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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 29, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 29, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 29, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 29, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
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Studies on Evaluation for Long-term Loading of Composite Wood-joint and Characteristics of Joint Strength (I) - The strength properties of mechanical joints of Pinus densiflora with drift pin and bolt -
Hong, Soon-Il ; Hwang, Won-Jung ; Kim, Eun-Sam ; Jin, Kwang-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 1~8
This study was carried out to investigate the strength and stiffness of drift pinned and bolted joints with steel-plates by the tension-type lateral strength tests. Specimens were solid wood of Pinus densiflora. Bolt and drift pin were jointed with inserted steel plates. Tests were conducted with combinations of two loading directions (parallel to the grain : 0 degree, perpendicular to the grain : 90 degree) and three diameters of fasteners (d = 6 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm). The results obtained were as follow: 1. In the test of the parallel to the grain, maximum loads were increased with increasing of the diameter of bolt and drift pin in the same end distance. In the test of perpendicular to the grain with diameter 10 mm and 12 mm, specimens mostly were failed with horizontal splits in woods reaching the yield load of drift pinned and bolted joints. 2. The ratio of maximum load to the yield load determined by the so-called "5% offset method", was great in bolted joints in the parallel to the grain This trend become more remarkable as the slenderness ratio was increased. 3. The calculated yield strength was agreed well with the experimental results of drift pinned joint(0 degree).
Shear Strength Property of Wood Treated by Steam Treatment at High Temperature
Kim, Jung-Hwan ; Lee, Weon-Hee ; Kim, Jong-Man ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 9~15
This study deals with shear strength test for Pinus densiflora and Pinus radiata treated at above
by heat steam. Treatment conditions of this experiment were operated at regular intervals of
at temperatures up to
for 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes by using the steam-explosion apparatus. It was examined, at high temperatures, degradation of some compounds from wood composition could lead to reduced the shear strength through heat steaming processes and play a large part in the plastic process of solid wood materials. It could be estimated that the shear strength of woods were gradually reduced by heat steaming time. Remarkable reduction of shear strength of woods was observed with increasing steaming temperatures above 10 minutes steaming time. Furthermore, this phenomenon shows a tendency to increase with higher temperatures. Therefore, it was considered that the softening by steaming treatment at high temperatures is necessary for the improvement on the wood processing ability.
Rapid Moisture Content Determination Technique Using Microwave Oven
Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Kim, Kyung-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 16~24
Conventional hot-air oven-drying method takes at least four hours to determine the moisture content of wood sample and this method is not always acceptable to wood industry. In this study samples of six different specifications from Paulownia coreana, Pinus densiflora and Quercus acutissima were dried in domestic microwave oven to their oven dry weights to investigate the possibility of rapid moisture content determination technique using microwave-oven drying method. Continuous heating time, cooling time and intermittent heating time were determined by each species and sample specifications. Temperatures of surface and center of samples were also measured during drying. Oven-drying times were reduced to 1/7~1/10 of conventional hot-air oven-drying method. Therefore microwave heating and drying techniques appear attractive for wood industry as a rapid moisture content determination method.
Microwave-Vacuum Drying of Short Roundwoods and Wood Turneries
Kang, Ho-Yang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 25~32
A microwave vacuum (MW/V) dryer was developed for drying short roundwoods, from which woodcraft souvenirs in Korean market are mostly made, and which were hardly dried without defects in a conventional kiln. It consisted of three 1.5 kW magnetrons of 2,450 MHz, a vacuum pump, a load cell of 100 kg and a cavity of
. A computer program was developed to switch on or off the magnetrons according to drying schedules, those were based on microwave injection time or the average of wood temperatures. To evaluate the new MW/V dryer the roundwood specimens of rigida pine, poplar and birch were dried. Their log diameters and lengths ranged from 125 to 25 em and from 25 to 50 cm, respectively. In spite of the presence of minor drying defects, the MW/V drying is found to be an effective method for drying short roundwoods. Wooden turneries made of red alder and ash logs were also MW/V dried from green to 4%MC without any degradation. The rates of the MW/V drying were examined for three different lengths of poplar logs.
Examination of Formaldehyde Emissions from the Hot-Pressing of Particleboard
Oh, Yong-Sung ; Kwak, Jun-Hyuk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 33~39
Laboratory particleboards (PBs) were made with urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins at four press times and two resin application rates. Enclosed caul system was used for collecting the exhaust gases materials generated during the hot-pressing of PB. Exhaust gases materials generated inside the enclosed caul during the hot-pressing of PB were collected in a controlled air stream. Formaldehyde from the exhaust gases collected was determined per a chromotropic method of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Method 3500. The test results showed that formaldehyde emissions during the hot-pressing of PB increased with increasing press time, UF resin mole ratio, and resin application rate.
Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions on Sambo Mine Runoff by Barks
Ahn, Byoung-Jun ; Koh, Kyung-Moo ; Lee, Hyung ; Paik, Ki-Hyon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 40~47
(422 ppm) and
(53.1 ppm) from Sambo mine runoff(the total amount of heavy metals : 107 ppm) in Whasung, packed bed column tests were run in two stages plastic columns. The non-treated bark(Pinus densiflora, Quercus accutisima) of each 6 kg were placed into columns. The height and diameter of column were 60 cm and 45 cm, respectively. Flow rate ranged to 1
/min for 15 days. The concentration of heavy metal ions in filtrate was determinded periodically. By the treatment of oak bark the initial concentration of
was maintained under 10 ppm(the adsorption rate: 64%) for 24 hr, while pine bark kept the initial concentration of
under 20 ppm(the adsorption rate: 53%) for 15 hr. However the initial concentration of
was reduced only to 10.6~18.6 ppm (the adsorption rate: 20~35%) until 10 hr. Thereafter, the adsorption of
by bark decreased rapidly. There was little difference in the adsorption ratio of
between oak and pine bark. The use of bark to remove
in Samba mine runoff was effective, but it wasn't proper to remove
Flavonoid Acetylated Glucosides of the Needles of Pinus densiflora
Lee, Sang-Keug ; Bae, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 48~52
The needles of Pinus densiflora, grown in the campus of Kangwon National University were collected, extracted with acetone-
(7:3, v/v) and freeze dried to give 10.4 g of ethylacetate soluble powder. A portion of the freeze dried powder was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column using a series of aqueous methanol and ethanol, and ethanol-hexane mixture as eluents. The extractives contained a large amount of flavan compounds in addition to a small amount of flavonoid derivatives such as kaempferol-3-O-glucopyranoside, and quercetin-(6"-O-acetyl)-glucopyranoside which has not been isolated from this species yet. Some spectrometric analyses such as NMR and FAB-MS were performed to identify the structures of the isolated flavonoid derivatives.
Extractives from the Needles of Torreya
Kim, Jin-Kyu ; Bae, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 53~59
The needles of torreya(Torreya nucifera S. et Z) were collected, extracted with acetone-
(7:3, v/v), fractionated with hexane, chloroform and ethylacetate, and freeze dried to give some dark brown powder. The ethylacetate soluble mixture was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column using a series of aqueous methanol and ethanol-hexane mixture as eluents. Most of the needle extractives were flavan and its methyl ether compounds such as (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-gallocatechin, (-)-epigallocatechin, 3'-O-methyl-(+)-catechin and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin including protocatechuic acid, one of benzoic acids.
-NMR, NOE and CI-MS analyses were performed to elucidate the structures of the isolated compounds.
The Laccase Activity of Trametes versicolor during Cultivation on Acetylated Wood and
C-CP/MAS NMR Study
Son, Dong-Won ; Lee, Dong-Heub ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 60~66
For examine anti-degradation factors of acetylated wood, acetylated wood was incubated on Trametes versicolor. The laccase activity was examined in broth culture and solid fermentation that contain acetylated chips. The change of acetyl groups and chemical composition in the acetylated wood having massloss analysed by
-CP/MAS NMR. The laccase activity was detected in broth culture. When the T. versicolor contact to acetylated wood directly, the laccase activity was very low and couldn't maintain during test periods. Through the analysing of
-CP/MAS NMR, the acetylation took place carbohydrates as well as lignin and hydroxyl group of amorphous region was more easily substituted that of crystalline region The spectral analyses of
-CP/MAS NMR were shown that introduced acetyl bond was stable against fungal attack.
Changes of Carbohydrate Composition and Enzyme Adsorption on the Hydrolysis of Steam Exploded Wood by Cellulase
Yang, Jae-Kyung ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 67~78
Two species(Quercus mongolica, populus euramericana) of hardwood chips were subjected to steam explosion 25 kg/
, for 6 min. The exploded woods were treated by the single or multi-stage chemical process with sodium hydroxide, sodium hypochlorite and sodium chlorite. The multi-stage treatment of exploded wood can be successfully removed lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis rate of substrate varied from 25% for exploded wood to about 80% for the multi-chemical treated exploded wood. The enzymatic susceptibility was different among wood species. The multi chemical treatment of the exploded wood resulted in the high rate of glucose in the enzymatic hydrolyzate. Cellulase adsorption increased at high lignin content of substrates, while crystallinity, pore area and specific surface area of substrates did not affected enzyme adsorption. According to the proposed pretreatment and saccharification process in this study, it can be acquired about 37~40 kg of glucose from 100 kg of hardwood.
Biochemical Characteristics of Lectins Isolated from Lentinula edodes
Kim, Young-Sin ; Cho, Nam-Seok ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 79~88
Lectin was isolated from shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) with 0.15 M NaCl solution, and purified by the following procedures : precipitation by ammonium sulfate, anion exchange column chromatography on DEAE Sephadex A-50 and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. The fresh pileus part of the mushroom contained more than two times of lectin compared to the stipe part, and lectins and its activity were reduced by heating. The extraction yield of crude lectin was 46.03%, 28% yield after purification on on DEAE Sephadex A-50 column chromatography. Some amino acids, aspartic acid, serine, alanine and histidine, were increased by purification process. Relatively low molecular weight parts of lectin had the agglutinating activity for rabbit blood, and its molecular weight was about 23 kDa The molecular weights of purified lectins, LA-a and LB-b, by the hydroxyapatite column chromatography were 24 kDa and 23 kDa, respectively.
Studies on Biological Activity of Wood Extractives(VII) - Antifungal activity of Isoflavonoids from Sophora japonica -
Park, Young-Ki ; Lee, Hak-Ju ; Lee, Sung-Suk ; Choi, Don-Ha ; Yeo, Woon-Hong ; Oh, Jung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 89~96
Three isoflavones and one isoflavanone were isolated from the wood of Sophora japonica (Leguminosae) which has been selected due to its high antifungal activity among the tested species, Four compounds were identified as 5,7-dihydroxy-4',6-dimethoxyisoflavone (irisolidone), 5,7-dihydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (biochanin A), 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxyisoflavone (formononetin) and 7-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-isoflavanone by Mass and NMR spectroscopic analysis. The antifungal activity of the isoflavonoids was tested by medium dilution method and showed low antifungal activity indicating that the other compounds may contribute to high activity of the wood extractives of S. japonica.
Isolation and Identification of Stilbene glycosides from the Bark of Pinus koraiensis
Song, Hong-Keun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 97~102
EtOAc extract from the bark of Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc was isolated by column chromatography which was packed with Sephadex LH-20 or TSK-gel HW-40F. Several stilbene glycosides were identified by
-NMR, HMQC, HMBC and
MS. Three stilbene glycosides, Z-pinostilbenoside, E-desoxyrhaponticin, and E-resveratroloside, were identified.
Kraft Pulping Characteristics by Bio-pretreatment with White-rot Fungus
Kang, Kyu-Young ; Jo, Byoung-Muk ; Oh, Jung-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 29, issue 4, 2001, Pages 103~110
Bio-kraft pulping of Populus alba
glandulosa pretreated with white-rot fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium KCCM 34740, was investigated The biopulping efficiency was evalued based on fungal pretreatment time and properties of bio-kraft pulp (pulp yield, freeness, WRY, kappa number and brightness) in comparison to the controls. Pretreatment of poplar wood chips with Phanerochaete chrysosporium KCCM 34740 for 10days resulted in a some increase in screened yield (by 2%). According to increase of fungal incubation time, decrease in freeness (CSF) and increase in WRY were observed And bio-kraft pulping also led to improvement of physical properties of handsheet. As a result of bio-beating effect, we expect the saving of chemicals in kraft cooking process and energy consumption in beating process.