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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 31, Issue 6 - 00 2003
Volume 31, Issue 5 - 00 2003
Volume 31, Issue 4 - 00 2003
Volume 31, Issue 3 - 00 2003
Volume 31, Issue 2 - 00 2003
Volume 31, Issue 1 - 00 2003
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Mercerization of Wood: Formation and Reversibility of Na-cellulose I in Reaction Wood
Kim, Nam-Hun ; Kim, Dae-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 1~7
The phase transformation from cellulose I into cellulose II in woods by way of Na-cellulose I was examined by x-ray diffraction analysis. The formation of Na-cellulose I in woods increased with the increase of treating time in alkali solution. When compression wood was treated with 20% NaOH solution at room temperature for 1 day, the x-ray diagram showed only Na-cellulose I. On the other hand, the x-ray diagram of tension wood showed a mixture of cellulose I and Na-cellulose I. Cellulose I of tension wood could not be transformed completely into Na-cellulose I even after 10-day treatment, but was transformed into Na-cellulose I after 30-day treatment. Na-cellulose I of compression and tension woods was converted to the cellulose I pattern and the mixture of cellulose I and cellulose II, respectively, after washing with water and drying at 20
. Cellulose I regenerated from Na-cellulose I in wood could not be converted to cellulose II by delignification. Thus, it revealed that the delignification of the alkali-treated wood did not affect their cellulose structures. From the results, therefore, it can be concluded that lignin in woods prevents the formation of the stable Na-cellulose I and the conversion from cellulose I to cellulose II. This means that the conversion of chain polarity of wood cellulose hardly occurs during mercerization because cellulose microfibrils are fixed by lignin which not to be intermingled.
Extractives from Fruits of Amorpha Fruticosa (I)
Lee, Hyun-Jung ; Lee, Hak-Ju ; Kwon, Yeong-Han ; Choi, Don-Ha ; Paik, Ki-Hyon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 8~14
This study was carried out identify extractives of Amorpha fruticosa. In this study, one flavonoid glycoside, one ester and two rotenoids were isolated from fruits of A. fruticosa. The structures were determined as: kaempferol 7-O-
-L-rhamnopyranoside (I), methyl 3, 4, 5-trihydroxybenzoate (methyl gallate, II), tephrosin (III) and dalbinol (IV), respectively, on the basis of spectroscopic data.
Development of Image Processing Technique for Determining Wood Drying Schedules
Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Kim, Byung-Nam ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 15~21
Image processing technique was adapted for exploring the more convenient ways to investigate the drying characteristics of wood. The acquisition of information about drying characteristics is indispensable for the development or improvement of dry-kiln schedules. A small internal fan type wood dry kiln was combined with image-processing and data-acquisition systems to monitor continuously the formation of checks and moisture reduction during drying. All the images and data were analyzed to improve or estimate the dry-kiln schedules and predict the drying time which would be required to dry green wood to 10% moisture content in internal fan type kiln. Samples of 20 mm- and 50 mm-thick Metasequoia glyptostrobodies, Paulownia coreana Uyeki, Pinus densiflora Sieb. Et Zucc., Platanus occidentalis L., Quercus acutissima and Robinia pseudo-acacia were used to verify the potentiality of this technique.
Effects of Pruning on Timber Quality of Pinus koraiensis Grown in Korea
Chong, Song-Ho ; Jung, Doo-Jin ; Park, Byung-Su ; Chun, Su-Kyoung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 22~30
This study was performed to obtain the basic data for high quality timber production and efficient utilization by investigating the effect of pruning on timber quality of domestic plantation-grown Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.). The results were summarized as follows: Dead knots (unsound knots) in the pruned logs occurred more at upper parts when compared with in non-pruned ones. The numbers of knots on surface in heavily pruned trees were less than those in non-pruned trees, but there was no significant difference in moderately pruned trees. The required period to reveal clear timber surface without defects after pruning increased proportionally with the increase of knot diameter. The yield of clear lumber production increased by about 10% after 14 years from moderate pruning. The quality grade of log improved with more pruning practices. Knots appeared the most important factor in lowering the log grades.
Characterization of Residual Lignins from Chemical Pulps of Spruce (Picea abies) and Beech (Fagus sylvatica) by
Choi, Joon-Weon ; Faix, O. ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 31~39
The enzymatic isolation of residual lignins obtained from spruce and beech pulps (obtained by sulfite, kraft, ASAM and soda/AQ/MeOH pulping processes) and their characterization was described in previous publications. Here, the residual lignins have been submitted to potassium permanganate oxidation (
degradation), and 9 aromatic carboxylic acids (3 of them are dimeric) were identified after methylation with diazomethane by GC/MS. The analytical challenge during qantification by the internal standard methods was the partly high protein content of the samples, which resulted in elevated anisic acid yields in the degradation mixture of sulfite residual lignins. The results are compared with the
degradation of the corresponding MWLs and discussed in terms of S/G ratios and degrees of condensation. The latter was calculated as a quotient between the aromatic carboxylic acids derived from condensed and non-condensed lignin structures. Typical degradation patterns for the various processes have been observed. Among other parameter, the relative compositions between iso-hemipinic acid (which is for condensation in pos. 5 of the aromatic ring) and meta-hemipinic acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphthalic acid (both are for condensation in pos. 6 of the aromatic ring) was found to be process specific. Kraft and soda/AQ/MeOH residual lignins yielded higher amounts of iso-hemipinic acid. In contrast, the relative yields of meta-hemipinic acid and 3,4,5-trimethoxyphthalic acid (the latter in beech lignins) are higher in sulfite and particularly in ASAM residual lignin. In case of beech residual lignins the amount of acids originated from non-condensed syringyl type lignin units was surprisingly high. The condensation degree of residual lignins was shown to be generally higher than that of MWLs. This was especially true for the G units. ASAM residual lignin exhibited very high S/G ratios and degrees of polymerization. Causality between condensation degree and total yield of degradation products was demonstrated.
Screening of Antioxidant Activity of Domestic Trees
Lee, Wi-Young ; Park, Young-Ki ; Chin, Hwi-Seung ; Ahn, Jin-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 40~44
This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant activities of domestic trees grown in Korea. Based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity method, the methanolic extracts of 23 species were screened in order to search for natural antioxidants. Among these species, Acer ginnala, Cotinus coggygria, Acanthopanax koreanum, Thea sinensis and Pinus densiflora showed stronger antioxidative activity comparing with reference compound, ascorbic acid.
Patterns of Resistographs for Evaluating Deteriorated Structural Wood Members
LEE, Jun-Jae ; KIM, Kwang-Chul ; BAE, Mun-Sung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 45~54
The density and strength of wood is affected by degradations and defects, such as voids and knots. Old wooden structures such as traditional cultural properties have been deteriorated by these types of defects. They were evaluated by a visual observation that is difficult to evaluate the inner deterioration in structures. In this study, three nondestructive testing techniques were investigated to detect the wooden structural members. Ultrasonic stress wave tests, drilling resistance tests and visual inspections were used to examine the structural wood members. Patterns of Resistograph using by drilling resistance tests could indicate the features of internal wood such as voids, knots, decay, fungi, and so on. The technique just like as ultrasonic stress wave tests, however, difficult to detect exactly area where small amounts of internal deterioration in logs are. In spite of results of ultrasonic stress wave test, the internal deterioration of wooden structural members could be evaluated by the relationship between ultrasonic stress wave tests and drilling resistance tests.
Fixation and Leaching Characteristics of CCA- and CCFZ- Treated Domestic Softwood Species
Kim, Jae-Jin ; Kim, Hyung-Jun ; Ra, Jong-Bum ; Chun, Su-Kyoung ; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 55~59
The fixation and leaching characteristics of chromated copper arsenate (CCA Type C) and chromium- copper-fluoride-zinc (CCFZ) in domestic softwood (Japanese red pine, Korean pine, and Japanese larch) sapwood were investigated using the expressate method to follow chromium fixation and the American Wood-Preservers‘ Association (AWPA) leaching procedure to determine leaching properties after fixation. The rates of fixation were affected by preservative types; CCA was fixed much faster than CCFZ for all species evaluated. There were definite differences in the fixation rates of different species, with Korean pine requiring shorter to fix than the other species evaluated. Chromium fixation was greatly enhanced by elevated temperatures, and fixation time can be estimated according to fixation temperatures applied. The percentage of arsenic and zinc leached from domestic softwoods was relatively high compared to chromium and copper, indicating that there is still a relatively high unfixed arsenic and zinc components after complete chromium fixation in CCA-and CCFZ-treated samples, respectively.
Effect of Supplement nutrition on the Mycelial Growth of Lentinus edodes
Yang, Jae-Kyung ; Kim, Tae-Hong ; Lim, Bu-Kug ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 60~66
Mycelial growth of L. edodes by supplement nutrition of softwood was studied on a sawdust medium. The sawdust used was from the following softwood species : Larix leptolepis, Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis. The added nutritions consisted of carbon nutritions(sucrose, active carbon, xylose, glucose, paper pellet), nitrogen nutritions(potassium nitrate, ammonium chloride, asparagine, glutamic acid) and vegetable oil(rice bran oil). The sawdust medium was a mixture of 76% sawdust, 20% rice bran, 3% carbon nutrition, 0.4% nitrogen nutrition and 0.6% calcium carbonate. Following addition of carbon and nitrogen nutritions on the sawdust medium proved most suitable : L. leptolepis (glucose, glutamic acid), P. densiflora (active carbon, asparagine) and P. koraiensis (xylose, glutamic acid). The highest mycelial growth was obtained from sawdust medium of optimum condition with 97% of L. leptolepis, 110% of P. densiflora and 98% of P. koraiensis. This study has provided useful preliminary information for the cultivation of L. edodes.
Antioxidant Compounds from Distylium racemosum Leaves
Park, Young-Ki ; Lee, Wi-Young ; Ahn, Jin-Kwon ; Lee, Hak-Ju ; Chin, Hwi-Seung ; Kwon, Young-Jin ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 67~72
The leaves of D. racemosum showed strong DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity and the order of the radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical is ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction>crude extracts>residue fraction>hexane fraction>ether fraction, under the experimental conditions. Since EtOAc fraction has highest antioxidative activity among these fractions, the isolation was performed from the EtOAc fraction of the leaves of D. racemosum and four phenolic compounds were isolated and identified as follows: methyl gallate, kaempferol, quercetin and quercitrin. The free radical scavenging activities of these compounds were 79.9%, 93.1%, 93.6% and 66.7% at 10
/ml, respectively. The
of compound 1, compound 2, compound 3 and compound 4 were 6.1, 4.1, 3.6 and 6.5
/ml, respectively. These compounds have higher antioxidative activity compared with reference compounds, ascorbic acid (
Adsorption Characteristics of Heavy Metals by Various Forest Humic Substances
Ahn, Sye-Hee ; Koo, Bon-Wook ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 73~82
Various forest humic substances were collected at different climate regions with different forest types, and adsorption of heavy metals such as Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) were characteristically conducted to obtain optimal adsorption conditions and to evaluate the removal efficiency of heavy metals by each forest humic substance. The adsorption isotherms for Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Cr(III) conformed to Langmuir's equation. In the stirred reactor, the removal efficiencies of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) by forest humic substances were more than 90% but that of Cr(III) was less than 60%. The adsorption capacities of heavy metals in the stirred reactor were considerably varied depending on the type of forest humic substances. Among humic substances, the one from deciduous forest at subtropical region showed the highest removal efficiency for Cu(II). There was no significant difference in removal efficiency by each heavy metal depending on reaction temperature ranged from 20 to 50circC except for Cr(III), and the adsorptions of Cu(II), Zn(II) and Cd(II) were occurred rapidly in the incipient stage within 10 min, while Cr(III) needed more reaction time to be adsorbed. The stirred and packed bed column reactors showed similar adsorption characteristics of heavy metals by humic substances, but the removal efficiency was considerably higher in the packed bed column reactor than in the stirred reactor. Therefore, in actual operation process, a continuous packed bed column reactor was more economical.
Ethylene Gas Adsorption of Clay-Woodceramics from 3 layers-clay-woodparticleboard
Lee, Hwa-Hyoung ; Kang, Seog-Goo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 31, issue 6, 2003, Pages 83~88
The woodceramics are porous amorphous carbon and glassy carbon composite materials. Woodceramics attracted a lot of attention in recent years because they are environmentally friendly and because of their unique functional characteristics such as catalysis, moisture absorption, deodorization, purification, carrier for microbial activity, specific stiffness, corrosion and friction resistance, and their electromagnetic shielding capacity. In this paper, we made new products of clay-woodceramics to investigate the industrial analysis and ethylene gas adsorption for basic data of building- and packging- materials keeping fruit fresh for a long time. Clay-woodceramics were carbonized for 3 h of heating in a special furnace under a gas flow of nitrogen(15 ml/min.) from 3 layers-clay-woodparticleboard made from pallet waste wood, phenol- formaldehyde resin(hereafter PF, Non volatile content:52%, resin content 30%), and clay(10%, 20% and 30%). Carbonization temperature was 400
. Experimental results shows that the higher the carbonization temperature, the higher the fixed carbon and the lower the volatile contents. The higher the clay content, the more the ash content. The higher the carbonization temperature, the more the ethylene gas adsorption. Carbonization temperature of 800
gave the best reslts as same as that of white charcoal and activated carbon.(800
-clay-woodceramic: 5.36 ppm, white charcoal: 5.66 ppm, activated carbon: 5.79 ppm) The clay contents did not make difference of ethylene gas adsoption.