. In composite board, thickness swelling did not vary significantly with the target density at a given formulation but its thickness swelling increased as wood particle content increased at a given target density. Static bending MOR and MOE under dry and wet conditions increased with the increase of target density at a given formulation of wood particle and polypropylene fiber. Especially, the MOR and MOE under wet condition were considerably larger in composite board than in control particleboard. In general, composite board showed superior bending strength properties to control particleboard, And the composite board made from wood particle and polypropylene fiber formulation of 50 : 50 at target density of 0.8 g/
exhibited the greatest bending strength properties. Though problems in uniform mixing and strong binding of wood particle with polypropylene fiber are unavoidable due to their extremely different shape and polarity, wood particle-polypropylene fiber composite boards with higher performance, as a potential substitute for the commercial particleboards, could be made just by controlling processing variables.
Thermogravimetric Analysis of Rice Husk Flour for a New Raw Material of Lignocellulosic Fiber-Thermoplastic Polymer Composites
Kim, Hyun-Joong ; Eom, Young-Guen ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 59~67
Rice husk flours were analyzed by chemical composition and thermogravimetric methods in nitrogen atmosphere to discuss its feasibility as a raw material for manufacturing agricultural lignocellulosic fiber-thermoplastic polymer composite. It was revealed in the chemical composition analysis that rice husk flour was composed of moisture, 5.0%; lignin, 21.6%; holocellulose, 60.8%; ash, 12.6%. In the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), thermal decomposition behavior of rice husk flour from room temperature to
was similar to that of wood flour, but rice husk flour was more thermally stable from 350 to
than wood flour because of higher silica content in the rice husk flour and smaller particle size of rice husk flour. The activation energy of thermal decomposition was evaluated using Flynn & Wall expression. As the thermal decomposition proceeded in rice husk flour, the activation energy of thermal decomposition appeared almost constant up to
, but thereafter increased. Activation energy of thermal decomposition in wood flour, however, decreased steeply up to
, but thereafter remained almost constant. From the results, rice husk flour was thought be a substitute for wood flour in manufacturing agricultural lignocellulosic fiber-thermoplastic polymer composite in the aspect of thermal decomposition.
Properties of Woodceramics Chip Tile Made from Waste Wood(II) - Effect of Additions and Woodceramics Chip -
Oh, Seung-Won ; Okabe, Toshihiro ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 68~72
In order to effectively use the waste wood, two types of woodceramics chip tile were made from woodceramics chip, gravel, zeolite and additions. The woodceramics chip was made from branch of apple tree (Malus pumila Mill.) Snow melting property, bending strength and compressive strength of woodceramics chip tile were tested according to the mixing rate of woodceramics chip. Snow melting properties of woodceramics chip tile increased after additions treatment but mechanical properties were reduced significantly after additions treatment. The results indicate that the additions are effective for snow melting property but negative effect on mechanical properties.
Study on Pulp Fibers and Paper Morphology by ESEM and LTSEM
Kim, Chul-Hwan ; Yang, Jae-Kyung ; Park, Chong-Yawl ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 73~82
The ESEM could be used in investigating the fibrous networks developed during handsheet-forming processes with the exception of the stages relating to the actual dispersion of the fibers and the drying of formed sheets. Also the cross-sectional images of swollen fibers were generated with the ESEM but the information given by the images was rarely fresh compared to the CLSM images. The LTSEM was extremely useful in generating images of the microfibrillar structure of a wet fiber with great resolution. However, pretreatment required in the LTSEM chamber was somewhat tedious due to the time consumed in sublimation of ice and sputter coating. For observation of lamellar structure of a hydrated fiber, the LTSEM exhibited greatly detailed structure with high resolution. Finally ESEM and LTSEM should be used in a finite field such as observation of surface morphology in detail.
Structural Investigation of Lignins in Three Different Ferns (Pteridopbytes)
Choi, Joon-Weon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 83~91
This paper examines the structural characteristics of fern lignins (deer fern (Blechnum spicant), sword fern (Polystichum munitum) and maidenhair fern (Adiantum pedatum)) by chemical degradation methods of thioacidolysis and nitrobenzene oxidation as well as 13C NMR. Phloroglucinol-HCI staining indicates that the lignins are specifically accumulated at the sclerenchyma cells beneath the epidermis and vascular bundles. The fern lignins consist of only guaiacyl units. Remarkably, the frequency of the -O-4 linkages is extremely low in fern lignins (only 9 to 11 %). Furthermore, the presence of lignin is ambiguous in maidenhair fern, due to very rare amount of -O-4 linkage. Biphenyl (5-5) and 1,2 bis arylpropane (-1) are main condensed dimeric substructures in fern lignins over 70%. In addition, 13C NMR analysis strongly evidenced the integration of phenolics or their derivatives into the fern lignins.
Allelopathic Potential and Substances from Cork Tree (Pbellodendron amurense Rupr.)
Park, Young-Goo ; Choi, Myung-Suk ; Yang, Jae-Kyung ; Paik, Ki-Hyon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 92~98
Allelopathic effects of the cork tree (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.) on several crops and soil miro-organisms were assessed using germination bioassay and antimicrobial assay, and allelochemicals were identified. In a germination bioassay, extract of cork tree inhibited at high concentration on germination of several crop seeds such as cabbage, lettuce, and cucumber. However, aqueous extracts inhibited powerfully growth of test organisms such as Streptococus aureus, S. aureus, S. typhimurium, and E. coli as bacteria, and Candida albicans as yeast, and Botrytis cineria and Alternata alternaria as fungi.. The cork tree extract showed strong antimicrobial activities against isolated soil fungi. The allelochemicals were separated using Silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 gel column chromatography and HPLC. The substances were analyzed by UV spectrometry and EI-mass spectrometry. The active allelochemicals were identified as isoquinoline alkaloids, berberine and palmatine.
Flavan-3,4-diol Derivatives from the Heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia
Bae, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 99~103
Three flavan-3,4-diol derivatives were isolated from the heartwood of Robinia pseudoacacia and characterized by spectroscopic methods including
NMR and positive FAB-MS. The structures were identified as 4,4'-dimethoxy-, 4-ethoxy- and 4-ethoxy-4'-methoxy-2,3-trans-3,4-cis-(+)-leucorobinetinidin.
An Immobilization of Extracellular Laccase to Humus-Iron Complex
Ginalska, Grazyna ; Cho, Nam-Seok ; Lobarzewski, Jerzy ; Piccolo, Alessandro ; Leonowicz, Andrzej ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 104~111
There are some evidence that active enzymatic proteins, e.g. fungal laccase, exist in the naturally occured soil humus. This study was performed to investigate the covalent binding of fungal laccase to the humic acid-iron complex, and to measure laccase activity of immobilized ones. Seven methods were adopted to form the covalent binding of fungal laccase with soil humic acids complexed with iron. Using these seven methods it was possible to change the dimension of spacer arm between laccase and support, and also to regulate the mode of covalent binding of this enzyme. The spacer arm was regulated from 2C to 11C. There was not observed any straight relationship between the spacer arm longitude and the laccase activity after immobilization, but the binding mode more effective than the former. Three out of the seven methods gave the high activity of immobilized laccase, and which active products of laccase immobilization was stable up to 10 days after the process. It is indicated that natural soil condition might be prevented the laccase activation by the toxic influence of some phenolic humic compounds. It was shown, for the first time, the possibilities to obtain the high activity of fungal laccase by binding to humic acids, and especially in complex with iron.
Immobilization of Fungal Laccase on Keratin-Coated Soil and Glass Matrices
Ginalska, G. ; Lobarzewski, J. ; Cho, Nam-Seok ; Choi, T.H. ; Ohga, S. ; Jaszek, M. ; Leonowicz, A. ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 3, 2001, Pages 112~122
Laccase enzymes from Cerrena unicolor and Trametes versicolor were immobilized on the activated glass beads (CPG), silica gel (SG) and soil (SL). The heterogeneous matrices were activated by
-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde (GA), and their surfaces were coated by keratin (KER) on activated or non-activated CPG, SG and SL. The laccase activities were tested in the aqueous solution for the native and immobilized preparations using different pH and temperature conditions. By keratin coating on supports, in the cases of CPG-KER and SL-KER, the immobilization yield was increased from about 80% to 90%. Moreover, much less protein was immobilized in keratin coated matrices than in inorganic ones alone (e.g. on CPG-KER 57.6%, whereas on CPG alone 80.6%). Laccase immobilization on keratin coated inorganic matrices was generally more effective than that of non-coated matrices. Concerned to pH dependency, the optima pH for immobilized laccases generally shifted towards to higher values, 5.5-5.8 and even 5.9 in the case of keratin for C. unicolor and from 5.3 to 5.7 for T. versicolor, respectively, and decreased less gradually both in acidic and alkaline regions. The immobilized laccase was more stable against thermal denaturation. This seems particularly true at
in the case of C. unicolor, where the activity of immobilized enzyme is > 50% higher than that of the free enzyme. For T. versicolor the respective values were
, and 50%.