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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Nov 2008
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Sep 2008
Volume 36, Issue 3 - May 2008
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
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Lateral Strength of Double-Bolt Joints to the Larix Glulam according to Bolt Spacing
Kim, Keon-Ho ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 1~8
The lateral strength test of bending type was done to investigate the lateral capacity of the double bolt connection of domestic larix glulam according to bolt spacing. In the shear specimen, which is bolted connection in the inserted plate type, the hole of bolt was made, changing the diameter of bolt (12 mm and 16 mm), the number of bolt (single bolt : control and double bolt), the direction of bolt row (in parallel to grain : Type-A and in perpendicular to grain : Type-B) and the bolt spacing (Type-A : 4 d and 7 d and Type-B : 3 d and 5 d). Lateral capacity and failure mode of bolt connection were compared according to conditions. In prototype design (KBCS, 2000), the reduction factor of the allowable shear resistance that the bolt spacing is reduced was calculated. The results were as follows. 1) Bearing stress per bolt in the single and double bolt connection of Type-A was directly proportional to bolt diameter and bolt spacing. Bearing stress of Type-B decreased as bolt diameter was increased, and decreased by 2~10% when bolt diameter was increased. 2) In the single bolt connection and the double bolt connection of Type-A, the splitted failure was formed in the edge direction. When the bolt spacing was 3 d in Type-B, bolt was yielded more in the part of tension than in the part of compression, and the splitted failure started at the bolt in the part of tension. In the 5 d spacing specimen, the bolt in the part of tension was yielded similarly to bolt in the part of compression, and the splitted failure started in the part of compression. 3) In the prototype design, the reduction factor was calculated by non-dimensionizing the yielding load in the standard of bolt spacing (Type A : 7 d and Type B : 5 d). In 12 mm bolt connection, the reduction factor of bolt spacing 4 d (type-A) and single bolt connection was 0.87 and 0.55, respectively, and the reduction factor of bolt spacing 3 d (Type-B) and single bolt connection was 0.91 and 0.55, respectively. In 16 mm bolt connection, the reduction factor of bolt spacing 4 d (type-A) and single bolt connection was 0.96 and 0.76, respectively, and the reduction factor of bolt spacing 3 d (Type-B) and single bolt connection was 0.91 and 0.77, respectively.
Sound Absorption Characteristic of Resonator by Hole Position and Wood Species
Hwang, Kweonhwan ; Kim, Gun-Hyung ; Park, Byungsu ; Park, Jung-Hwan ; Byeon, Hee-Seop ; Lee, Won-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 9~16
Ribbed birch (Betula costata Trautv.), Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carr.), and tulip tree (Liriodendron tulipifera L.), were used as experimental specimens to measure the sound absorption coefficient with various resonator types, regular resonator (Type-R), eccentric resonator (Type-E), aligned resonator (Type-A), and screwed resonator (Type-S). Resonators consisted of the simple perforation by hand drilling. Sound absorption performances of the resonators installed perforations were better than those of untreated specimens. They were varied with the resonator's type and wood species. Increased area by a wood screw gave no significant change on the sound absorption.
Observation of Shrinkage Features of Cross Sectional Surface of Wood by LV-SEM
Kang, Chunwon ; Matsumura, Junji ; Kang, Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 17~23
The purpose of this study is to estimate the shrinkage of wood by LV-SEM (Low-Vacuum Scanning Electron Microscope) which can observe wetted wood sample. The shrinkage of small sample specimen by the dehumidification in the specimen chamber was investigated and compared with that of normal wood specimen. The observation of cross sectional surface of wood from wetted condition to dried condition can be achieved in about twenty minutes by means of the dehumidification in the specimen chamber of LV-SEM. The volumetric shrinkage of earlywood was almost the same as that of latewood. The shrinkage of SEM observation specimen was similar to that of normal wood specimen. From the correlation of the shrinkages between SEM observation specimen and normal wood specimen, it is surmised that the shrinkage of wood is more strictly dominated by shrinkage of latewood than that of earlywood.
Numerical Behavior Analysis for the Various Multiple Bolted Connections
Kim, Gwang-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 24~29
Numerical analysis model was used to analyse the behaviors of multiple bolted connections. Axial-bending element was supposed as basic model, and the effects of frame members and steel fasteners were classified for the behavior analysis. In the condition only two bolts were used, the traditional analytical methods, which show somewhat accuracy, have some advantages more than numerical analysis that need many time consuming, However, more many bolts were used in practical field condition. Also, it is impossible to analyse the behaviors of various bolts layouts and arrangements conditions by traditional analytical methods. Therefore, there is only numerical analysis method for the accurate behavioranalysis on the practical bolted connection condition. Therefore, numerical analysis method was applied on the various multiple bolted connections. On the result exactness and the reflection of connection condition, numerical analysis method showed the superiority more than widely used traditional empirical analysis methods as yield model.
Development and Application of Okara-based Adhesives for Plywood Panels
Oh, Sei-Chang ; Ahn, Sye-Hee ; Choi, In-Gyu ; Jeong, Han-Seob ; Yoon, Young-Ho ; Yang, In ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 30~38
Petroleum-based resin adhesives have extensively been used for the production of wood panels. However, with the increase of manufacturing cost and the environmental issue, such as the emission of volatile organic compounds, of the adhesive resins, it is necessary to be developed new adhesive systems. In this study, the potential of okara, which is a residue wasted from the production of tofu, for the development of bio-based adhesives was investigated. At first, the physical and chemical properties of okara were examined. After okara was hydrolyzed in acidic and/or alkaline solutions, okara-based adhesive resins were formulated with the mixtures of the okara hydrolyzates and phenol formaldehyde (PF) prepolymer. The adhesive resins were used for the fabrication of plywood panels, and then the adhesive strength and formaldehyde emission of the plywood panels were measured to examine the applicability of the resin adhesives for the production of plywood panels. The solids content and pH of the okara used in this study were around 20% and weak acidic state, respectively. In the analysis of its chemical composition, the content of carbohydrate was the highest, and followed by protein. The shear strengths of plywood fabricated with okara-based resin adhesives exceeded a minimum requirement of KS standard for ordinary plywood, but its wood failure did not reach the minimum requirement. In addition, the formaldehyde emissions of all plywood panels were higher than that of E1 specified in the KS standard. Based on these results, okara has the potential to be used as a raw material of environmentally friendly adhesive resin systems for the production of wood panels, but further researches - biological hydrolysis of okara and various formulations of PF prepolymer - are required to improve the adhesive strength and formaldehyde emission of okara-based resin adhesives.
Effect of Percentage of Resin Impregnation on the Preparation of High Density Woodceramics and the Physical Properties
Oh, Seung Won ; Jeon, Soon Sick ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 39~46
Repeated impregnation and carbonization processes were performed to prepare high-density woodceramics using a sawdust board. The physical properties were investigated to confirm morphological and structural changes of one-time and two-time phenolic resin-treated and carbonized woodceramics. As comparing between one-time and two-time carbonized woodceramics, the weight and the density of the two-time carbonized woodceramics decreased with an increase of the amount of impregnated phenolic resin. In addition, when the amount of impregnated phenolic resin was about 40% in these woodceramics, the two-time carbonized woodceramics showed higher weight (23.8%) and density (30.0%) than the one-time treatment.
The Evaluation of the Preservative Treated Plywood Produced by Factory Processing
Son, Dong Won ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Lee, Dong-heub ; Kang, Eun-Chang ; Park, Byung Su ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 47~54
To make up original defects of the wooden materials for decks, and to supply the wooden material for outdoor, we fabricated preservative treated plywood(PTP). Copper azole (CUAZ-1) preservative was treated with a normal full-cell process. Bond Strength of PTP was not affected after the preservative treatment. The anti-fungal efficiency and dimensional stability were obtained from PTP. A little discoloration of the surface was detected, but the dimensional change or peel bonded area off were not observed after accelerated weathering test. Although some strength of PTP was reduced after 17 months of field exposure, the PTP should be applicable for outdoor applications.
Wood Quality of Trees Fertilized by Charcoals
Kim, Byung-Ro ; Shin, Chang-Seob ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 55~60
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of charcoal meal application on the quality of the wood. As the results, it was observed that annual ring width of seedlings was wider in the plots treated with charcoal meal than the control plots. Depending on the kind of charcoal, annual ring width was widest in the plot treated with Larix kaempferi charcoal, and then was observed in order of Pinus koraiensis > particle board > Quercus acutissima. Latewood percentage and specific gravity were lower in the plots treated with charcoal than the control plots and lowest in Larix kaempferi charcoal plot among the plots treated with charcoal. Tracheid length was longer in the plot treated with powder charcoal than the control plot but tracheid width was not significantly different from the control plot. The cell wall thickness of earlywood was not significantly different between the plot treated with charcoal and the control plot but that of latewood was thicker in the plots treated with charcoal than the control. Microfibril angle was smaller in the plot treated with granulated charcoal than the control plot. However, there was no significant difference between the plot treated with powder charcoal and granulated charcoal.
Lateral Compression and Dowel Bearing Property of Japanese Larch Grown in Korea
Hwang, Kweonhwan ; Park, Byung-Su ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 61~69
To examine the compression properties of structural members, the compression and bearing tests were conducted in parallel- and perpendicular-to-grain loading using domestic Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi (Lamb.) Carriere). Compression (bearing) properties with the length of a specimen and the contact length of the bearing plate were investigated, and deformations at each specimen length from the point of bearing force were measured to evaluate the effective end distance tabulated in the present practice (Korean Building Code). Compression (bearing) properties varied with the size of the bearing plate, and the end distance for dowel-type fastener taken into consideration of the specimen's deformation, for the safe design, should be applied with over 7 D.
Study on Physical Properties of Domestic Species I: Sorption, Thermal, Electrical and Acoustic Properties of Pinus Densiflora
Kang, Ho-Yang ; Byeon, Hee-Seop ; Lee, Won-Hee ; Park, Byung-Soo ; Park, Jung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 70~84
A series of the studies on the applied physical properties of domestic species have been conducted last three years. Pinus densiflora was one of the three species examined for the first year. Because the same apparatus and experimental procedures were used for all species, their results can be easily comparable. The experiments for sorption property were conducted with 20- and 80-mesh wood powder and resulted in their EMC's and sorption isotherms at various heating conditions. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity, and electric resistance and volumetric electric resistivity were measured with a thermal-wire device and a high electric resistance meter. The differences of the thermal and electric properties between quarter- and flat-sawn specimens were observed, which was partially attributed to their anatomical differences. An acoustic measurement system was used to evaluate dynamic MOE and internal friction. This paper provides the useful fundamental data for designing a wood structure, correcting a portable resistance-type moisture meter, and nondestructive testing wood.
Strength Property of the Incised Larix (Larix kaempferi Carr.) Round Posts treated with CCA
Park, Jun-Chul ; Kim, Sang-Woo ; Ryu, Jae-Yun ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 85~92
Strength of logs and round posts is compared and analyzed to estimate the strength of the incised Larix round posts treated with CCA in this paper. There is no significant difference in MOR of logs and round posts. However, in the incised Larix round posts treated with CCA MOE is decreased to about 9%, and there is 29% reduction in MOR as strength ratio is 0.71. When calculating the allowable bending stress of incised round type round posts, not in nominal 2-in timbers, an adjustment factor for MOE and bending strength is proposed as 0.91 and 0.71, respectively. Logs, round posts and the incised Larix round posts treated with CCA do not show significant difference in nail withdrawal load. There is almost no difference between incised Larix round posts treated with CCA and round posts in the shear strength of bolted joint. When calculating the allowable shear stress of bolted joint, it is conformed that considering the application of incising factor is not necessary.
Adsorption of Cadmium Ion by Wood Charcoal Prepared with Red oak (Quercus mongolica)
Jo, Tae-Su ; Lee, Oh-Kyu ; Choi, Joon-Weon ; Byun, Jae-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 3, 2008, Pages 93~100
For investigation of adsoption properties of cadmium elimination by wood charcoal,
aqueous cadmium solutions in various concentrations were treated with 0.2 g wood charcoal of Red Oak (Quercus mongolica) for 280 minutes. Almost 100% of cadmium elimination ratio was obtained in the solutions with initial concentration of 20 and 40 ppm in the treatment, whereas they were 75 and 50% in those of 80 and 160 ppm. In the effect of treatment time, the highest amount of cadmium ions was eliminated during the first ten minutes in each solution so that the elimination ratio of each case was over 70% of the maximum elimination value. From the analysis of adsorptive cadmium adsorption mechanism using the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, it was suggested that cadmium ion molecules were adsorbed at the active sites on the charcoal particle in form of one layer. The Gibbs free energy of the adsorption process was calculated in negative value for each solution. This means the adsorption processes are spontaneous which do not require the extra input energy.