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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 38, Issue 6 - Nov 2010
Volume 38, Issue 5 - Sep 2010
Volume 38, Issue 4 - Jul 2010
Volume 38, Issue 3 - May 2010
Volume 38, Issue 2 - Mar 2010
Volume 38, Issue 1 - Jan 2010
Selecting the target year
Mechanical Properties and Sound Absorption Capability of Shipbuilding Plywood Waste
Kang, Chun-Won ; Kim, Gwang-Chul ; Park, Hee-Jun ; Kang, Wook ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 457~462
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.457
Sound absorption capability and bending strength of laminated ship-building plywood waste of maple and melanti wood were estimated. Sound absorption coefficients of wood had been measured by the two microphone transfer function method and bending strength examined by three point loading. The maximum strength in bending of laminated ship-building plywood waste of maple and melanti wood were 534 and 414 kgf/
, respectively. The sound absorption coefficients of laminated ship-building plywood waste were higher than mongolian oak and fiber board, well used construction material. Especially, in the case of laminated ship-building plywood waste of melanti wood, average sound absorption coefficient was about 0.25. It was surmised that the laminated ship-building plywood waste can be used as interior materials because of its good mechanical and sound absorption properties.
Physical and Sound Absorption Properties Estimation of Cherospondias axillaris, Japanese Fast Growing Tree
Kang, Chu-Won ; Kim, Gwan-Chul ; Kang, Wook ; Matsumura, Junji ; Tanoue, Misato ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 463~469
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.463
To suggest the practical use of fast growing tree, we estimated the physical and sound absorption properties of Cherospondias axillaris which is one of the japanese fast growing species. The average annual ring width and air dry specific gravity were 8 mm and 0.55 respectively. The sound absorption coefficients of Cherospondias axillaris wood generally seemed to be a little higher than those of other construction materials such as 6 mm thick gypsum board and 18 mm thick fiberboard, and considered that it could be used as a constructing material owing to relatively good mechanical properties and sound absorption properties.
Feasibility of Domestic Yellow Poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) Dimension Lumber for Structural Uses
Lim, Jin-Ah ; Oh, Jung-Kwon ; Yeo, Hwan-Myeong ; Lee, Jun-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 470~479
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.470
In this study, the visual grading based on the visual characteristics and structural timber bending test were conducted for domestic yellow poplar dimension lumber. Structural performance of domestic yellow poplar dimension lumber was conducted through the evaluation of strength and stiffness. Visual grading rule of yellow poplar dimension lumber did not exist in Korea. Visual grading of yellow poplar dimension lumber was performed according to the NSLB (Northern Softwood Lumber Bureau) standard grading rules including several hardwood dimension lumber. The allowable bending stress was calculated from the results of a visual grading. Compared with NDS (National Design Specification), the yellow poplar dimension lumber showed enough strength for structural uses. In addition, the visual grading was performed according to the KFRI (Korea Forest Research Institute) grading rule to calculated allowable bending stress and to evaluated the feasibility. The yellow poplar was classified into the pine groups by the KFRI criteria regulated by specific gravity. Allowable bending stress based on weibull distribution had became highly than KFRI criteria, as No. 1 (10.0 MPa), No. 2 (7.4 MPa) and No. 3 (4.1 MPa). And the availability of yellow poplar dimension lumber for structural uses had been confirmed. The Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) of domestic yellow poplar dimension lumber had not met the NDS and KFRI criteria. However, for the use of domestic yellow poplar, average values of MOE which obtained through this test were suggested as design value for domestic yellow poplar. Design values were supposed No. 1, 2 (9,000 MPa) and No. 3 (8,000 MPa).
Analysis of Functional Characteristics of the Commercial Wood Charcoal in Korea
Lee, Dong-Young ; Kim, Byung-Ro ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 480~489
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.480
We investigated the functional characteristics of commercial wood charcoal in Korea and their application as functional raw materials. The areas of analysis were anatomical features, elementary composition, mineral composition, caloric values, anion and far-infrared ray emission, and moisture absorption capacity. Based on the analyses as above mentioned, it is considered that charcoal can be evaluated as functional raw material. In commercial wood charcoal in Korea, there were highly varied depending on manufacturing methods as black charcoal, white charcoal and mechanical charcoal and manufactures for elementary composition, mineral composition, anion emission, far infrared ray emission. Especially, black charcoal showed lower moisture absorption capacity than white charcoal and mechanical charcoal. For charcoal as functional raw material, selective usage are needed based on the analyses of anatomical features, elementary composition, mineral composition, caloric values, anion and far-infrared ray emission, and moisture absorption capacity. Specific charcoal making methods for improving specific functionality, required as functional raw material, are necessary in further research.
Radial Variations in the Lengths of Wood Fibers and Vessel Elements in the Stem of Chestnut (Castanea crenata) Grown in Korea
Lee, Seon-Hwa ; Kwon, Sung-Min ; Lee, Sung-Jae ; Febrianto, Fauzi ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 490~497
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.490
Radial variations in the lengths of wood fibers and vessel elements in the stem of chestnut (Castanea crenata) grown in Korea were investigated to get some fundamental information for efficient use of wood. Seven chestnut cultivars (Tanzawa, Ibuki, Arima, Ginyose, Tsukuba, Riheiguri, and Mansung) were examined in this study. The lengths of wood fibers and vessel elements were measured and analyzed by an optical microscope and an imaging analysis system. In all chestnut cultivars, the wood fiber length of latewood was longer than that of earlywood, and increased with the increase of growth ring number. Similarly, vessel element length of latewood was longer than that of earlywood, and showed increasing tendency with the increase of growth ring number. Consequently, it was considered that the lengths of wood fibers and vessel elements could be used for separating juvenile wood from adult wood in the chestnut stem.
Optimization of Image Merging Conditions for Lumber Scanning System
Kim, Kwang-Mo ; Kim, Byoung-Nam ; Shim, Kug-Bo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 498~506
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.498
To use domestic softwood for structural lumber, appropriate grading system for quality, production and distribution condition of domestic lumber should be prepared. Kim et al. developed an automatic image processing system for grading domestic structural lumber (2009a and b). This study was carried out to investigate optimal image merging conditions for improving performance of image input system which is the key technique of image processing system, developed in the previous paper. To merge digital images of Korean larch lumber, choosing the green channel information of obtained image data showed the most accurate merging performance. As a pre-treatment process, applying Y-derivative Sharr`s kernel filter could improve the image merging accuracy, but the effect of camera calibration was imperceptible. The optimal size of template image was verified as 30 pixel widths and 150 pixel heights. When applying the above mentioned conditions, the error length of images was 3.1 mm and the processing time was 9.7 seconds in average.
An Estimation of the Carbon Stocks in Harvested Wood Products: Accounting Approaches and Implications for Korea
Choi, Soo-Im ; Joo, Rin-Won ; Lee, Soo-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 507~517
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.507
This study estimated the amount of carbon stocks in harvested wood products (HWP) using accounting approaches suggested by 2006 IPCC guidelines and analyzed the impacts of different approaches on national greenhouse gas inventory and the forest sector in Korea. The change in carbon stocks was calculated at the level of semi-finished wood products, which cover sawnwood, wood-based panels, other industrial wood, paper and paperboard. An estimation of the changes in carbon stocks in HWP in use for the period 1970~2008 varied between -9,023 Gg
/yr and 4,052 Gg
/yr depending on the accounting approach used. The stock-change approach provided the most favorable results because Korea was a net importer of wood products. However, each approach generates different impacts on harvest, trade, the use of wood for energy production and recycling. When deciding its position on accounting approach, thus, the Government should consider future direction of national forest policies as well as the effect on national greenhouse gas inventory for the minimization of negative impacts resulting from its selection.
Thermal Environment Evaluation of Wooden House Using Infra-red Thermal Image and Temperature Difference Ratio (TDR)
Chang, Yoon-Seong ; Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Park, Jun-Ho ; Lee, Jun-Jae ; Park, Joo-Saeng ; Park, Moon-Jae ; Yeo, Hwan-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 518~525
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.518
Infrared (IR) thermography which is the technique for detecting invisible infrared light emitted by objects due to their surface thermal condition and for producing an image of the light has been applied in various field without damaging the objects. It also could be used indirectly to examine the inside of an object. In this study, insulation property of wooden house in Korea Forest Research Institute (KFRI) was evaluated with according to "Thermal performance of building - Quantitative detection of thermal irregularities in building envelopes - infrared method (KS F 2829)". This method uses "Temperature Difference Ratio (TDR)" between outdoor wall surface and indoor wall surface of wooden building for evaluating its thermal performance. The thermal performance of a room on the 2nd floor of the wooden house was focused in this study and IR thermography on the indoor and outdoor surface of the house was captured by IR camera. Heat loss from the corner and the window of the wooden house as well as wall of the house was quantitatively evaluated and the invisible heat loss in the wall was detected. It is expected that the results from this study could contribute to improve the wooden building energy efficiency.
Evaluation of Surface Moisture Content of Liriodendron tulipifera Wood in the Hygroscopic Range Using NIR Spectroscopy
Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Han, Yeon-Jung ; Chang, Yoon-Sung ; Park, Jun-Ho ; Choi, Joon-Weon ; Choi, In-Gyu ; Yeo, Hwan-Myeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 526~531
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.526
For efficient use of wood, it is important to control moisture of wood in processing wood. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy can be used to estimate the physical and chemical properties of materials quickly and nondestructively. In this study, it was intended to measure the moisture contents on the surface of wood using NIR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate analytic statistical techniques. Because NIR spectroscopy is affected by the chemical components of the specimens and contains signal noise, a regression model for detecting moisture content of wood was established after carrying out several numerical pretreatments such as Smoothing, Derivative and Normalization in this study. It shows that the regression model using NIR absorbance in the range of 750~2,500 nm predicts the actual surface moisture content very well. Near-infrared spectroscopy technique developed in this study is expected to improve a technology to control moisture content of wood in using and drying process.
Strength Properties of Wooden Model Retaining Wall Using Preservative Treated Square Timber of Domestic Pinus rigida Miller
Park, Jun-Chul ; Kim, Keon-Ho ; Lee, Dong-Heub ; Hwang, Won-Joung ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 532~540
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.532
The strength properties of wooden model retaining wall made of pitch pine (Pinus rigida Miller) was evaluated. Three different types of wooden model retaining wall were made of the 11cm square timber treated with CUAZ-2 (Copper Azole). The retaining wall was made into the 4 layers of crossbar and the 3 layers of vertical-bar, of which the size was 86 cm high, 200 cm long and 96 cm wide. Type I was control and in Type II 20 cm vertical-bars and 93 cm vertical-bars were arranged alternately to decrease wood usage. TypeIII was similar to TypeII except that the connection between crossbars was reinforced with the wooden armature. In each type, the strength properties of retaining wall were investigated by horizontal loading test and the deformation of structure by image processing (AICON 3D DPA-PRO system). In horizontal loading test of Type I, Type II and Type III was 63.17, 57.80, and 60.97 kN/m, respectively. The deformation of the top layer in Type II was 1.5 times larger than in Type I and Type III. Consequently, the economic efficiency and strength performance were better in Type III than in Type I and Type II.
Bonding Strength of Ozonized Soybean Oil-based Modified pMDI Adhesive Hardened at High and Medium Temperature
Lee, Eung-Su ; Kang, Chan-Young ; Park, Heon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 541~546
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.541
This study was to investigate the dry bond strengths of the plywoods manufactured with 3 hours ozonized soybean oil (SBO)/polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (pMDI) adhesive at mid and high curing temperature. In results of the dry bonding strengths of the 3 hrs-ozonized SBO mixed with pMDI at high curing temperature were respectively the strengths of weight ratio of 3hrs-ozonized SBO : pMDI, 1 : 0.5, 4.74 kgf/
, 1 : 0.75, 7.14 kgf/
1 : 1, 9.29 kgf/
, 1 : 2, 16.53 kgf/
, 1 : 3, 17.42 kgf/
, and 1 : 4, 16.75 kgf/
. Therefore, it was found that the equivalent ratio was formed approximately between 3 hrs-ozonized SBO : pMDI 1 : 2 and 1 : 3. The dry bonding strengths of the 3hrs-ozonized SBO mixed with pMDI at medium curing temperature were respectively the strengths of weight ratio of 3 hrs-ozonized SBO : pMDI, 1 : 0.5, 3.16 kgf/
, 1 : 0.75, 6.13 kgf/
1 : 1, 8.18 kgf/
, 1 : 2, 11.82 kgf/
. In this experiment the higher bonding strength at high curing temperature was shown approximately between 3 hrs-ozonized SBO : pMDI 1 : 2 and 1 : 3. If this wood adhesive is used at high curing temperature, it is possibile to bond the plywoods.
Characterization of Cellulases from Schizophyllum commune for Hydrolysis of Cellulosic Biomass
Kim, Hyun-Jung ; Kim, Yoon-Hee ; Cho, Moon-Jung ; Shin, Keum ; Lee, Dong-Heub ; Kim, Tae-Jong ; Kim, Yeong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 547~560
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.547
The optimum culture condition of Schizophyllum commune for the cellulase production and its enzymatic characteristics for saccharification of cellulosic biomass were analyzed. S. commune secrets
-1,4-xylosidase (BXL) and cellulases, including endo-
-1,4-glucanase (EG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), and
-glucosidase (BGL). The optimum reaction temperature for all cellulases was
and the thermostable range was
C. The optimum reaction pH for all cellulases was 5.5 in a range of temperature from
. The best nutritions for the cellulase production of S. commune among tested nutrients were 2% cellulose for the carbon source and corn steep liquor or peptone/yeast extract for the nitrogen source without vitamins. The environmental culture condition for the cellulase production was 5.5~6.0 for pH at
. The enzyme activities of EG, BGL, CBH, and BXL were 3670.5, 631.9, 398.5, and 15.2 U/
, respectively, after concentration forty times from the culture broth of S. commune which was grown at the optimized culture condition. Alternative filter paper unit assay showed 11 FPU/
enzyme activity. The saccharification tests using cellulase of S. commune showed the low saccharification rate on tested hardwoods but a high value of 50.5% on cellulose, respectively. The saccharification rate (50.5%) of cellulose by cellulase produced in this work is higher than 45.7% in the commercial enzyme (Celluclast 1.5L, 30 FPU/g, glucan).
Bioethanol Production Using By-product of VPP (Value Prior to Pulping)
Lee, Jae-Won ; Kim, Hye-Yun ; Jeffries, Thomas W. ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 561~567
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.561
In this study, we evaluated optimal conditions for ethanol production of the spruce hydrolysate (SH) obtained from diethyl oxalate pretreatment. Fermentable sugar concentration in SH was 29.04 g/
except arabinose. Monosaccharides obtained from the oligomer degradation were mainly mannose (39.26 g/
) and galactose (12.83 g/
). Concentration of 5-HMF and furfural which are inhibitors on ethanol fermentation were 0.09 g/
and 0.04 g/
respectively. Concentration of acetic acid and total phenolic compounds in SH were 1.4 g/
and 2.83 g/
. Ethanol production using hydrolysate was 11.7 g/
at optimal pH 6.0 after 48 h. Specific ethanol production was 0.15 (g/(
)) at pH 5.0 and 5.5. while that was 0.24 (g/(
)) at pH 6.0. Specific ethanol production has difference depend on initial pH for fermentation. Ethanol production was 14.3 g/
after 48 h when xylanase 20 IU was added in SH for degradation of oligomer during fermentation. It implied that ethanol production increased by 22.2% compare with control (without xylanase).
Selection of White Rot Fungi for Biodegradation of Polychlorinated Biphenyl, and Analysis of Its Biodegradation Rate
Hong, Chang-Young ; Gwak, Ki-Seob ; Lee, Su-Yeon ; Kim, Seon-Hong ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 568~578
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.568
In this study, the possibility of biodegradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by various white rot fungi was evaluated, and outstanding white rot fungi for the degradation of PCBs were selected. Seven white rot fungi were used to degrade Aroclor 1254 and 1260, which are widely considered to be toxic and difficult to degrade. And the degradation rates of Aroclors by selected white rot fungi were performed by GC analysis. Through the resistance test of white rot fungi on different concentrations of PCBs, the inhibition of mycelial growth of Cystidodontia isubellina was much less than that of others, and this fungus grew faster than others, relatively. Based on this result, it was considered that C. isubellina was selected as degrading fungus for Aroclors. As a result of biodegradation rate of Aroclors by Cystidodontia isubellina, the degradation rate of Arolor 1254 was reached to 57.57% in 13 days, which showed very high degradation rate. Also the degradation rate of Aroclor 1260 by C. isubellina had a tendency of increasing along with increasing incubation day. Maximal degradation rate of Aroclor 1260 was 49.43% at 13 days. Based on this results, it indicated that in comparison with a previous study, high degradation rate was obtained by C. isubellina.
Studies on Antimicrobial and Antioxidative Activities of Extracts from Magnoliaceae
Lee, Sung-Suk ; Lee, Hak-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 579~586
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.579
This study was carried out to evaluate the antifungal and antioxidative activities of ethanol extracts from Magnoliaceae to investigate the possibility for the natural fungicides and food preservatives. The antifungal activities of ethanol extracts were evaluated as a hyphal growth inhibition rate using four plant pathogenic and five wood rot fungi. The high inhibition activity on the growth of fungi was shown in bark of Magnolia obovata that indicated more than 50% hyphal growth inhibition rate except Trametes versicolor, one of the white rot fungi. The antifungal activity was the highest in the ethanol extracts from M. obovata and the following was in order of M. kobus and M. sieboldii. The extract from bark in M. obovata showed higher antifungal activity than that from wood in the same species. Especially, the extracts from flower of M. denudata and M. liliflora indicated the high antifungal activities, while the other portions of same plants showed the low activities. On the other hand, a free radical scavenging method was adopted with 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrohydrazyl (DPPH) in order to test the antioxidative activities of ethanol extracts. The free radical scavenging activity was very high in the extracts from branch of Schizandra nigra and Kadsura japonica that showed more than 90% at the concentration of 100
. It also turned out that the antioxidative activity of branch of S. nigra and K. japonica was similar to
-tocopherol and butylated hydroxytoluene, one of the effective synthetic antioxidants. From these results, it can be suggested that the branches of S. nigra and K. japonica have the positive antioxidative activities and can be applied for the food preservatives and cosmetic ingredient.
Current Research on Nanocellulose-Reinforced Nanocomposites
Cho, Mi-Jung ; Park, Byung-Dae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 38, issue 6, 2010, Pages 587~601
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2010.38.6.587
This review attempted to overview characteristics of nanocellulose from various sources, its isolation methods, and properties of nanocellulose-based nanocomposites. Currently, nanocelluloses could be obtained from a variety of cellulose sources, including wood pulp, tunicate, bacterial cellulose etc., and are isolated by various ways such as chemical, physical, or biological methods. The length and width of nanocellulose is in the range of 100~300 nm long and 5~50 nm wide although characteristics of nanocellulose shows a wide variability, depending on sources and isolation method. Nanocellulose is also being used as a reinforcement in the nanocomposites via various methods. Many water soluble polymers were reinforced by the incorporation of nanocellulose, which significantly improves tensile and storage moduli of the nanocomposites. In order to be used for hydrophobic polymers, the surface of nanocellulose was modified. Even though there is a significant progress in the utilization of nanocellulose as a reinforcement of polymers, further research is required to find a niche market of nanocellulose-reinforced nanocomposites. In addition, isolation methods of producing the nanocellulose in a large quantity for commercial applications should be developed to extend the application of nanocellulose-based bio-nanocomposites in future.