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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 36, Issue 6 - Nov 2008
Volume 36, Issue 5 - Sep 2008
Volume 36, Issue 3 - May 2008
Volume 36, Issue 2 - Apr 2008
Volume 36, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 36, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Study on Physical Properties of Domestic Species III: Sorption, Thermal, Electrical and Acoustic properties of Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula costata, Paulownia coreana
Lee, Won-Hee ; Park, Byung-Soo ; Chong, Sung-Ho ; Kang, Ho-Yang ; Hwang, Kwon-Hwan ; Byeon, Hee-Seop ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 1~12
A series of the studies on the applied physical properties of domestic species have been conducted last three years. Liriodendron tulipifera, Betula costata, Paulownia coreana were examined on sorption property, thermal property, electric property, acoustic property. Because the same apparatus and experimental procedures were used for all species, their results can be easily comparable. The experiments for sorption property were conducted with 80 mesh wood powder and resulted in their EMC's and sorption isotherms. The thermal conductivity and diffusivity, and electric resistance and volumetric electric resistivity were measured with a thermal-wire device and a high electric resistance meter. The differences of the thermal and electric properties between quarter-and flat-sawn specimens were observed, which was partially attributed to their anatomical differences. An acoustic measurement system was used to evaluate dynamic MOE and internal friction. This paper provides the useful fundamental data for designing a wood structure, correcting a portable resistance-type moisture meter, and acoustic properties of wood.
Internal Void Structure of Strandboard using X-ray Computed Tomography
Oh, Sei Chang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 13~22
Internal voids affecting the mechanical properties of wood composite were classified into two catagories and characteristics of voids were examined according to density variation of strandboard. The void distribution and content of strandboard according to board density were measured by X-ray computed tomography system and analized using image processing software. Prior to investigation, the densities of strandboard were measured by densitometer and the results were showed high correlation with conventional oven drying method. Based on the image analysis conducted on captured images by X-ray tomography, low resolution can be used to capture the macro-voids (between strand) but not the micro-voids (within strands). Intermediate resolution can be used to capture both the macro and the micro-voids and high resolution can be successfully used to capture the majority of the micro-voids. The content of macro-void was measured and content of micro-void was computed by corresponding related equation. The macro-void distribution can be successfully understood and void content can be correctly estimated through the results.
Fundamental Study of Domestic Wood for the Materials for High-class Furnitures and Woodcrafts -Anatomical & Physical Characteristics of Chestnut Woods Grown in Korea-
Lee, Seon-Hwa ; Kwon, Sung-Min ; Park, Byung-Ho ; Lee, Sung-Jae ; Lee, Uk ; Kim, Mahn-Jo ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 23~32
Anatomical and physical characteristics of seven cultivars of chestnut wood (Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc.), Tanzawa, Ibuki, Mansung, Arima, Ginyose, Tsukuba, and Riheiguri, were investigated to obtain some valuable information for their possibilities to be used for high quality furnitures and woodcrafts. Solitary pore and figured-porous or ring-porous wood types were observed in wide growth rings, and ring-porous in narrow growth rings. Procumbent type was prevalent in ray cells although upright and square types were scarcely existed. Uniseriate, biseriate, and multiseriate rays were observed in tangential section. Uniseriate ray was abundant near the pith, and biseriate and multiseriate rays were frequently existed near the bark. The occurrence rate of biseriate and multiseriate rays was significantly high in Tanzawa, Ibuki, Mansung and Tsukuba, but was somewhat low in Arima, Ginyose and Riheiguri. The inner region showed larger vessel diameter, more vessel number, fewer ray number and higher ray height than the outer region. Growth-ring width in inner region was larger than that in outer region. Growth-rings in inner region of Mansung and Arima were wide while that of Ibuki was narrow. Outer region in all cultivars showed higher latewood percentage than inner region. Especially, Mansung and Tsukuba showed significantly high latewood percentage in their outer region. Green moisture content and density of heartwood were higher than those of sapwood. Tsukuba and Riheiguri had higher green moisture content, and Ibuki and Riheiguri had higher green density than the other chestnut cultivars.
Control of Discoloration of Cedar Wood (Cryptomeria japonica) by Heat and UV Treatment
Yoon, Kyung-Jin ; Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Park, Jun-Ho ; Lee, Yang-Woo ; Choi, In-Gyu ; Lee, Jun-Jae ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 33~40
Normally, cedar heartwood has a red color. However, it frequently changes black color (blackening phenomenon). It is reported that blackening phenomenon of cedar has been caused by oxidation of phenolics and norlignan extractives under weak alkaline conditions. In this study, heat treatment and UV irradiation were carried out to reduce the difference of color value between blackened wood and bright sap wood. Effects of temperature, moisture content, treatment time and light on decrease of color difference between blackened heartwood and sapwood were evaluated in each treatment. A decrement of different color value between blackened heartwood and bright sapwood by hot-water treatment was bigger than others. An effect of the vacuum drying was similar to that of the kiln drying. UV irradiation decreases the color difference between dried blackened heartwood and bright sapwood. It is suggested that UV irradiation could be used as final treatment to reduce the color difference on wood during drying process. Determination of optimum conditions and development of hybrid process for control of discoloration will be needed in a further study.
Evaluation of Energy Consumption in Heat Treatment of Pine Log
Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Park, Jun-Ho ; Han, Yeon Jung ; Shin, Sang-Chul ; Chung, YoungJin ; Jung, Chan-Sik ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 41~48
The required energy for the heat treatment of pine log was evaluated in this study. A proper heat treatment of pine log infected by pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus) can prevent spreading of the infection by pinewood nematode and make the infected pinewood valuable again. The FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) heat treatment standard for various types of infected wood for which a heat treatment of the core part of the wood is necessary is 30 minutes at
, taking into account the international standards for phytosanitary measures (ISPM No. 15). In this study, the energy consumption during the heat treatment was separated into two kinds of energy, initial energy for heating kiln drier and to reach set point temperature and relative humidity and the required energy supplementing heat loss. The initial required energy per unit time is greater than that during the treatment. The energy consumption per unit time varied little during the heat treatment. As a result, the set point relative humidity with set dry bulb temperature and density of wood dependent on moisture content are very important factors to change energy consumption in the experiment. The heat treatment at higher temperature and higher humidity levels requires more energy consumption but less treatment time. It is expected that a more effective energy program could be planed for the heat treatment of pine log through this study.
Scavenging Effect of Injurious VOC from Flooring using Green Tea Leaves Powder
Kang, Seog Goo ; Lee, Hwa Hyoung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 49~58
This research was carried out to use green tea leaves powder for scavenging effects of volatile organic compounds on the UV varnishes and adhesives of fancy cherry veneer overlaid on the PF resin bonded Meranti plywood. The results are as follows: 1) Green tea leaves contained 9.85% of polyphenol compounds. 2) FT-IR results showed green tea leaves had effects to react with benzaldehyde and ethyl hexyl alcohol to form a chemical bond. 3) 2.5% of green tea leaves powder content was proper for scavenging effect on the UV varnishes and adhesives of fancy veneer overlaid on the PF resin bonded plywood 4) 20 liters small chamber test indicated excellent emission speed results such as
of TVOC and
of HCHO (on 7th day), as compared with standard (less than
of TVOC and
of HCHO emission are the excellent grade).
Effect of End-taping Treatments on Prevention of Drying Defects during Radio-Frequency/Vacuum Drying of Domestic Yellow Poplar Log Cross Section
LEE, Nam-Ho ; ZHAO, Xue-Feng ; Chang, Sae-Hwan ; SHIN, Ik-Hyun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 59~68
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of the Inside end-taping (Inside-ET) and Outside end-taping (Outside-ET) treatments on prevention of drying defects during radiofrequency/vacuum (RF/V) drying domestic yellow poplar log cross section with size of 20~75 mm in thickness and 120~470 mm in diameter. The treatments of Inside-ET and Outside-ET were quite effective for producing sound log cross sections with thinner than 33 mm and smaller than 270 mm in diameter. Even the 60 mm- and 75 mm-thick log cross sections, if the diameter was smaller than 30 cm, it might expect preventing formation of border checks by appropriate end-taping treatments. The positions of the observed border checks differed in diameter ranging at a relative radius about 0.50~0.63 diameter, and it was estimated that it was necessary to select the border position of end-taping treatment properly according to the diameter of log cross sections. It was observed that the radius of 0.3 diameter was the critical location for pretreatment for preventing formation of border checks in the log cross section with middle diameter. There were severe border checks and V-shaped cracks in the log cross section with large diameter. This was because of the severe variation of moisture content along radial direction of natural characteristic of domestic yellow poplar.
Removal of Harmful Gas with Wood or Bark Charcoal
Jo, Tae-Su ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 69~76
To estimate removal ability of harmful gas by charcoal, we carbonized Red oak (Quercus mongolica Fischer) wood and Larch (Larix leptoepis) bark at
for 1 hour. Gas removal ratios was increased with carbonization temperature but there is no difference between wood and bark charcoal. In the case of bad smell and VOC gas, woody charcoal including bark charcoal carbonized at
showed low removal ratio, less than 50%, whereas woody charcoals which was carbonized at more than
reached almost 100% removal ratio to bad smell gas such as trimethylamine, methymercaptan, hydrogen sulfide, and to VOC such as benzene, toluene, xylene in
tedler bag with each gas of 100 ppm. It was thought that because charcoals carbonized at high temperature, for example,
have enough specific surface area to adsorb gas of 100 ppm. Moreover these charcoals rapidly removed almost gas in 10 minutes. However, acetylene,
, charcoals which was carbonized more than
and which showed high removal ratio had low gas removal ratio of 40% at even 4 hours adsorption. It was concluded that adsorptive ability of woody charcoal was mainly influenced with carbonizing temperature, so that different charcoals carbonized at different temperature brings different gas removal ratio because these charcoals have not only different physical factor such as specific surface area but different chemical characteristic such as functional group, expected.
Strength Properties of Wooden Model Erosion Control Dams Using Domestic Pinus rigida Miller I
Kim, Sang-Woo ; Park, Jun-Chul ; Lee, Dong-Heub ; Son, Dong-Won ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 77~87
Wooden model erosion control dam was made with pitch pine, of which the strength properties was evaluated. Wooden model erosion control dam was made with diameter 90 mm of pitch pine round posts treated with CUAZ-2 (Copper Azole), changing joint in three different types. In each type, erosion control dam was made in nine floor (cross-bar of five floors and vertical-bar of four floors), of which the hight was 790 mm. And then strength properties were investigated through horizontal loading test and impact strength test, and the deformation of structure through image processing (AICON 3D DPA-PRO system). In horizontal loading test of wooden model erosion control dam using round post of diameter 90 mm, whether there was stone or not did not affect strength much when using self drill screw, but strength was decreased by 23%. In monolithic type of erosion control dam using screw bar, strength was increased by 1.5 times and deformation was decreased when filling with stone. When reinforcing with screw bar that ring is connected to self drill screw, strength was increased by 4.8 times. In impact strength test of wooden model erosion control dam made with round post of diameter 90 mm, the erosion control dam connected with self drilling screw not filling with stone was totally destroyed by the 1st impact, and the erosion control dam using screw bar was ruptured at cross-bar at which 779 kgf of impact was loaded in the 1st impact. In the 2nd impact, the base parts were ruptured, and reaction force was decreased to 545 kgf. In the 3rd impact, whole base parts were destroyed, and reaction force was decreased to 263 kgf.
Dimension Stability by Bonding Layers of Glulam
Hwang, Kweonhwan ; Park, Joo-Saeng ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 88~95
The shrinkage of wood members after construction has been a greater and common concern in wooden buildings with the durability. Particularly, the traditional structure applying solid members actively is easily exposed to the shrinkage that caused by the joints, members, and walls. Moreover, even though domestic larch glulam members are widespread recently in the post-beam construction, the shrinkage (swelling) problem is still the critical defect on the wooden structures by the moisture content change in Korea. Various moisture contents were applied for the specimens to survey the dimensional changes for Japanese larch solid and glulam specimens, and the glulam specimens varied in the number of their laminations. Test results showed that glulam specimens with over 3 bonding layers showed good dimension stabilities. Therefore, to solve the shrinkage problem, sufficient drying fitted to the end-use service conditions should be conducted on the solid or glulam members can be applied.
Observation by the Microscopic Analysis of Lacquer Layer for Identification of Lacquer-ware Function
Kim, Soo-Chul ; Lee, Kwang-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 96~104
In this study, the observation of test pieces with an optical microscope was carried out after fabricating 4 groups of standard lacquer, in order to inquire into the ancient lacquering techniques. Group I had transparent reddish brown color, and the part of layer was indefinite, and the layer polished was easily distinguished. Group II had mostly transparent yellowish brown color, and it was possibility distinguished the layers when they were varnished with mixed lacquer after prime coating, and when they were varnished with lacquer as the prime coating. Group III set up membrane in the hardening process of the lacquer, and the lacquer and the unsaturated fatty acid of internal part was dried, so the top layer and the lacquer layer were separated and observed. Group IV: When the lacquer coat film of Group IV test pieces were observed in polarized light, the ferrous components were seen as the black and red color were mixed, and the silica crystals of silty soil were distinguished by reflection of lights. And the colors were distinguished as the lacquer layer of ruddle had red color, and the mixed lacquer of reddish lacquer and ruddle had the deep red color at the top and the bottom, but the middle part had the bright red color.
Grade Classification of Urushi Lacquer (I) Grade Classification of Urushi Lacquer by Traditional Method
Roh, Jeong-Kwan ; Kim, Yun-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 105~112
Grading of the urushi lacquer is quite difficult because of large variations depending on origin, growing conditions, time acquisition, storage conditions. It is urgently required to establish a grading system of urushi lacquer by combining traditional method with scientific methods. Traditional grading of urushi lacquer was done by visual inspection of 10 experts who are working on urushi lacquer industry. Common aspects of the experts were color, odor, viscosity, spread properties on Hanji, color and drying properties on glass based the traditional grading system. In addition, rubbing on Hannj and heating with alcohol lamp was also used to grade urushi lacquer. The grading results of 10 experts showed that chinese urushi lacquer (E) of 7.03, japanese urushi lacquer (C) of 6.84, domestic urushi lacquer of (A) of 6.41 and another chinese urushi lacquer (D) of 5.27, and domestic urushi lacquer (B) of 2.50 in descending order. The degree of spread on Hanji was not consistent among 10 experts. These results indicated that the traditional grading system was pretty much personal and required of developing more objective method based on scientific background.
Formulation of Liquid Coating Agent using Bamboo Charcoal and its Characteristics
Park, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Hee-Young ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Park, Jong-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 113~120
This study was performed to develop environmentally-friendly finishing materials for construction. In order to abate formaldehyde and ammonia in indoor air, liquid coating agents for indoor finishing were formulated with bamboo charcoal powder, cypress extracted water, and water-borne acrylic binder. Deodorization rate, far-infrared ray emission rate, anions emission amount, and anti-bacterial effect were investigated. Deodorization rate was increased as cypress extracted water content increased. Deodorization rates of the coating agents were 60.0~98.6% on formaldehyde and 76.7~86.2% on ammonia. No differences on far-infrared ray emission rate, anions emission amount, and anti-bacterial effect were found depending on different formulations. A 91.7% of far-infrared ray emission rate, 77 ea/cc of anions emission amount, and 99.4% of anti-bacterial effect were detected for all formulations. More effective application method of the coating agents revealed was a spray-gun. A
of coating agent with a spray-gun and
of coating agent with a brush was consumed each.
Thermal Stability and Surface Hardnes of UV-curable Epoxy Acrylate Coatings for Wooden Flooring
Hwang, Hyeon-Deuk ; Choi, Jae-Hoon ; Moon, Je-Ik ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 121~129
Environmental friendly UV-curable coatings, having excellent hardness, gloss, mar and chemical resistance, are commonly used for the wooden flooring coatings. Especially epoxy acrylate oligomers are chosen for the wooden flooring coatings, due to their thermal stability and fast curing. In this study, we investigated the effect of the acrylate functionality on the thermal stability and surface hardness. The thermal degradations of monomers, oligomer, photoinitiator and formulated coatings with different acrylate functionality were measured using a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). And the surface hardness was also measured with a pendulum hardness tester to compare relationship between the thermal stability and the physical property. The cured coatings became thermally stable by crosslinking during UV-curing. Both the thermal stability and surface hardness of cured coatings were improved with increasing acrylate functionality.
Study on Cadalene Compounds Purified from Zelkova serrata Wood I - Purification of 7-hydroxy-3-methoxycadalene and Its Distribution in Xylem -
Choi, Joon-Weon ; Mun, Sung-Hee ; Choi, Don-Ha ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 130~137
In this study cadalene, which is classified into sesquiterpenes constructed with 15 carbons of naphthalene skeleton, was isolated from ethanol extracts of Zelkova wood (Zelkova serrata) using successive silica gel column chromatography. The purified cadalene compound was subjected to structural analysis using HPLC, EI-MS and
. Its molecular weight was measured to 244 (m/z) and methyl and isopropyl group were attached at C1 and C4 position, as well as hydroxyl group at C7 and methoxyl group at C3 in the naphthalene skeleton, respectively. Yield of 7-hydroxy-3-methoxycadalene amounts to 0.03% based on air dried Zelkova wood powder. It was distributed only in xylem tissues(only in heartwood) of Zelkova wood, not in leaves and bark.
Characterization of Chemical Composition and Thermal Behavior of Biomass Originated from Tobacco Industry
Sung, Yong Joo ; Seo, Yung Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 138~146
The chemical compositions, cell wall biopolymers and non-isothermal behavior of the stem biomass of Nicotiana Tabacum originated from tobacco industry were investigated in depth. On a weight basis, the contents of total ash and total sugar are 19.1% and 20.7% respectively. Lignin content was around 3% of tobacco stem biomass while pectin was over 7%. The holo-cellulose content in cell wall biopolymer was around 13% and the
-cellulose constitutes 60% of the total holo-cellulose. The thermal behavior of stem biomass showed different patterns depending on either inert (nitrogen) or oxidizing (air) atmospheric condition. In the air atmosphere, the rapid thermal decompositions at around
were recorded as the peaks in DTG curve, while the peaks were not shown in the nitrogen atmosphere condition. The thermal analysis of the freeze dried soluble obtained from hot water extraction of tobacco stem biomass showed that the rapid thermal decomposition at around
in the air atmosphere was due to the residual char originated from the soluble fraction. The distinct difference in thermal decomposition between hemicellulose and cellulose were easily found in the DTG curve obtained in the nitrogen atmosphere.
Fermentation of Waste Woody Biomass for the Production of Bioenergy
Cho, Nam-Seok ; Choi, Tae-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 147~158
In this study, fermentation characteristics of waste agricultural and forest biomass for production of heat energy were focused to be used in agricultural farm households. The purpose of this study was focused on seeking practical utilization of agricultural and forest biomass wastes in agricultural farm households in the form of thermal energy by means of simple fermentation process. Fermentation process was performed in terms of different raw-materials and their mixture with different ratios. Urea, lime, and bioaids were added as fermenting aids. Moisture contents of fermenting substrates were adjusted to 55~65%. In order to optimize the fermentation process various factors, such as raw-materials, moisture contents, amount of fermenting aids, and practical measurement of hot-water temperature during fermentation were carefully investigated. The optimum condition of fermenting process were obtained from hardwood only and hardwood: softwood (50 : 50) beds. In case of hardwood only the highest temperature was recorded between 60 to
the lowest temperature was determined to more or less
and the average temperature was ranged to
and this temperature ranges were maintained up to 20~30 days. The optimum amount of additives were estimated to ca. 15 kg of urea, 20 kg of bioaids, and 10 kg of lime for 1 ton of substrate. To reach the highest temperature the optimum moisture content of fermenting substrate was proved to 55% among three moisture content treatments of 45%, 55% and 65%. The temperature of hot-water tank installed in fermenting bed of hardwood : grass (50 : 50) showed very different patterns according to measuring positions. In general, temperatures in the mid- and upper-parts of substrate piling were relative higher than lower and surface parts during 45-day fermentation process. The maximum temperature of fermenting stage was determined to
, minimum temperature, more or less
, and average temperature was
. The water temperature of tank exit was ranged to
during whole measuring periods. It could be concluded that fermentation process of waste agricultural and forest biomass produces a considerable amounts of heat, averaging about
for maximum 3 months by using the heat exchanger (HX-helical type).
Antioxidant Activities of Essential Oils from Chamaecyparis obtusa
Park, Mi-Jin ; Choi, Won-Sil ; Min, Byeong-Cheol ; Kim, Ho-Yong ; Kang, Ha-Young ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 36, issue 6, 2008, Pages 159~167
This study was carried out to investigate the potential promise of Chamaecyparis obtusa oil as a natural antioxidant. C. obtusa oil and its fractions were subjected to screening for their antioxidant activities by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and ammonium thiocyanate method. In the first case,
value of the C. obtusa oil was determined as
concentration level, free radical scavenging effect of fraction G determined as 66.94% was the highest among the fractions of C. obtusa oil. In the ammonium thiocyanate method, essential oil of C. obtusa and its fraction C, D, and E showed activities of 72.0%, 71.2%, 71.9% and 71.1%, respectively. Fraction G, most active fraction, was mainly consisted of
-terpineol, elemol, widdrol and