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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 37, Issue 6 - Nov 2009
Volume 37, Issue 5 - Sep 2009
Volume 37, Issue 4 - Jul 2009
Volume 37, Issue 3 - May 2009
Volume 37, Issue 2 - Mar 2009
Volume 37, Issue 1 - Jan 2009
Selecting the target year
Manufacture of Crack-free Carbonized Board from Fiberboard
Park, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Park, Jong-Young ; Lee, Seon-Hwa ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 293~299
In manufacturing the crack-free carbonized boards using fiberboards, shrinking ratio, weight loss and density variation of carbonized boards at each carbonization temperature were investigated. Fiberboards with thickness of 3, 4.5, 6, and 18 mm were carbonized while pressed with pressure plates at different temperature from 400
using a ordinary laboratory furnace. Either of crack or twist was not observed in fiberboards by adapting the pressing carbonization method. The ratios of shrinkage of length, width, and thickness were 10
25%, and 28
48%, respectively, and shrinkage ratio of thickness was higher than those of length and width with increasing the carbonization temperature. Weight loss tended to increase with increasing the carbonization temperature, but low correlation between weight loss in thickness of fiberboards and carbonization temperature was observed. Density of 3 mm carbonized hardboard had the highest value and it tended to increase with increasing the carbonization temperature.
Mechanical Properties of Composite Materials Composed of Structural Steel and Structural Glued Laminated Timber
Jang, Sang-Sik ; Kim, Yun-Hui ; Jang, Young-Ik ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 300~309
The effective utilization of wood structure is encouraged to preserve natural resources and the global environment. Long-span and large-scale structures are preferred to promote demand for wood. This study attempts to develop new Fire-resistance Composite Material composed of Structural steel and Structural glued laminated timber for long-span and large-scale structures. Prior to take a fire-resistance test, compare properties of bending strength with Composite material composed of Structural steel and Structural glued laminated timber, structural steel and structural provides the stability of the structure, but the structural glued laminated timber has high value elasticity of bending. Using the Composite material will improve structural stability and Eco-friend construction environment.
Properties Evaluation of Bio-Composite by Content and Particle Size of Bamboo Flour
Lee, Se-na ; Lee, Byoung-Ho ; Kim, Hyun-Joong ; Kim, Su-Min ; Eom, Young-Geun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 310~319
The representative eco-friendly materials, or bio-composites, were made by incorporating biodegradable polymer of polybutylene succinate (PBS) as the matrix and bamboo flour (BF) as the natural filler. In present study, the effects of content and particle size of natural filler on the bio-composites were carried out around their mechanical, visco-elastic, and thermal properties. By the incorporation of BF, the tensile properties decreased but the viscoelastic and thermal properties revealed positive effect through interaction between the polymer and natural filler. Also, the vulnerability of interfacial adhesion between hydrophobic PBS and hydrophilic BF appeared to adversely affect the properties of bio-composites.
Study on Moisture Variation in Light Frame Wall with Different Wall Assemblies (I) - Evaluation of Improvement with Laboratory Test-
Kim, Se-Jong ; Lee, Jun-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 320~329
The purpose of this study was reducing the moisture accumulation in a wall, which can threaten the structural safety of light-frame wall and make residential environment poor. For the purpose, the laboratory test was carried out with different wall assemblies. Vapor retarder and air gap for ventilation were added to the typical wall. The improved performance of the proposed walls was examined through the test with distinct difference of temperature and relative humidity between outdoor and indoor air conditions. Increased dampproofing performance of additional vapor retarder was effective on reduction of moisture transmission from inside the house into the wall. However, unexpected high relative humidity was shown in the wall with two additional vapor retarder because of excessive dampproofing performance or inadequate location of vapor retarder. And, the open air gap induced the moisture transfer from inside the wall into outdoor air by ventilation. If the alternative to the induction of moisture transmission from inside the house into the wall with open air gap can be found, moisture reduction effect of that will be increased obviously.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Heat-treated Domestic Cedar
Kim, Kwang-Mo ; Park, Jung-Hwan ; Park, Byoung-Soo ; Son, Dong-Won ; Park, Joo-Saeng ; Kim, Wun-Sub ; Kim, Byoung-Nam ; Shim, Sang-Ro ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 330~339
The material properties of Cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) were evaluated according to heat treatment conditions. The special focus was made on the color control of cedar wood by heat treatment. The difference of color between sapwood and heartwood could be reduced by heat treatment at a temperature above 170
. Long heating time was more effective in reducing the difference. The Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) of heat-treated wood was as low as 50 percent. The result obviously indicates that heat-treated wood is more dimensionally stable in the change of moisture condition than the control. The heat-treated wood was also effective in increasing the durability against wood rotting fungi. However, more study is required to develop heat treatment as an environmentally-friendly technology for wood preservation without chemical. The mechanical properties of heat-treated wood showed relatively higher performance than the control in general. Meanwhile the dramatic decrease in impact bending stress due to the loss of ductility may limit uses of heat-treated wood in certain cases. There were no significant changes in microscopic structure which may cause changes in mechanical properties. Further study on the chemical analysis of heat-treated wood is needed to scrutinize the causes of changes of material properties.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Composite Panel Manufactured from Wood Particle and Recycled Polyethylene
Han, Tae-Hyung ; Kwon, Jin-Heon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 340~348
The recycled polyethylene was used for making wood-plastic composite panels. In this experiment, the sizes of wood particles used were 1/32", 1/4" and 1/2" in mesh number, and the contents of the recycled polyethylene were 10%, 30% and 50%. The physical and mechanical properties of the composite panels were investigated. At a given content of recycled polyethylene, the density of composite panel decreases with the increase of wood particle size. The thickness swelling and water adsorption decrease with the increase of recycled polyethylene, where significantly lower at 10%, compared with at 30%. In the water soaking experiment for 14 days, the dimensional stability of composite panel appeared good in the composite panel with recycled polyethylene content of 30% or higher. As the content of recycled polyethylene increases, the internal bonding strength and the modulus of rupture in bending strength increases. In SEM, the molten recycled polyethylene showed interlocking action through its penetration into tracheid openings including pits as well as binder between wood particles as the matrix material, thus increasing bonding strength and improving the physical and mechanical properties of composite panel.
Study on the Optimization of Microwave Log Drying
Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Kim, Do-Hyoung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 349~356
Logs with average diameters of 20
30 cm were dried with microwave to investigate microwave drying characteristic of log and determine the optimal drying conditions. Microwave dryer with output of 20 kW was controlled with respect to the temperature of log during drying. Japanese red pine logs with average diameter of 281.9 mm were dried safely by microwave to below moisture content of 20% within 48 hours. Chinese toon logs showed serious surface checks during microwave drying. Higher drying rates were found with higher initial moisture content.
Bonding Performance of Glulam Reinforced with Glass Fiber-Reinforced Plastics
Park, Jun-Chul ; Shin, Yoon-Jong ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 357~363
This study was carried out to investigate whether adhesive used in manufacturing glulam can be used to bond wood and GFRP, when considering working process and economical efficiency. The six different glulams were manufactured, changing the adhesives and the mixing ratios of the adhesives, and investigated by the block shear test and the delamination of the water soaking or boiling water soaking. The three glulams were manufactured, using the resocinol resin based adhesive, the PVAc resin based adhesive and the epoxy resin adhesive, and the other three glulams, using the adhesives mixing resocinol resin and PVAc resin. The block shear strength is higher than 7.1 N/
in all types, which is standard of KS F3021. However, in the wood failure the block shear strength was the highest as 65.9% in the PVAc. The delamination of glulams glued with PVAc adhesive, which was 1.08% in water soaking and 4.16% in boiling water soaking, was lower than 5.00% which is the standard of KS F 3021, and the adhesive strength is good. In glulams glued with only resocinol resin adhesive, the wood layers were good as 1.26% in the water soaking delamination and 0.00% in the boiling water soaking delamination. The GFRP layers were not good as 21.85% in the water soaking delamination but were good as 1.45% in the boiling water soaking delamination.
Bending Performance of Glulam Beams Reinforced withCarbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastics Bonded with Polyvinyl Acetate-Based Adhesive
Park, Jun-Chul ; Shin, Yoon-Jong ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 364~371
This study was carried out to investigate the bending strength of the Larix glulam beams which were reinforced with CFRP (Carbon fiber reinforced plastic) of which the reinforcement ratios were 0.7% and 2.1% by volume. In the bending test, the rupture shape of the reinforced glulam shows that the reinforced glulam broke firstly in the lowest bottom layer on which tension was loaded, but did not in the upper part reinforced with the CFRP layer. The upper part of the reinforced layer kept strength and did not break when the reinforced glulam broke firstly at the bottom part of the reinforced layer, but broke secondly as loading was increased. In the glulam beams reinforced with CFRP of which the reinforcement ratio was 0.7% by volume, the bending strength of the reinforced beams was increased by 28% at the first break. When beams broke up to the upper part of the reinforced layer, the bending strength of the reinforced beams was increased by 55%, compared to those of control glulam beams. When the glulam beams were reinforced with CFRP of which the reinforcement ratio was 2.1% by volume, the bending strength of the reinforced beams was increased by 77%, compared to those of control glulam beams. The ratio of the height of calculated neutral axis using failure mode recommended by Romani and the height of actual neutral axis using strain gauge was 1.03 and agreed well.
Chemical Features of Solid Residues Obtained from Supercritical Water Treatment of Populus alba X glandulosa
Kim, Kwang-Ho ; Eom, In-Yong ; Lee, Soo-Min ; Lee, Oh-Kyu ; Meier, D. ; Choi, Joon-Weon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 372~380
After supercritical water treatment of poplar wood meals (passed through 60 mesh) for 60s between 325 and 425
at the fixed pressure at 220
10 atm, some solid residues were present in the degradation products. They mainly consisted of chemically modified lignin and fibrous materials. Glucose and xylose were identified as main sugar components of fibrous materials, and the highest ratio of glucose/xylose was achieved at the highest reaction temperature. As reaction temperature was elevated, the portion of fibrous materials decreased in the solid residues, while lignin was further accumulated. The H : G : S ratio of lignin in solid residues was estimated by analytical pyrolysis. Irrespective of reaction temperatures, the H:G:S ratios were not significantly changed in the lignin in solid residues. Compared to poplar milled wood lignin (MWL), it was remarkable that H type monomers were further lowered, while portion of S type monomers increased. The amount of G type monomers were relative stable. In presence of HCl catalyst, lowering H type as well as enhancing S type was further distinguishable. According to the result of nitrobenzene oxidation (NBO), ca. 265 mg of vanillin and syringaldehyde was yielded from poplar MWL as main products. However, remarkably reduced amount of NBO products were determined from solid residues by raising operating temperature as well as by the addition of HCl catalyst. These results strongly indicate that
-O-4 linkage could be easily cleaved during supercritical water treatment, so that the lignins in the solid residues seem to be condensed phenol polymers, which are mainly formed by carbon-carbon linkages rather than
Enhancing Enzymatic Saccharification of Corn Stover by Aqueous Ammonia Soaking Pretreatment
Shin, Soo-Jeong ; Yu, Ju-Hyun ; Cho, Nam-Seok ; Han, Sim-Hee ; Kim, Mun-Sung ; Park, Jong-Moon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 381~387
Enhancing enzymatic saccharification of corn stover by aqueous ammonia soaking pretreatment was investigated on chemical compositional changes and enzymatic hydrolysis characteristics. At three different levels of aqueous ammonia soaking temperature and time (140
-1 h, 90
-16 h and 50
-6 days), higher temperature and shorter treatment time led to more xylan and lignin removal based on overall composition analysis and carbohydrate compositional analysis. More xylan and lignin removal in higher temperature treatment led to higher enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and xylan to monosaccharide by commercial cellulase mixtures (Celluclast 1.5L and Novozym 342 from Novozyme, Denmark).
Bonding Quality of Adhesives Formulated with Okara Hydrolyzates and Phenol-formaldehyde Resins for Bonding Fancy Veneer onto High-density Fiberboard
Yang, In ; Ahn, Sye-Hee ; Choi, In-Gyu ; Choi, Won-Sil ; Kim, Sam-Sung ; Oh, Sei-Chang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 388~396
In our study, the potential of okara as an ingredient of new bio-based adhesives was investigated for the production of fancy-veneered flooring boards. Okara was hydrolyzed by 1% sulfuric acid solution (AC) and 1% sodium hydroxide solution (AK). Phenol formaldehyde (PF) prepolymers were prepared as a cross-linker of okara hydrolyzates. Then, okara-based adhesive resins were formulated with 35% AC, 35% AK and 30% PF prepolymer on solid content basis. The adhesive resins were applied on high-density fiberboards (HDF) with the spread rate of 300 g/
. After that, oak fancy veneers are covered on the HDF, and then pressed with the pressure of 7 kg/
. The experimental variables were three mole ratios of formaldehyde to phenol (1.8, 2.1, 2.4), three assembly time (0, 10, 20 min), and two press time (90 sec, 120 sec), respectively. The fancy-veneered high-density fiberboards were tested by dry tensile strength, glueline failure by wetting and formaldehyde emission. Tensile strength of the boards exceeded the requirement of KS standard. The formaldehyde emissions were approached at the E0 level specified in KS standard. Based on these results, okara can be used as an ingredient of environmentally friendly adhesive resin systems for the production of flooring boards.
Effect of Oxalic Acid Pretreatment on Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) for Ethanol Production
Kim, Hye-Yun ; Lee, Jae-Won ; Jeffries, Thomas W. ; Gwak, Ki-Seob ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 397~405
In this study, we investigated the potential of producing bioethanol from Liriodendron tulipifera by using oxalic acid pretreatment. Amounts of fermentable sugars, mostly xylose and glucose, in the liquid fraction (hydrolysate) was 40.22 g/
after the biomass was pretreated with 0.037 g/g of oxalic acid for 20 minutes at 160
. Production amounts of ethanol was 8.6 g/
from the 72 hours of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) on solid fraction of the pretreated sample. At the same condition, when the reaction time increased to 40 minutes, 32.66 g/
of fermentable sugars in the hydrolysate and 9.5 g/
of ethanol was produced from the process of pretreatment and SSF. As a result of analyzing the fermentation inhibitors, such as acetic acid, 5-HMF, furfural and total phenolic compounds, as the reaction time increased, the amount of the fermentation inhibitors in the hydrolysate increased. Production of the fermentation inhibitors was more affected by initial concentration of oxalic acid rather than reaction time. 3.39
of acetic acid was produced by pretreatment with 0.013 g/g of oxalic acid, and the amount of furfural produced by decomposition of xylose was 2
3 times higher than the amount of 5-HMF produced by decomposition of glucose. All the hydrolysates contained more than 5 g/
of total phenols considered as the degradation product of lignin. Therefore, by analyzing the amount of fermentable sugars and fermentation inhibitors in the hydrolysate, and producing ethanol from SSF of solid fraction of the pretreated sample, the biomass pretreated with 0.037 g/g of oxalic acid for 20 minutes at 160
can be expected to produce the most ethanol.
Natural Dyeing Characteristics of Black Color to the Korean Traditional Hand-made Paper (Hanji)
Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Yoo, Seung-Il ; Choi, Myun-Gwan ; Sin, Sun ; Choi, Tea-Ho ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 406~413
This study was carried out to investigate the natural dyeing characteristics of Korean traditional hand-made paper (Hanji). The Hanji was dyed black with extractive of gallnut (Rbusjavanica L), leaves of Amur maple (Acer ginnala), nutshell of chestnut (Castania crenata), and persimmon juice and Chinese ink. And moreover, the Hanji was dyed not only using single and combination of dyestuff but also changing mordants and mordanting procedure. And we estimated the relationship between dyeing characteristics and dyestuff concentration (o.w.f.). The gallnut was the most principal material dyeing black. The procedure of mordanting from copper acetate to Iron (II) chloride and dyeing from gallnut to Amur maple dyestuffs were the best dyeing method for the Hanji to black. The K/S value of dyed Hanji increased with increasing concentration of dyestuff.
Natural Dyeing of Hanji with Alnus japonica Fruit Extractive
Choi, Tae-Ho ; Yoo, Seung-Il ; Lee, Sang-Hyun ; Jeong, Hee-Won ; Yang, Eun-Jung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 37, issue 4, 2009, Pages 414~420
We dyed traditional Korean hand-made papers (Hanji) with colorants extracted from fruits of Alnus japonica to investigate the effect of various dyeing factors (mordant, dye concentration and dyeing assistant) on colors, K/S values and light fastness of the dyed Hanji. The dyed hanji had brown color. The K/S value of dyed Hanji was increased by mordanting with alum and copper acetate. a* and b* value of dyed Hanji was decreased slightly by mordanting with alum and Iron(II) chloride. The K/S value and b* of dyed Hanji increased with increasing concentration of dye, but L* value of dyed Hanji decreased. The K/S value of dyed Hanji was also increased by fixing agent. When Hanji was mordanted with Iron(II) chloride and was not mordanted, use of fixing agent resulted in greater increase of K/S value. Use of fixing agent resulted in poor light fastness. When fixing agent was used, mordanting with copper acetate resulted in smaller color difference than mordanting with alum after aging test.