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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 42, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 42, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Emission Characteristics of Far-infrared Ray, Formaldehyde, Volatile Organic Compounds, and Deodorization Rate of Particleboard Prepared from Xylem Part of Broussonetia Kazinoki Sieb
Oh, Seung-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 223~230
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.223
This study examined emission characteristics of far-infrared ray, formaldehyde, volatile organic compounds and deodorization rate of particleboard prepared at different target board densities and resin content levels, using the xylem part of Broussonetia Kazinoki Sieb. The deodorization rate increased, as the target density of board and resin content increased. Emission rates of the far-infrared ray and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) were 0.892~0.899, and
for particleboard prepared with the resin content of 13% and target density of
while the deodorization rate was 80~90% for the same particleboard. The formaldehyde emission factor ranged from
for all particleboard fabricated at different resin content and target densities. These results indicate that particleboard prepared from the xylem part of Broussonetia Kazinoki Sieb have a potential as a building construction material.
Assessment of The Biomass Potential Recovered from Oil Palm Plantation and Crude Palm Oil Production in Indonesia
Ahn, Byoung-Jun ; Han, Gyu-Seoung ; Choi, Don-Ha ; Cho, Sung-Taig ; Lee, Soo-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 231~243
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.231
In this study, the potential of biomass, which is generated from oil palm cultivation and crude palm oil (CPO) production of Indonesia was assessed in the aspect of energy content. The types of oil palm biomass were classified on the basis of the cultivation stage and the CPO production stage. In the cultivation stage, biomass is considered to be produced from its' root, trunk and frond. Other possible biomass resources such as empty fruit bunch (EFB), palm kernel shell (PKS) and fiber were included in the CPO production stage. As results, total biomass from damaged plantation area of Indonesia was estimated to be annually from 3 million to 16 million tons in 2011. From CPO mills, approximately 49 million tons/yr of biomass residues were estimated to be annually occurred. Their total energy content from each biomass source in cultivation stage was analyzed to be from 593,000 to 3,197,000 TOEs in terms of gross calorific value. In the case of CPO mills, around 22.7 million TOEs was estimated to be potential energy producible by biomass based on gross calorific value of dry basis. If moisture content considered, net calorific value was analyzed to be decreased to 16.3 million TOEs. Based on the results, the total energy contents of all oil palm biomass were estimated to be up to 25,919,000 TOE in terms of gross calorific value. CPO : Crude Palm Oil, EFB : Empty Fruit Bunch, FFB: Fresh Fruit Bunch, PKS : Palm Kernel Shell, OPF : Oil Palm Frond, PKOC : Palm Kernel Oil Cake, ISPO : Indonesia Sustainable Palm Oil Commission, TOE : Tone of Oil Equivalent.
Species Identification of Wooden Elements Used for Daewungjeon Hall in the Woonsoosa Temple, Busan
Kim, Ji-Yeong ; Lee, Mi-Ok ; Park, Won-Kyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 244~250
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.244
This study was conducted to identify wood species of 72 wooden parts (pillar, beam, jangyeo, purlin, judu, soro, bracket, deagong, ceiling panel, etc.) used for Daewungjeon Hall in the Woonsoosa Temple, Busan in Korea. Identified wood species were 67 Pinus spp. (Kesiya group), 4 Carpinus spp. and 1 Quercus spp. (Cerris group). In pillars, 14 red pines and 4 Carpinus and in purlins, 4 red pines and 1 Cerris were found. Other elements were red pines. Carpinus woods, which were used for the lower portions of three pillars (Dongbari), seemed repaired parts. A carved wood used for the stand of Buddhist statues was identified as Alnus spp. This study showed that Daewungjeon Hall of the Woonsoosa Temple was made mostly of red pines.
Characteristics of Ceramics from Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens Particle Board
Oh, Seung-Won ; Park, Hee-Jun ; Hwang, Jung-Woo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 251~257
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.251
For new use development of miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens, which investigated properties of ceramics made from different carbonization temperature (
) and percentage of resin impregnation(30~60%) using a mincanthus board. As the carbonization temperature increased, the density, thickness shrinkage, linear shrinkage, weight loss were increased. As the percentage of resin impregnation increased, the density, linear shrinkage and weight loss were increased. On the other hand, thickness shrinkage decreased.
Performance Evaluation for Bending Strength and Tensile Type Shear Strength of GFRP Reinforced Laminated Wooden Pin
Song, Yo-Jin ; Jung, Hong-Ju ; Kim, Dae-Gil ; Kim, Sang-Il ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 258~265
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.258
By replacing the previous metal connector on the joints of timber structure, the GFRP reinforced laminated wooden pin was produced using a wooden material and Glass fiber reinforced plastic(GFRP) composite laminate. In addition, using the reinforced wooden pin, the tensile type shear strength test was conducted. Based on the result of the bending strength test of the reinforced laminated wooden pin according to the GFRP arrangement, a specimen(Type-A) with a single insertion of GFRP for each layer have shown the most favorable performance. Also, it was verified that densified specimen hot pressed for an hour at the temperature of
and with the oppression pressure
have shown the improved performance of 1.57 times than the specimen without the densification. And in the bending strength test considering the load direction, edgewise have shown a higher performance of 3.51 times than the flatwise. A shear strength test was conducted using the Type-A reinforced laminated wooden pin which have shown a moderate performance on the test. Based on the test conducted by differentiating the type of the joint plate and the connector, compared to the specimen(Type-DS) applied with the drift pin and steel plate, the specimen( Type-WL) applied with the GFRP reinforced laminated wooden pin and GFRP reinforced wooden laminated plate have shown 1.12 times higher shear strength and also have shown an excellent toughness even after the maximum load.
Analysis of Structure and Physical and Chemical Properties of the Carbonized Pine Wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) Materials - Pyrolytic Behavior of Pine Wood Dust -
Lee, In-Ja ; Lee, Won-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 266~274
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.266
To extend the understanding of the pyrolysis mechanism of wood, we have investigated wood dust charcoal and condensate of volatile organic compounds (VOC) obtained during the pyrolysis of red pine (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) at
using elemental analysis, IR and GC/Mass. The effect of activation process on the charcoal structure also has been studied by comparing elemental analysis and IR data of charcoal carbonated at
and charcoals activated at
. The results show that pyrolysis of wood has mainly started near at
and its chemical components did not changed much up to
. However, the element contents and IR spectra drastically changed at
. The fact that IR peaks related to the aromatic ring of lignin are observed in the charcoal pyrolized at
indicates that a small part of lignin still remains at this temperature. The chemical structure of the activated charcoal seems almost unaffected by the activation time.
Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity of Wood Exposed to Accelerated Weathering Test by Measuring Ultrasonic Transmission Time
Park, Chun-Young ; Kim, Gwang-Chul ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 275~281
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.275
In this study, accelerated weathering test was performed with wood, a major material for wooden cultural building. In order to evaluate the deterioration of wood, ultrasonic transmission times were measured to evaluate dynamic modulus of elasticity (MOE), which was verified by determining static MOE using three-point bending test. Ultrasonic transmission time was decreased with an increase in the weathering time levels (0, 500, 1000 hours) while it increased in 1500 and 2000 hours. Distribution of dynamic and static MOE was similar to that of the ultrasonic transmission time measurements. The results mean that the measurement of ultrasonic transmission time was very effective to evaluate MOE of wooden cultural buildings for their preservation and management. This method could be utilized to assess wooden cultural buildings as a way of preserving them in a scientific manner.
Structural Performance of Joints for Partial Reinforced Beam Using GFRP Laminated Plate and Cylindrical Reinforced LVL Column
Song, Yo-Jin ; Jung, Hong-Ju ; Lee, Jung-Jae ; Suh, Jin-Suk ; Park, Sang-Bum ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 282~289
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.282
After being laminated with a combination of glass fiber reinforced plastic and plywood, the GFRP laminated plate was densificated for 1 hour at
with pressure of
. A partial reinforced beam was produced by attaching the 5 GFRP laminated plates to the joint of glulam and the column. In addition, the column to beam joint was produced by using reinforced laminated wooden pin which was made of GFRP sheet and plywood, fiber glass reinforced cylindrical-LVL column. The joint was made of round log, glulam and drift pin as the reference specimen, and its moment resistance was evaluated. As a result, the strength performance of specimens with partial reinforced beams were 1.8 times stronger than the reference specimen on average. Furthermore, rupture was neither occurred on partial reinforced beam nor column. Toughness and stiffness of joints were also fine. The GFRP sheet reinforced laminated plate showed better reinforcement effect than GFRP textile reinforced one. GFRP sheet was inserted into each layer of laminate, and it showed good condition in rotation-angle and strength, therefore it is the most appropriate to reinforce the part of the beam.
Effect of Annual Ring Angles on Static Bending Strength Performances of Cross-Laminated Woods Made with Spruce
Sung, Eun-Jong ; Kwon, Chang-Bae ; Ryu, Hyun-Soo ; Byeon, Hee-Seop ; Park, Han-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 290~300
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.290
In this study, cross-laminated woods were made with spruce wood and the effects of annual ring angles of perpendicular direction laminae on static bending strength performance were investigated. Static bending strength performances of parallel laminated woods with all layers composed of laminae perpendicular to the grain (
type) were in the order of
. The MOE and MOR for the
annual ring angle were 0.0989 GPa and 3.25 MPa, and it showed the lowest values. By placing longitudinal-direction laminae in the core of
type, the strength performances were markedly improved. In the case of cross-laminated woods with perpendicular-direction laminae in the faces (
type), the bending strength performances were in the order of
, but the differences among annual ring angles were less than those of the parallel-laminated woods. In the case of cross-laminated woods with perpendicular-direction laminae in the core (
type), the bending strength performances were in the order of
type. The MOE and MOR for the
annual ring angle were 12.0 GPa and 55.8 MPa, and it showed the highest values.
Effects of Finger-joint on Bending Performance of Square Timbers Produced from Domestic Small Diameter Larch Logs
Kim, Yun-Hui ; Jang, Sang-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 301~308
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.301
Despite Korea forest take 63.7% of the nation's territory, productivity of domestic structural lumber is low. Studies of domestic small lumbers need to be improved domestic structural timber productivity. In this study, small diameter lumber and finger joint small diameter lumber took bending test to calculate MOE and MOR. MOE of small diameter lumber was
and MOE of finger joint small diameter lumber was
. Allowable standard bending stress of small diameter lumber and finger joint small diameter lumber was calculated according to ASTM D 2915. Standard allowable bending stress of small diameter lumber was
and standard allowable bending stress of finger joint small diameter lumber was
. Standard allowable bending stress of finger joint small diameter lumber should be considered to design structural beam members.
Study on Methods for Determining Half-Life of Domestic Wooden Panel among Harvested Wood Products
Chang, Yoon-Seong ; Han, Yeonjung ; Park, Jun-Ho ; Son, Whi-Lim ; Park, Joo-Saeng ; Park, Moon-Jae ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 309~317
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.309
Harvested wood products (HWP) are known as products from the tree such as sawn wood, plywood, particle board, structural lumber, wooden interior material, wooden furniture, and paper products. Because carbon is locked up in the HWP until eventual end-use of HWP, HWP played a role as the carbon storage which has the effect of stabilizing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. For these reasons, the suggestion that it must admit the carbon storage effect of HWP has been constantly raised. In 2011, the 17th session of the Conference of the Parties (COP) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) which was held in Durban, South Africa, assigned "Production Approach" which targets only the HWP producted by using round wood of domestic forestry as a official method for carbon accounting. Therefore, it is necessary that each country has to determine the half-life of wood in order to correspond to the discussions and negotiations between countries in the future and to develop an inventory of product-specific domestic wood. In this study, some countries' examples of the methods and conditions for determining half-life of HWP were investigated, and it was tried to derive the factor and methodology to determine half-life span of domestic HWP appropriately.
Evaluating The Fuel Characteristics of Wood Pellets Fabricated with Wood Tar and Starch as An Additive
Ahn, Byoung-Jun ; Lee, Soo-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 318~326
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.318
This study was conducted to investigate the potential of non-used forest biomass residues as raw materials for making wood pellets with additives such as wood tar and starch and to evaluate fuel characteristics of the pellets. Wood tar, a by-product provided from the carbonization process of wood, could be a suitable additive for wood pellet production due to its higher calorific value and lower hazardous heavy metals, such as cadmium and mercury, compared to woody biomass. When the wood tar (10 wt%) was added, the calorific value was increased from 4,630 kcal/kg (wood pellet without additive) to 4,800 kcal/kg (wood pellet with additive). With the increase of additive amount into wood pellet, the length and individual density of wood pellet increased. In addition, bulk density of the pellets was increased, whereas the fine content was decreased. Consequently the overall productivity of wood pellets was improved by adding 2 w% additives into wood pellets; the percentage of productivity increase was 5.9% and 4.9% for adding starch and wood tar, respectively.
Studies on Wood Quality and Growth of Quercus rubra (24 Years Old) in Korea - Physical and Mechanical Properties -
Han, Mu-Seok ; Lee, Chang-Jun ; Park, Bong-Seok ; Kim, Byung-Ro ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 327~338
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.327
Relationship between growth rate and wood quality was investigated by physical and mechanical properties with Quercus rubra (24 years old) from five different origin of apricot. In greenwood moisture content, sapwood had higher moisture content than heartwood, and there was difference among different origin of apricot. There were different specific gravity of wood among different origin of apricot. Compared with higher growth rate with higher specific gravity in sapwood, opposite trend was observed in heartwood. There were difference in shrinkage based on origin of apricot, and higher growth rate wood had higher shrinkage and T/R ratio. Compression Young's modulus, bending strength, bending Young's modulus, and compact strength was difference among different origin of apricot. Higher growth rate wood had higher tensile strength, and also there was difference amont different origin of apricot. In hardness, 3 different directions had all difference among different origin of apricot, and higher growth rate wood showed higher hardness than others. Based on overall physical and/or mechanical properties and growth rate, apricot from Bancroft was best quality in current.
Estimation of Radio Frequency Electric Field Strength for Dielectric Heating of Phenol-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin Used for Manufacturing Glulam
Yang, Sang-Yun ; Han, Yeonjung ; Park, Yonggun ; Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Kim, Se-Jong ; Kim, Kwang-Mo ; Park, Moon-Jae ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 339~345
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.339
For enhancing productivity of glulam, high frequency (HF) curing technique was researched in this study. Heat energy is generated by electromagnetic energy dissipation when HF wave is applied to a dielectric material. Because both lamina and adhesives have dielectric property, internal heat generation would be occurred when HF wave is applied to glulam. Most room temperature setting adhesives such as phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) resin, which is popularly used for manufacturing glulam, can be cured more quickly as temperature of adhesives increases. In this study, dielectric properties of larch wood and PRF adhesives were experimentally evaluated, and the mechanism of HF heating, which induced the fast curing of glue layer in glulam, was theoretically analyzed. Result of our experiments showed relative loss factor of PRF resin, which leads temperature increase, was higher than that of larch wood. Also, it showed density and specific heat of PRF, which are resistance factors of temperature increase, were higher than those of wood. It was expected that the heat generation in PRF resin by HF heating would occur greater than in larch wood, because the ratio of relative loss factor to density and specific heat of PRF resin was greater than that of larch wood. Through theoretical approach with the experimental results, the relative strengths of ISM band HF electric fields to achieve a target heating rate were estimated.
Investigation of Bordered Pit Ultrastructure in Tracheid of Korean Red Pine (Pinus densiflora) by Confocal Reflection Microscopy
Kwon, Ohkyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 3, 2014, Pages 346~355
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.3.346
Confocal reflection microscopy (CRM) was utilized to create 3-dimensional images of bordered pits and cell wall in the tracheid of Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora). Ultrastructures of torus, margo, and pit border were clearly observable in the CRM micrograph. Micrograph of cross-field pit revealed the connecting and supporting structure between tracheid and ray parenchyma cell. The CRM micrographs enabled to investigate detailed structures of tracheid cell wall such as S1, S2, S3 layers, transition layers between these layers, and microfibril (MF) orientation in S3 and S2 layers as well as complicated distribution of MF orientation around bordered pits. Not only concentric MF orientation of border thickening in the pit border was observed, but also changes in MF orientation from the cell wall to the border. From the experimental results, the CRM was thought to be a versatile microtechnique to investigate detailed structures of cell wall and bordered pit in the tracheid and cross-field pit between tracheid and ray parenchyma cell.