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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 41, Issue 6 - Nov 2013
Volume 41, Issue 5 - Sep 2013
Volume 41, Issue 4 - Jul 2013
Volume 41, Issue 3 - May 2013
Volume 41, Issue 2 - Mar 2013
Volume 41, Issue 1 - Jan 2013
Selecting the target year
Effect of the Addition of Binders on the Fuel Characteristics of Wood Pellets
Ahn, Byoung Jun ; Chang, Hee-Sun ; Cho, Seong Taek ; Han, Gyu-Seong ; Yang, In ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 475~489
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.475
This work was conducted to investigate the effect of the addition of binders, such as rapeseed flour, coffee waste, bark, pine cone and lignin powder, on the fuel characteristics of the pellets fabricated with larch and tulip tree sawdust. Moisture content, bulk density and higher heating value of most pellets fabricated with the binders exceeded the 1st-grade pellet standard designated by Korea Forest Research Institute, but ash content of the pellets fabricated with rapeseed flour or bark of 10 wt% on the dry weight basis of sawdust was satisfied with just the 2nd- or 3rd-grade standard. The durability of tulip tree-pellets was positively influenced by the addition of rapeseed flour, coffee waste or lignin powder and increased with increasing the amount of the binders. For larch-pellets, the increase of binders did not greatly affect the durability, and even the durability reduced with the increase of bark or pine cone. From the microscopic observation, the obvious feature of pellet surfaces was not identified by the type of binder but by the addition amount of the binder. In summary, the addition of binders contributed to the fuel characteristics of wood pellets, and particularly the characteristics of wood pellets fabricated with coffee waste improved greatly. Therefore, if the binders are secured sufficiently with a reasonable cost, it might be possible to commercialize wood/binder pellets, which have better fuel characteristics than conventional wood pellets.
The Study on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Composite Board, Using Byproduct of Plywood for Core Layer
Choe, Song-Kyu ; Pi, Duck Won ; Kang, Seog Goo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 490~496
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.490
The board using recycled wood waste chip tends to decrease in terms of physical and mechanical properties. The reasons are notably different shape of chips, components of used adhesive and impurity content, which bring the irregular quality and downgrading of board. More over, the board has higher emissivity of formaldehyde than regular board, because recycled chip contains adhesives that were used to make previous products. This low quality of products weakens the price and quality competitiveness, and it led to bringing the issue of problem in Korean board industry. For these reason, in this study, boards using byproducts of plywood were made to evaluate physical and mechanical properties according to manufacturing conditions. As a result, The board was consists of 4~16 mesh chips for core layer and veneer on both face and they were combined using EMDI, and its` bending strength was 57.7
which is 215% higher than that of OSB (26.8
). Moreover, the emissivity of formaldehyde was 0.7 ppm, this board seems to substitute OSB for rated sheathing.
Optimal Condition for Torrefaction of Eucalyptus by Response Surface Methodology
Kim, Young-Hun ; Na, Byeong-Il ; Lee, Soo-Min ; Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Lee, Jae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 497~506
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.497
The optimal condition for the torrefaction of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) was investigated by response surface methodology. The carbon content in the torrefied biomass increased with the severity factor (SF), while hydrogen and oxygen contents decreased. The calorific value of torrefied biomass ranged from 20.23 to 21.29 MJ/kg, depending on the torrefaction conditions. This implied that the energy contained in the torrefied biomass increased by 1.6 to 6.9%, when compared with that of the untreated biomass. The weight loss of biomass increased as the SF increased. The Code level of reaction temperature had the highest impact on the energy yield of torrefied biomass, while the effect of Code level of reaction time was considerably low. The highest energy yield was obtained at low SF.
Recovery of Catalyst Used in Oxalic Acid Pretreatment of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) and Bioethanol Production
Jeong, So-Yeon ; Lee, Hong-Joo ; Lee, Jae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 507~514
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.507
In this study, oxalic acid pretreatment of empty fruit bunch (EFB) was performed at different pretreatment temperatures. Also, we evaluated oxalic acid recovery from hydrolysate by electrodialysis. The fermentable sugar concentration in hydrolysate was high at more than
, when pretreatment was carried out at
. At the same time, ethanol production was
after 72 h which correspond to the ethanol yield of 0.21 g/g. On the other hydrolysate (160,
), fermentable sugar was not consumed by Pichia stipitis during fermentation. Most of the oxalic acid was recovered and some of the fermentation inhibitors were removed by electrodialysis. For the electrodialysis treated hydrolysate, ethanol production was increased compared to the original hydrolysate. The highest ethanol production was
after 24 h which correspond to the yield of 0.33 g/g. The ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) under all pretreatment conditions was more than
after 96 h. The highest ethanol production was
, when pretreatment was performed at
. In particular, ethanol production was increased, when electrodialysis treated hydrolysate was used for SSF.
Thermal Performance of Wooden Building Envelope by Thermal Conductivity of Structural Members
Kim, Sughwan ; Yu, Seulgi ; Seo, Jungki ; Kim, Sumin ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 515~527
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.515
Building energy simulations which are mainly used in Korea have evaluated the building energy performance with the different thermal conductivity of construction materials. In order to evaluate the energy consumption accurately, the difference in thermal conductivity of the wood used in stud for wooden structure was confirmed from the each simulation. In addition, the thermal transmission of building members and the thermal bridge at the conjunction of building members according to thermal conductivity from each simulation programs were researched. The thermal conductivity of pine that has the largest variation among the energy simulations was applied to the thermal properties of studs in wooden structure. The maximum error between the maximum and minimum thermal transmission of roof, wall, and floor slab was
. Plus, that thermal bridge at Rafter junction on the roof, roof-wall joint, and floor slab-wall joint was
. The heat transfer image for changes in temperature and the heat exchange were analyzed by HEAT2 program. The distorted temperature lines were found around the insufficient insulated connection parts. It was predicted that the temperature at the distorted parts in the analyzed image was lower than that of the other portion of the other structures.
Manufacturing and Physical Properties of Composite Board with Sawdust and Orange Peels
Oh, Seung Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 528~534
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.528
This study was carried out to explore a new application of board and obtain fundamental properties for producing composite board from sawdust and orange peels. As the mixing rate of orange peels increased from 10% to 40%, water absorption, thickness swelling, modulus of rupture and brinell hardness decreased as follows : 94.1%~86.5%, 27.2%~18.0%,
, respectively. As the density of board increased from
, thickness swelling, modulus of rupture and brinell hardness increased as follows: 6.4%~17.9%,
, respectively. But the water absorption decreased from 149.2% to 58.6%.
Analysis of residual drying stress in Larix Kaempferi wood used as glulam laminar
Han, Yeonjung ; Chang, Yoon-Seong ; Park, Yonggun ; Jeong, Gi-Young ; Hong, Jung-Pyo ; Lee, Jun-Jae ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 535~543
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.535
The objective of this study was to analyse the residual stress in Larix kaempferi board during and after kiln-drying. The boards were primarily intended for using as laminar of cross laminated timber (CLT). In this study, the equivalence of moisture content by equalizing treatment was proved and reduction of residual stress by conditioning treatment was quantified. Prong test and slice test were carried out to analyse the residual stress in wood during drying. Transverse casehardening was measured immediately after making prong sample. Residual stress of four parts in wood from surface to center was analyzed quantitatively based on elastic deformation after just cutting slices from board. Tensile stress and compressive stress on the surface of board during drying did not exceed 2.2 MPa when boards were dried by kiln-drying schedule of T10-C4 and T12-D5. Because the tensile strength and compressive strength of transverse direction of Larix kaempferi lumber are 2.65 MPa and 4.60 MPa, application of more severe drying schedule can be recommended. Cup and twist were reduced by about 40% by equalizing and conditioning treatments after drying.
Predicting the Screw Withdrawal Load of Commercial Particleboard Manufactured in Korea
Cha, Jae Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 544~550
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.544
Tests were carried out on commercial particleboards manufactured in Korea to evaluate and modify formulas which had previously been developed to predict the holding loads of screw on the face and edge of specimen. Screw sizes were No. 6, 8 and 10 used in this study. The withdrawal loads of screws were developed to predict as a function of screw diameter, depth of penetration, specific gravity and IB of particleboard. Predicted equations were fitted to the test results of different length of No. 8 screws. Results of tests indicate that IB is a better predictor of holding loads on the face of particleboard than SG. On the other hand, SG is a good indicator of holding load on the edge of particleboard.
Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Rhododendron Brachycarpum and Abies Koreana E.H. Wilson on Degranulation and Cytokine Expression in RBL-2H3 Cells
Jung, Eui-Man ; Kim, Jae-Woo ; Park, Mi-Jin ; Lee, Sung-Suk ; Choi, Don-Ha ; Lee, Jungbok ; Jeung, Eui-Bae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 551~558
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.551
Ethanol extracts from Rhododendrom brachycarpum and Abies koreana were investigated for their anti-allergic activities using RBL-2H3 cell line. After treatment with ethanol extracts of various concentrations on the immune response induced mast cell by concanavalin A (Con A), the expressions of cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4), interleukin-13 (IL-13) were determined by using RT-PCR and the degranulation of mast cells was determined by measuring
-hexosaminidase release. Expression level of IL-4 was decreased by the extract from Rhododendrom brachycarpum in
concentrations. Expression level of IL-13 was also decreased by both extracts.
-Hexosaminidase release by RBL-2H3 cells was inhibited at the
concentration of extracts from Rhododendrom brachycarpum and Abies koreana, respectively. These results demonstrate that ethanol extracts of Rhododendron brachycarpum and Abies koreana exert anti-allergic effects by regulating the reduction of IL-4 and IL-13 genes expression and also the secretion of
Decay Resistance and Anti-mold Efficacy of Wood Treated with Fire Retardants
Son, Dong Won ; Kang, Mee Ran ; Lee, Dong-Heub ; Park, Sang-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 559~565
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.559
This study evaluated the ability of white and brown rot fungi to decompose fire retardant-treated wood by measuring mass loss. Anti efficacy of FRT against sapstain and mold fungi was evaluated. Wood was treated with liquid sodium silicate and boric acid, ammonium borate, di-ammonium phosphate. Retardant treated wood was then subjected to fungal decay resistance tests performed according to KS standard method using a brown-rot fungus, Fomitopsis palustris and white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Aspergillus niger, Penicillium funiculosum, Rhizopus nigricans, Aureobasidium pullulans, Tricoderma virede fungi were used anti-sapstain and mold test. Boron and phosphorus chemicals used in this study increased the resistance of fire retardant treated wood against both fungal attack. Anti mold and sapstain efficacy of the fire retardant treated wood was excellent but there were difference depend on mold. After the liquid sodium silicate treatment, the second chemical treatment process could lead chemical fixation into wood, which effects decay resistance.
Structure Determination of the Extractives from the Taxus Cuspidata Fruits
Park, Se-Yeong ; Choi, In-Gyu ; Bae, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 566~575
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.566
The fruits of Taxus cuspidata were collected, divided into seeds and fruits, and extracted with 95% EtOH. The extracts were evaporated under the reduced vacuum pressure, concentrated, then successively fractionated with a series of n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and water on a separatory funnel to get some freeze dried samples. A portion of the EtOAc (arils:1.65 g, seeds:1.04 g) and
(arils:7 g, seeds:10 g) soluble samples were chromatographed on a Sephadex column using MeOH-
(1:1, 1:3, 1:5, v/v), EtOH-hexane (3:1, v/v) mixture and 100%
as eluting solvents to isolate pure compounds from the fractions. The isolates were developed by cellulose TLC using t-BuOH-HOAc-
(TBA; 3:1:1, v/v/v) and 6% aqueous HOAc. Visualization was done under ultraviolet light and by spraying the vanillin-HCl-EtOH reagent (4.8:12:480, v/v/v). followed by heating. The structures of the isolates were characterized by
-NMR, DEPT, 2D-NMR, LC/MS and EI-MS spectra. In addition to the NMR and MS spectra, acid hydrolysis and permethylation were used to determine the correct structure of the isolated sugar compound. Their structures were elucidated as (+)-catechin (1), (-)-epicatechin (2), (+)-gallocatechin (3), (-)-epigallocatechin (4) and
-D-fructofuranose (5) on the basis of the above experimental evidences.
Penetration of ACQ Treatment and its Effect of Degradation on Wood Tissues (Structure)
Lee, Hyun-Mi ; Lee, Dong-Heub ; Hwang, Won-Joung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 576~582
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.576
To obtain the basic information on wood preservative process using copper, the penetration ACQ-2 preservative agent into Douglas fir wood and its degradational characteristics were investigated. Douglas fir is known to be difficult for preservative agent injection. To find the hindrance factor of the preservatives movement, the ray height, ray density, and length of tracheid were measured and observed by a stereoscopic microscope and scanning electron microscope. The results were compared in the well-penetrated parts of preservatives and insufficient parts. There were no significant differences in height, length, and density between both parts, except for the pits of the wood elements observed in SEM micrograph. More declosed pits were found in the well-penetrated parts of preservatives. Decay characteristics of wood specimen treated with various ACQ concentrations by brown-rot fungi was observed by an optical microscope. The decayed properties of tracheid, rays, and resin canals was found in the non-treated wood specimens and it was also found that some extent of preservatives concentration is necessary to protect the decay.
The analysis of products from base-catalyzed depolymerization of kraft lignin
Kim, Seok Ju ; Kim, Yong Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 583~593
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.583
The based-catalyzed depolymerization (BCD) of kraft lignin isolated from black liquor which the chemical pulping of a mixture of various Southeast Asia hardwood chips was carried out in a batch reactor in the presence of different NaOH concentrations with supercritical methanol. The S:G ratio of the kraft lignin determined by pyrolysis-GC/MS analysis turned out roughly 1.4:1 and main products were vanillic acid, syringol and 3-methoxy catechol. The diethyl ether extracts as phenolic monomers from BCD reaction were produced similar yield among different NaOH concentrations. The 21 compounds were identified by GC/MS analysis in all experiments and major products were catechol, 3-methoxycatechol, 4-methylcatechol, syringol and isovanillic acid. However, it had been shown to be different monomer contents depending on the dosage of NaOH. Catechol, 4-methylcatechol and 3-methoxycatechol were shown to be the dominant monomer from BCD reaction using 7.5 and 3.25% of NaOH concentration whereas syringol, isovanillic acid, 3-methoxycatechol and 4-methylcatechol were determined to be the most typical products under the condition of 1.63% NaOH.
Analyses of GHG Reduction Effectiveness and Economic Feasibility in the Wood Pellet Fuel Switching Project
Lee, Jin-Chul ; Kang, Kyu-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 41, issue 6, 2013, Pages 594~605
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2013.41.6.594
This study was performed to analyze GHG (Greenhouse gas) reduction effectiveness and economic feasibility in the wood pellet fuel switching project using JCDM (Japan Clean Development Mechanism) and KVER (Korea Voluntary Emission Reduction)data. The major data for the analyses consist of investment costs, annual GHG reductions, fuel prices and GHG credit prices. The wood pellet fuel switching projects are the
-zero projects. Therefore, these projects are essential to accomplish the GHG mitigation target, especially in Korea. In order to raise the economic feasibility of the wood pellet fuel switching project, the results of this study suggest that the Korean government should reduce the price of wood pellet through the supply on a large scale and raise the KCER price of wood pellet fuel switching project.