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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 33, Issue 6 - Nov 2005
Volume 33, Issue 5 - Sep 2005
Volume 33, Issue 4 - Jul 2005
Volume 33, Issue 3 - May 2005
Volume 33, Issue 2 - Mar 2005
Volume 33, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
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Annual Ring Formation in Major Wood Species Growing in Chuncheon, Korea(II) - Formation of Resin canals, Tyloses and Latewood -
Kwon, Sung-Min ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 1~7
This study was carried out to investigate on the formation of resin canal, tylosis and latewood of the major species growing in Chuncheon. Two species of softwoods (Pinus densiflora and Pinus koraiensis) and two species of hardwoods (Quercus mongolica and Robinia pseudoacacia) were used in this experiment. The resin canals of P. densiflora and P. koraiensis were formed from the beginning through the middle of July and in the beginning of May, respectively. It is clear that the resin canal of P. koraiensis was formed much earlier than that of P. densiflora. The tylosis in vessel of Q. mongolica was formed in the middle of May, and the formation in R. pseudoacacia was in the end of May. The latewood in P. densiflora was formed in the middle of August. The latewood in P. koraiensis was formed from the end of September through the beginning of October. While latewood vessels in Q. mongolica were formed in the end of May, and those in R. pseudoacacia from the beginning of June through the middle of June. Consequently, the period of resin canals, tyloses and latewood formation was different among the sample trees, even though the trees were grown under the same conditions.
Variation of Material Properties of Fire-killed Timber (I) - Mechanical Properties of Fire-killed Korean Red Pine in the East Coast Area -
Park, Jung-Hwan ; Park, Byung-Soo ; Shim, Kug-Bo ; Jo, Tae-Su ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 8~16
Fire-killed trees of Korean red pine are valuable resources for industrial uses. It is common only believed that fire-killed trees are too weak and brittle to use in construction purposes. The misunderstandings of fire-killed trees lead these valuable resources abandonment. The purposes of this research are focused on scrutinization of material properties of fire-killed trees to facilitate industrial uses of these resources. The sample logs were collected from the forest fire site of the eastern coast area in which the most catastrophic wild fire had taken place in 2000. Fire-killed Korean red pines were classified into 3 levels by the degree of fire damage so called light, medium and heavy, then their physical, mechanical and chemical properties were compared with sound trees. No significant difference in physical appearances were found in the cross sections by degree of damage compared to sound tree but bark char. Investigation on mechanical and chemical properties indicates that forest fire did not impact significantly in lowering the strength of damaged trees. It was concluded that there was any limitation of forest fire-killed trees of Korean red pine in industrial utilization.
Comparison of Longitudinal Liquid Permeability of Pinus koraiensis Sapwood Treated by Steaming and Various Drying Methods
Kang, Ho-Yang ; Lu, Jianxiong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 17~24
Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb.et Zucc.) boards of 30 mm thickness were treated by steaming and four different drying methods. Small specimens were taken from the sapwoods of the treated boards and their longitudinal liquid permeability was measured according to Darcy's law. The specimens were also extracted with alcohol and aceton solutions to examine the mechanism of liquid flow in wood. It was observed that specific permeability drastically decreases with measurement time, resulting in violation of Darcy’s law. It may be due to that air bubbles formed under vacuum block flow paths in resin canals. The average specific permeabilities of non-extracted and extracted specimens are different from one treatment to another. It is supposed that the properties of residual resin in resin canals change depending on the conditions of treatments. Anatomical examination was conducted with a scanning electron microscope.
Improvement of Drying Schedule for Domestic Red Pine Lumber
Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Kim, Kyung-Yong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 25~30
This experiment was carried out for the improvement of drying schedules for 50 mm-thick Japanese red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) lumber. Drying rates were analyzed comparatively after drying to 15% of final moisture content through the applications of conventional kiln drying schedule, time schedule, continuously rising temperature schedule, and drying rate schedule. As results drying rate of 50 mm-thick red pine lumber was 0.53%/hr with conventional kiln drying schedule, 0.9%/hr with time schedule, 2.29%/hr with continuously rising temperature schedule, and 1.52%/hr with drying rate schedule, respectively.
Study on the Improvement of Strength Capacity for Glulam-to-bolt Connection
Kim, Gwang-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 31~37
This research investigated the increase in strength capacity for the difference of various connection conditions. Connections were constructed with a main member, glulam and side members, 3 mm steel plates. Connections were varied in the number of inserted 1 mm steel plate. The strength capacity considerably increased by inserting the very thin steel plate within structural glulam connection. Glulam connections were classified as the number of inserted steel plate, group A was none, group B was one, group C was two, and group D was three. Ultimate and design values of the group B were 18% and 13% greater than the group A, the group C were 27% and 20% than the group A, and the group D were 33% and 24% than the group A. However, the increase in strength capacity and the additional difficulty should be considered on economic and technical view.
Study on the Improvement of Strength Capacity for Various Wood-to-wood Connections
Kim, Gwang-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 38~45
This research was investigated on the increase in strength capacity among different five wood-to-wood connections. Group using small diameter bolts with equal area loss has the highest increase in strength capacity, secondly the group inserted plywood, thirdly the group used glued bolt, and lastly the group inserted rubber plate. These groups showed at least 10% increase in strength capacity more than existing connection groups. Therefore, these results can be applied to develop the new highly efficient connection. To select suitable connection configuration and materials, however, economical advantage and increase in strength capacity and the difficulty should be considered by the additional works.
Physical Properties of Composite Panel Manufactured from Wood Particle and Recycled Polypropylene
Han, Tae-Hyung ; Shin, Rang-Ho ; Kwon, Jin-Heon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 46~54
To make the composite panels of wood particles and recycled plastics, the recycled polypropylene was used. In the composite panels the sizes of wood particles were 1/32", 1/4" and 1/2" mesh, and the composition ratios of the recycled plastics were 10%, 30%, 50% and 70%. The physical and mechanical properties of the composite panels were investigated. As the composition ratio of wood particle increases, the density increases, while it decreases at the same composition ratio because the size of wood particle increases. As the composition ratio of recycled polypropylene increases from 10% to 30%, both thickness swelling and water adsorption significantly decrease. As the composition ratio of recycled polypropylene increases, the modulus of rupture in bending strength increases, but the modulus of elasticity in bending strength decreases. SEM shows that the dissolved recycled polypropylene penetrates into tracheid and pit, and bonds mechanically to other wood particle and matrix to increase the bonding strength and improve the physical and mechanical properties of composite panel.
Processability of Bio-composites Applied Polyolefin to Recycled Fiberboard Flour
Choi, Seung-Woo ; Kim, Hee-Soo ; Lee, Byoung-Ho ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ; Ahn, Sye-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 55~62
This study was conducted to evaluate the application of a bio-composite made by the addition recycled fiber board flour as filler. Recycled fiber board (high density fiber board, HDF) flour was added to polyolefin polymer low density polyethylene (LDPE) and polypropylene (PP) for the preparation of bio-composite materials. The mechanical properties and processability of the recycled HDF flour filled LDPE and recycled HDF flour filled PP bio-composites were then measured and compared to those of wood flour (WF) and rice-husk flour (RHF) filled LDPE and PP bio-composites, respectively. The tensile and impact strengths of the recycled HDF flour filled LDPE and PP bio-composites had similar mechanical properties to those of the WF and RHF filled LDPE and PP bio-composites. To measure the processability, torques of the bio-composites were also measured. The torques of the HDF flour filled LDPE and PP bio-composites were lower than those of the WF and RHF filled polyolefin (PP and LDPE) bio-composites with a filler loading of 30 wt.%. This result showed definite processability, which was not related with the distribution of the particle size of the material added. The recycled fiber board flour filled bio-composites showed applicability as substitutes for the bio-composites currently used in the bio-composites industry.
Adsoptive Properties of Cellulose Thermally Treated at Low Temperature and Its Solubility to Water
Jo, Tae-Su ; Ahn, Byung-Jun ; Choi, Don-Ha ; Akihiko, Miyakoshi ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 63~70
The purpose of this study was to investigate how to modify the physical properties of cellulose after thermal treatment. Cellulose was treated between 225
for 3 hrs under air flow, and then the thermally treated cellulose was measured to specific surface area, constitute elements, consumption ofacid and base, as well as the adsorption capacity of ethylamine vapor. The higher was the treating temperature from 225
, the lower was the total yield of cellulose. Elemental analysis revealed that carbon content in thermally treated cellulose was gradually increased in proportion to temperature increment. The amount of acidic functional groups tended to increase up to 300
, after then to be lowered slightly. In principle, no alkaline functional groups were found in thermally treated cellulose. In case of treatment with 325
, only a few amount of alkaline functional groups were detectable. Specific surface area of thermally treated cellulose are determined to 1.9
/g, which value can become higher when the treated temperature rises. The thermally treated cellulose at 275
shows the highest adsorption capacity of ethylamine at 40
for 4 hrs. Solubility of those two celluloses with WPG (Weight Percent Gain) value of 113% and 108%, respectively, was determined to almost 100%. X-ray diffractogram of thermally treated cellulose suggested that the crystalline structure of cellulose began to be destroyed at the temperature of 275
. As a conclusion, changes of such a physical properties make it possible to weaken inter and/or intra hydrogen bond in crystal region of cellulose macromolecules. When thermally treated cellulose adsorbs ethylamine, it turns to be well soluble to water.
Utilization of Biomass Resources(II) Analysis of Polyphenol Components and Antioxidative Activities from Chestnut Inner Bark
Jo, Jong-Soo ; Kim, Yun-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 71~78
For the utilization of chestnut inner bark as forest biomass, this studies have been carried out cleary investigated about phenolic compounds from the diethyl ether solubles and ethyl acetate solubles of hot water extract from chestnut inner bark. 3 compound were isolated and their structures were identified by spectroscopic methods. They were known compounds, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,4,5-trihydrixybenzoic acid and catechin. Electron donating ability (EDA) of 3 compounds were investigated. Gallic acid and catechin were found to higher EDA than control, ascorbic acid and
-tocopherol in 10 ppm, and especially gallic acid has very higher EDA, 21 times than ascorbic acid. This gallic acid of chemical structure were substituted with free phenolic hydroxyl groups at meta and para position. It was supposed that phenolic hydroxyl groups in chemical structure was a EDA factor.
Structural Analysis of Milled Wood Lignins Isolated From Aspen Wood (Populus tremuloides L.) Biotreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermispora
Choi, Joon-Weon ; Moon, Sung-Hee ; Ahn, Sye-Hee ; Choi, Don-Ha ; Paik, Ki-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 79~86
Aspen wood (Populus tremuloides, L.) was biotreated with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora for 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks to observe the physical/chemical modification of wood components. Milled wood lignins (MWLs) isolated from each decayed wood were analyzed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO). As fungal treatment was progressed, lignin contents continuously decreased up to 20% after 6-week treatment. The lignin polymer could be fragmented to low-molecular phenolics, which make an enhancement of alkali solubility. Holocellulose contents were not affected severely during the period of fungal treatment only reduction of
compared to the control. Xylose contents were decreased gradually from 23.4% to 18% after 6 weeks, whereas alpha-cellulose remained almost unchanged. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) indicates that molecular weight of lignin undergoes a slight decrement for 4 weeks of fungal treatment. Nitrobenzene oxidation revealed that total yield of NBO products of lignins were lowered ca 20% after fungal treatment. Sum of syringaldehyde and syringic acid are remarkably decreased. However, increment of sum of vanillin and vanillic acid was surprisingly observed. These results work as indirect evidence that a specific lignolytic reaction, maybe selective demethoxylaytion of S-lignin, can occur during fungal treatment of aspen wood by C. subvermispora.
Effect of Soil Properties on Leaching of Preservative Components from CCA-treated Wood
Jeong, Yong-Gi ; Kim, Gyu-Hyeok ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 87~94
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of soil types and soil properties on wood preservative leaching. Radiata pine (Pinus radiata Don.) sapwood stakes, which had been treated with 2.0%(w/v) CCA, were leached for 12 weeks by a common laboratory method in four different soils and for 14 days by the AWPA standard leaching method in water. The physical and chemical properties of the four soils were determined, and the percent leaching of the individual component of CCA was correlated with the various soil properties. The data show that leaching of preservative chemicals from treated wood exposed to soil is influenced by the type of soil. The preservative leaching was greater when wood was exposed to water than when the wood was in contact with water-saturated soil. The greatest chromium, copper and arsenic leaching from CCA-treated stakes were observed in the sandy loam, loam, and sand, respectively, and the least amount of leaching of CCA components occurred in the silty loam. The leaching of preservative components from treated wood is extremely complex and appears to be influenced differently by the soil properties. The extent of copper leaching from CCA treated wood appears to be related to exchangeable Mg and sum of bases. There is a reasonably good relationship between chromium leaching and exchangeable Mg, and between arsenic leaching and exchangeable K, soil Ni, Mn, Fe, Cr, or Cu content. Since this study was conducted based on laboratory leaching method using small cross-sectional dimensions; thus, data obtained from this experiment should not be used to predict leaching characteristics from commercial-size wood used in real situation. Accordingly, further studies are necessary using outdoor ground-contact leaching.
The Heavy Metals Recovery from Carbonized CCA Treated Wood
Son, Dong-Won ; Cheon, Seon-Hae ; Lee, Myung-Jae ; Lee, Dong-Heub ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 95~100
The using amount of preservative-treated wood equipments has been increased. Specially, chromate copper arsenate (CCA) has been widely used to exterior wood. We are faced to the disposal problem after service period of CCA treated wood due to its toxic heavy metals. For the disposal of end-used treated wood, land-filling and incinerating methods are mainly applied. The essential problem of incinerating is an arsenic release into atmosphere. Low pyrolysis is suggested as the methods of protecting arsenic release during incineration. The heavy metals were recovered after combustion of the treated wood at the low temperature which arsenic can not released. The recovery amounts of effectiveness compounds was determined in various solvents (citric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, acetic acid, phosphoric acid) and different temperature (300, 400,
). The higher temperature was applied, the more copper was recovered. The chromium was difficult to be recovered on the carbonized CCA treated wood at 0.5% acid concentration. The recovery mass of arsenic decreased on the higher combustion treated wood. The recovery of chromium was difficult due to the chemical change of the chromium arsenate during pyrolysis.
The Removal of Heavy Metals from CCA Treated Wood by Aspergillus Niger-alginate Bead
Son, Dong-Won ; Cheon, Seon-Hae ; Lee, Myong-Jae ; Lee, Dong-Heub ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 33, issue 6, 2005, Pages 101~107
One way of using wood safely and soundly for a long time is use of preservative-treated wood. Although, preservative-treated wood present to us durability and safety during using periods, it is also important to safe disposal after its service periods because of toxic components. Biological methods could be applicable to its disposal methods and better safe than chemical methods in the aspect of environmental problems. This study applied biological methods to remove the heavy metals from end-used CCA treated wood. The Aspergillus niger was used for this study which make black stain on the wood surface by it's spore. This study investigated the growing of A. niger on the CCA treated wood chips and the removal efficiency of heavy metals from CCA treated wood chips using immobilizing A. niger. A. niger could growing on the CCA treated wood chips and A. niger remove the effective elements of CCA treated wood effectively.