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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 35, Issue 6 - Nov 2007
Volume 35, Issue 5 - Sep 2007
Volume 35, Issue 4 - Jul 2007
Volume 35, Issue 3 - May 2007
Volume 35, Issue 2 - Mar 2007
Volume 35, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Shear Performance of Post and Beam Construction by Pre-Cut Process
Hwang, Kweonhwan ; Park, Joo-Saeng ; Park, Moon-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1~12
For the purpose of effective utilization of domestic second-grown larch as structural members, post and beam construction applying traditional construction to Japanese larch glulam members was adopted with processing by machine pre-cut method. In general, horizontal shear test by KS F 2154 is conducted to assess the horizontal shear properties of the wooden structure by post and beam construction. The frame was consisted of post and beam member with appropriate fasteners, and members have their own processed parts (notch, hole, etc.) that can be well-connected each other. The shear wall was consisted of the frame with screw-nail sheathed panel (OSB). The results of horizontal shear loading tests without vertical loads conducted on the frame and the shear wall structures, the maximum strengths were about 1.9 kN/m and about 9.7 kN/m, the shear rigidities were about 167 kN/rad, 8198 kN/rad, respectively. The strength proportion of the frame specimen was about 20% of the wall's and about 2% in initial stiffness. Nail failures are remarkable on the shear wall specimen with punching shears and shear failures. The shear load factor for the shear wall specimen by the method of Architectural Institute of Japan was 1.5, which was obtained by the bi-linear method. Loading method should be considered to obtain smooth load-deformation relationship. For the better shear performance of the structures, column base and post and beam connections and sheathed panel should be further examined as well.
Development of Pitch Pine Glued Laminated Timber for Structural Use -Improvement of Bending Capacity of Pitch Pine Glulam by Using Domestic Larch Laminars-
Kim, Kwang-Mo ; Shim, Kug-Bo ; Park, Joo-Saeng ; Kim, Wun-Sub ; Lim, Jin-Ah ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 13~22
This study was carried out to scrutinize possibility of manufacturing pitch pine (Pinus rigida) glued laminated timber in order to add values of pitch pine trees. Also, it was investigated to improve bending performance of pitch pine glulam. Pitch pine was imported as one of major plantation species in Korean peninsula. Machine stress rated grades of pitch pine lumber mostly ranged between E7 and E9. which grades were more or less inferior to producing high quality glulam. However, the adhesive properties between pitch pine and pitch pine, and between pitch pine and Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi Carr.), such as shear bond strength, wood failure rate and de-lamination rate of bonded layer submerged in cold and boiling water, were higher than Korean Standard criteria. These properties are essential for manufacturing glulam with single species or multiple species. The modulus of rupture (MOR) of pitch pine glulam exceeded the criterion of Korean Standard for glulam strength grade but modulus of elasticity (MOE) was lower than the criterion. On the other hand, the bending performances (MOR and MOE) were improved 20 percent by mixing with Japanese larch laminar. It is effective to arrange higher quality Japanese larch laminar at the outer layer of glulam for improving bending performances. In conclusion, it is possible to use low quality pitch pine as laminar of structural glulam for adding values of pitch pine.
Strength Properties of Old Korean Larch Pile
Hwang, Kweonhwan ; Park, Byung-Su ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 23~30
Round piles of Korean larch were excavated from the foundation of ex-Chosunchongdokbu (ex-Chosun Governer-General Building), which was constructed in 1916 and dismantled later in 1996. By the record (Huh, 1996), the Korean larch logs were logged from the Yalu river area near Mt. Baekdu in North Korea. At present, however, Korean larch is not so popular in South Korea. The latewood ratio profiles and strength properties (longitudinal compression, shear, longitudinal tensile, and bending) were obtained. The ratio of latewood from pith to bark increased up to 25 years, and then it showed constant tendency at 40% with some variances. From the microscopic observation, however, the latewood ratio decreased from the heartwood to the sapwood. Compression strength was greater and bending strength was a little lower than the previous reports (references 13~15), which might be attributed to the strength reduction of old structural members by aging or damage in the compression specimens than the bending ones. The flat-grained specimens for the shear and tension test showed higher coefficient of variation (COV) than the edge-grained ones. For the better comparison of results, in case of shear and tensile strength tests, the strength values of the edge-grained specimens were thought to be adopted rather than those of flat-grained ones.
A Study on Pyrolytic and Anatomical Characteristics of Korean Softwood and Hardwood
Kim, Dae-Young ; Kang, Sung-Ho ; Jeong, Heon-young ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 31~42
To investigate the pyrolytic and anatomical characteristics of Korean softwood, Pinus densi-flora, Pinus rigida and Larix leptolepis, and hardwood, Acer palntatum, Fraxinus rhynchophylla and Quercus variabilis, chemical components analysis, TG-DTA (Thermogravimetric Analysis & Differential Thermal Analysis), MBA (Methylene Blue Adsorption) test and SEM observation were carried out. For TG-DTA, samples were carbonized up to
at the heating rate of
flows 1 l/min using thermogravimetric analyzer. Chemical component analysis of all samples resulted in typical contents of major wood component. In TG-DTA results, softwood showed higher char yield than hardwood, and lignin displayed the highest char yield among the major wood components. All samples showed typical TGA, DTG and DTA curves for wood pyrolysis except a few differences between softwood and hardwood. Content of lignin influenced its pyrolysis characteristics, while molecular structure of lignin affected not only the weight loss but also the yield of char. In MBA test results, MBA of softwoods was higher than that of hardwoods. Char of Pinus densiflora showed the highest MBA, but its degree was lower than activated carbon or fine charcoal about 23 and 4 times, respectively. SEM observation showed carbonization process preserves wood structure and retain the micro-structure of wood fibers.
Anatomical Characteristics of Kenaf Grown in Reclaimed Land(I)-Differences in Phloem and Xylem with Growth Period and Height-
Lee, Seon-Hwa ; Lee, Se-na ; Kwon, Sung-Min ; Lee, Myoung-Ku ; Cho, Dong-Ha ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 43~49
Anatomical properties of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) planted in a reclaimed-land of Korea were examined to understand the growth characteristics by an optical and scanning electron microscopy. The samples of kenaf were taken from four positions of the stem (3, 35, 70, 105 cm above from the ground) in four growth periods (July. August, September, October) from seeding planted in the middle of May. Bast fiber, phloem rays, cortex parenchyma cells and sieve tube members were observed in phloem, and vessel elements, fibers and rays in xylem. Solitary and multiple radial pores existed in xylem. The cell types of ray parenchyma in radial section were procumbent, upright, and square. The intervascular pitting showed an alternate type. Xylem proportion, the number of bast fibers and dimension of phloem rays increased with increasing growth period, and decreased with increasing stem height. The proportion of multiseriate rays was higher than that of uniseriate and biseriate rays in xylem with increasing growth period. On the other hand, The proportion of multiseriate rays was lower than that of uniseriate and biseriate rays in xylem with increasing stem height.
Study on Heat Treatment of Red Pine Log
Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Han, Yeonjung ; Shin, Sang Chul ; Chung, Yeong Jin ; Jung, Chan Sik ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 50~56
FAO standard for heat sterilization of wood, International standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM) No.15, must meet heat-treated wood core temperature to be higher than
and keep the temperature for more than 30 minutes. This study was carried out to analyze the heat treatment characteristics of domestic pinewood sterilized with the FAO standard. To enhance the effectiveness of heat treatment process in mountainous district energy consumption and time required to reach target temperature were evaluated at various temperature and relative humidity conditions and moisture contents of wood. Heat-treatment of high temperature and high humidity reduced the required heating time. Lower humidity levels at same temperature reduced energy consumption per unit time. However, lower humidity levels could not reduce total energy consumption greatly because longer treatment time was required at that condition. It is necessary to estimate energy consumption and predict treatment time in dynamic heating and cooling situations, because it frequently happens not to meet optimum treatment condition due to poor surrounding climates and operation performance of heat treatment facility in real field.
Tree-Ring Dating for Korean Wood Furniture: A Case Study on Medicine Cabinets
Park, Won-Kyu ; Kim, Sang-Kyu ; Kim, Yojung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 57~64
Tree-ring dating can be used to date scientifically prehistoric timbers, historical buildings or woodcrafts. It gives a calendar year to each tree ring and produces the felling dates of logs or wood panels. In this study, we applied tree-ring dating to two medicine cabinets, known to be made in Kyônggi Province. Two cabinets were dated A.D. 1884 and 1874 to the last rings, respectively. Even with closed ages, two cabinets show different styles and structures. Tree-ring patterns indicated that the origins of woods for both cabinets would be near Sorak mountains and Kangneung area in Kangwon province.
Test Method Using VOC Analyzer to Measure VOC Emission of Paints for Wood-based Panel
Eom, Young Geun ; Kim, Ki-Wook ; An, Jae-Yun ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ; Moon, Suck-Joong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 65~72
The VOC (volatile organic compound) analyzer is devised to measure the four main aromatic hydrocarbon gases: toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene and styfene. It is not affected by ambient temperature and humidity. In addition, standby and measuring time of VOC Analyzer is a short as below 30 min and 8 min, respectively. Since the semiconductor gas sensor is supersensitive to gas components, it is not necessary to use a conventional gas concentrator or other complicated equipment. In this study, VOC emission behavior from 4 types paints (lacquer, urethane vanish, water-base paint, enamel paint) for wood-based panel was investigated using VOC Analyzer. After a specimen was spreaded on aluminum foil (
polyester bag, after 24 hours we could measure maximum VOC emission level that is a stabilized VOC value. Xylene of VOCs was high emitted from lacquer, urethane vanish and water-based paint, and TVOC (Toluene + Ethylbenzene + Xylene + Styrene) of lacquer was the highest emission concentration than another.
Wood Identification in Underground Wooden Structure of Shilla Period Excavated at Mungyeong Gomo Sanseong Fortress
Eom, Young Geun ; Xu, Guang Zhu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 73~82
A large underground wooden structure of Shilla period which was presumably built in the 5th century A.D. was excavated at Gomo Sanseong Fortress, Mungyeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do. Of 12 wood member samples obtained on the site, 8 hardwoods under family Fagaceae and 4 softwoods under family Pinaceae were separated through light microscopy. Among hardwoods, 5 were found to be Cerris section, 2 Prinus section, and 1 Castanea crenata. On the other hand, 4 softwoods were all identified as Finns densiflora.
Emission Characteristics of Volatile Oranic Compounds by Finishing Materials in a Newly Constructed Wooden House
Lee, Hee-Young ; Park, Sang-Bum ; Park, Jong-Young ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 83~90
This study aimed at examining the effect of rooms decorated by eco-friendly finishing materials in a newly built wooden house on the emission of indoor air pollutions. According to the results of examination, the levels of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and styrene in all the rooms were below criteria of indoor air quality of newly-constructed houses. The levels of natural volatile organic compounds (NVOC), anthropogenic volatile organic compounds (AVOC) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) in room R1-1 which had Hwangto wall covering on it, were relatively higher than in room phytoncide wallpaper covered R2-1. The room R2-2 where bamboo charcoal panel used for wall covering showed higher level of AVOC compared to the room R1-2. Living room R1-3 was found to contain less TVOC, compared to the other four rooms. In addition, the ratio of NVOC to TVOC in the living room was higher than in the other rooms. This seemed to be attributed to Cryptomeria Japonica the living room finished material.
Enzyme Activities and Cellulose Degradation of Domestic Softwoods in Shaking Culture of Fomitopsis palustris
Choi, Doo-Yeol ; Lee, Young-Min ; Kim, Young-kyoon ; Yoon, Jeong-Jun ; Kim, Yeong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 91~99
Activities of the extracellular enzyme from Fomitopsis palustris, a brown-rot fungi, and by which crystallinity changes of cellulose in the various softwoods, such as Larix leptolepsis, Finns rigida, Finns koraiensis and Finns densiflora by liquid culture, were investigated. Activity of Cellobiohydrolase (CBH) from F. palustris was detected in the every test softwoods culture, showing activities of the Endoglucanase (EG),
-glucosidase (BGL) and
-1,4-xylosidase (BXL). It was shown high enzyme activities in the sapwood culture than heartwood of the same wood species, However, the enzyme activities in most of test wood cultures increased with longer incubation time, indicating a possibility of intermix sapwood and heartwood for degradation process by enzyme. Also it was shown that protein patterns of the extracellular enzyme from F. palustris in wood particle substrate of the several domestic softwoods were similar with each other wood species, which suggested the possibility of mixing all softwoods in saccharification by enzyme from F. palustris. Crystallinity reduction value of cellulose by F. palustris was 4.2~20.4% in 4 weeks cultivation, 12.9~28.9% in 8 weeks.
Loess(Yellow Soil) Finishing Materials Using Water-based Adhesive for Wooden Construction Indoor Wall
An, Jae-Yoon ; Kim, Ki-Wook ; Kim, Sumin ; Oh, Jin-Kyoung ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ; Park, Moon-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 100~107
People have spent lots of time inside building about 90% of these day. Industry has been developed rapidly after I960. Construction materials had changed from natural materials to chemical materials and confidentiality of building has been more higher than before by policy of saving energy. These have caused sick-building syndrome (SBS) for us. So people want environmental construction materials for their house. We designed a environmental loess (yellow soil) finishing material which was composed of loess, water, water-soluble resin, hardener and filler. The purposes of this study were that making an environmental loess finishing material with optimum ratio, evaluating the usability of loess finishing material for wall. Furthermore it was suitable for wall to evaluate mechanical properties that are impact test, cracking test, abrasion test and de-bonding test, environmental properties that were emission of VOCs, formaldehyde and far infrared radiation.
Manufacture of Wood Veneer-Bamboo Zephyr Composite Board: II. Effect of Manufacturing Conditions on Properties of Composite Board
Roh, Jeang Kwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 108~117
This research was performed to investigate the feasibility of bamboo as a raw material for the manufacture of plywood. Wood veneer-bamboo zephyr composite boards (WBCB) were manufactured using keruing (Dipterocarpus sp.) veneers and hachiku bamboo (Phyllostacbys nigra var. henonis Stapf) using various adhesives, and the effect of the method and amount of resin spread on the mechanical properties of the composites were investigated. The WBCB manufactured using polymeric isocyanate (PMDI) showed the best mechanical properties, followed by phenol-formaldehyde resin (PF), phenol-melamine-formaldehyde resin, urea-melamine-formaldehyde resin, and urea-formaldehyde resin. However, considering the operation feasibility as well as mechanical properties, PF resin proved to be the appropriate adhesive for the practical purpose. As the amount of resin spread increased, the mechanical properties of 5-ply WBCB with 12 mm thicknesses manufactured using PF resin tended to increase, and more failure occurred at the interface between veneer and bamboo zephyr than at the interface among bamboo zephyrs. This result suggests that penetration of resin into bamboo zephyr could be the important factor. In this research, the appropriate amount of resin amount was
. 5-ply WBCBs were manufactured using various methods of resin spread but the effect of the methods on the mechanical properties showed no little difference, which meant that the method of resin spread could be chosen considering the manufacturing conditions and operation feasibility.
Analysis of Bending Performance of Built-up Beam Headers
Jang, Sang Sik ; Kim, Yun Hui ; Park, Young Ran ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 118~125
To obtain design data for built-up beams used as headers in light-frame timber construction, three members of
) were built up as specimens of bending tests. The bending strengths of built-up headers were obtained through bending tests of these specimens, and it was considered that span tables can be calculated for various loading conditions based on the bending strengths of built-up headers. The bending strengths of built-up headers were determined as the bending stresses at 10 mm deflection of specimens from the results of bending tests of built-up beam specimens. Span tables for built-up headers were considered to be obtained by assuming five loading conditions for headers used in exterior walls and two loading conditions for headers used in interior walls. Among these 7 loading conditions, 5 loading conditions applied to headers in exterior walls included dead loads, live loads and snow loads and 2 loading conditions applied to headers in interior walls included dead loads and live loads.
Oxidative Stress in the Cell and Antioxidant Activity of Kalopanax Pictus Extracts
Kim, Sea-Hyun ; Park, Youngki ; Jang, Yong-Seok ; Han, Jingyu ; Chung, Hun-Gwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 126~134
This study reviewed the application of an extract from Kalopanax pictus stem bark and root bark as natural antioxidants. To investigate the effect on cell toxic level against transformed mouse fibroblast L929 in formula added with various extracts from Kalopanax pictus stem bark and root bark, this experiment was carried out by in vitro cytotoxicity method. Using DCFA-DA method, oxidative stress in cell was measured with other antioxidant activity methods including DPPH assay and NBT assay. Active oxygen inhibition rate for root bark insoluble hot water extracts showed the highest with 57.9% for 15 min treatment. In DPPH and NBT test, antioxidant activities of methanol extract from stem bark and insoluble hot water extract from stem bark were 96% (at 0.1%) and 95% (at 0.5%), respectively.
Studies on Biological Activity of Wood Extractives (X VIII) -Isolation and Antioxidant Activity of Chemical Constituents from Maackia amurensis-
Kim, Woo-Jin ; Lee, Hak-Ju ; Lee, Sang-Keug ; Kang, Ha-Young ; Choi, Don-Ha ; Choi, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 135~144
The dried barks of Maackia amurensis were ground, extracted with 95% EtOH, concentrated, and fractionated with a series of light petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water on a separatory funnel. Each fraction was concentrated, then a portion of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate soluble was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 and silica gel 60 column using a various solvent system as eluents. The isolated compounds were identified by cellulose TLC,
, COSY, NOESY, HMQC, HMBC, FAB and EI-MS. The structures were determined as: 7-O-
-D-glucopyranosyl-4', 6-dimethoxyisoflavone. The Free radical scavenging activity using DPPH of the isolated compounds were similar with that of BHT but lower than of
Phenolic Compounds from Acer tegmentosum Bark
Kwon, Dong-Joo ; Bae, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 145~151
To investigate the chemical constituents of Acer tegmentosum, the bark were collected, air-dried and extracted with 70% aqueous acetone. Then it was successively partitioned with n-hexane,
, EtOAc and
. Repeated Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography on the EtOAc soluble fraction gave five phenolic compounds. Their structures were elucidated as (+)-catechin (1), (-)-epi-catechin (2), Q-epicatechin-3-O-gallate (3), gallic acid (4) and 6'-0-galloylsalidroside (5) on the basis of spectroscopic evidences using
, 2D-NMR and MS spectroscopy, (-)-epicatechin-3-Ogallate (3), gallic acid (4), 6'-Ogalloylsalidroside (5) have not been reported in this plant yet.
Micromorphological and Chemical Characteristics of Hardwoods Decayed by a Brown-rot Fungus
Cha, Mi Young ; Lee, Kwang Ho ; Kim, Yoon Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 152~158
Micromorphological and chemical characteristics of living Castanea spp. and Tamarix spp. attacked by a brown-rot fungus were examined. Micromorphological features of brown-rotted hardwood species were similar to those observed in softwoods such as losses in birefringence under polarized microscopy, preferential degradation of
layer and cracks in the
layer. Thinning of the secondary cell wall in fibers was also observed, although it did not seem to be the main symptom. FT-IR analysis showed that bands assigned to cellulose and hemicelluloses decreased or disappeared, whereas the bands assigned to lignin increased. X-ray diffraction analysis exhibited the decrease of relative crystallinity, indicating that degradation of hardwood by a brown-rot fungus was in the advanced stages.
Purification and Characterization of Xylanase from Fomitopsis palustris in Rice Straw Culture
Yoon, Jeong-Jun ; Lee, Young-Min ; Choi, Doo-Yeol ; Kim, Young-Kyoon ; Kim, Yeong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 159~165
An extracellular xylanase from the brown-rot fungus Fomitopsis palustris grown on rice straw culture was purified to a single protein band. On SDS-PAGE, the molecular mass of purified enzyme was estimated to be about 43 kDa. The amino acid sequence of the proteolytic fragments showed high homology with fungal glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases. The
for birch xylan were
and 252.3 U/mg, respectively. The optimal activity of the purified xylanase from F palustris was observed at pH 4.0~5.0 and
Biobleaching of Softwood Kraft Pulp Using Recombinant Xylanase and Cellulase
Kim, Hyun Joo ; Wi, Seung Gon ; Bae, Hyeun-Jong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 35, issue 6, 2007, Pages 166~174
To know the effect of enzymatic pre-treatment on softwood Kraft pulp, two xylanse-encoding genes, named xynl and xynll were isolated from Thrichoderma ressei. Structural genes of xylanase (XYNI, XYNII) and cellulase (EGIV-CBDII) were isolated from T. ressei and Rumicoccus albus respectively, and expressed in E. coli. bacterial culture. The specific activity of purified recombinant XYNI is higher than XYNII. The brightness of XYNI treated softwood Kraft pulp increased to 29.9%. On further sequential treatment with EGIV-CBDII and XYNI the brightness of softwood Kraft pulp were improved to 9.1 and 73% respectively. As expected the Kappa number of softwood Kraft pulp also decreased 8.1, 4.6 and 3.2% respectively. Results further indicate that this sequential combination of enzyme treatment has synergic effect for improving bleaching of softwood Kraft pulp.