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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 42, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 42, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Overview of Wood Plastic Composites: Focusing on Use of Bio-based Plastics and Co-extrusion Technique
Kim, Birm-June ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 499~509
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.499
Wood filler is a porous and anisotropic material having different size, shape, and aspect ratio. The use of wood fillers such as wood particle, wood flour, and wood pulp in wood plastic composites (WPCs) are growing rapidly because these wood fillers give improved strength and stiffness to WPCs. However, the wood fillers have originally poor compatibility with plastic matrix affecting the mechanical properties of WPCs. Therefore, to improve compatibility between wood and plastic, numbers of physical and chemical treatments were investigated. While the various treatments led to improved performances in WPC industries using petroleum-based plastics, full biodegradation is still issues due to increased environmental concerns. Hence, bio-based plastics such as polylactide and polyhydroxybutyrate having biodegradable characteristics are being applied to WPCs, but relatively expensive prices of existing bio-based plastics prevent further uses. As conventional processing methods, extrusion, injection, and compression moldings have been used in WPC industries, but to apply WPCs to engineered or structural places, new processing methods should be developed. As one system, co-extrusion technique was introduced to WPCs and the co-extruded WPCs having core-shell structures make the extended applications of WPCs possible.
Anatomical and Physical Characteristics of Korean Paulownia (Paulownia coreana) Branch Wood
Yue, Qi ; Jang, Jae-Hyuk ; Park, Se-Hwi ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 510~515
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.510
The anatomical and physical properties of tension wood (TW), opposite wood (OW) and lateral wood (LW) in the branches of Korean paulownia (Paulownia coreana) were compared. The diameter of TW vessels was larger than that of OW and LW vessels. The most distinctive feature of TW fibers was the presence of a gelatinous layer (G-fiber). The cell wall of TW fibers was nearly three times as thick as that of OW and LW. TW differed from OW and LW in density, X-ray diffraction pattern and shear and compressive strengths. The results obtained in this study showed clear differences in the anatomical and physical properties of TW, OW and LW of Paulownia coreana branch woods.
Characterization of Burned Architectural Woods by Fire Using SEM-EDXS and Computerized Tomography
Lee, Hyun-Mi ; Hwang, Won-Joung ; Lee, Dong-Heub ; Son, Dong-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 516~522
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.516
Old architectural wood materials damaged by a fire were evaluated on the basis of wood species and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation of wood tissues in combination with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) analysis. Results of SEM observation showed that tracheid wall thickness of burned parts was very thin compared with undamaged and sound wood, and tylosoid in the resin canals disappeared after the exposure to fire. SEM-EDXS analysis indicated that carbon and oxygen peaks occurred in the original energy band, and the carbon peak was higher than that of the oxygen in the burned part. A computerized tomography was also undertaken to investigate the carbonization layer formed by fire and possible internal defects.
Protective Effect of Oak Extracts on Oxidative Stress Induced by Hydrogen Peroxide
Nam, Jeong Bin ; Park, Hyung Bin ; Jung, Ji Young ; Yang, Jae-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 523~532
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.523
This study was done to evaluate the antioxidant effect of oak hot water extracts on the oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). The cytotoxicity of
-induced oxidative stress was performed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for the cell viability according to the dose-dependent treatment. Oak extracts demonstrated a dose-dependent ability to inhibit
-induced apoptosis in cultured tenofibroblasts, as assessed by MTT assay and FACS analysis.
increased the phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In contrast, treatment with oak extracts was decreased this activation of ERK1/2 and JNK, as confirmed by western blot analysis, and reduced the production of ROS, as verified by fluorescent microscopic and flow cytometry (FACS) analyses. These findings suggest that oak extracts, by suppressing JNK, ERK1/2, and intracellular ROS production, have a concentration-dependent antiapoptotic effect on achilles tenofibroblasts exposed to an oxidative stressor, and may have therapeutic potential.
Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil from Abies holophylla against Respiratory Tract Bacteria
Lee, Su-Yeon ; kim, Seon-Hong ; Park, Mi-Jin ; Lee, Sung-Suk ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 533~542
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.533
We extracted essential oils from four species (Pinus densiflora, Larix kaempferi, Pinus koraiensis, and Abies holophylla) in the family Pinaceae to investigate their antibacterial activities against respiratory tract bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Haemophillus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Neisseria meningitides). Among the tested oils, that from A. holophylla was showed strong activity based on disc diffusion and broth medium dilution (minimum inhibitory concentration, MIC) assays. Qualitative analysis of A. holophylla oil was carried out by GC-MS;
-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, bornyl acetate, borneol,
-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, and
-bisabolol were identified as its major constituents. Fractionation by silica gel chromatography was performed to analyze the active constituents of the crude oil. In particular, one fraction containing caryophyllene oxide as the major constituent showed stronger antibacterial activity than the crude oil of A. holophylla. Growth rates of bacterial strains exposed to fraction D were explored by optical density (OD600) measurements while morphology was examined by optical microscopy observations (
). OD600 of K. pneumoniae decreased from 0.2582 to 0.005 in response to treatment with fraction D at a MIC value of
Evaluation of Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity of Steam Extract from The Bamboo Species
Kim, Ji-Su ; Lee, Hyung Chul ; Jo, Jong-Soo ; Jung, Ji Young ; Ha, Yeong Lea ; Yang, Jae-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 543~554
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.543
Natural plant extract has been the subject of intense research aiming in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of their chemopreventive effects upon various forms of human cancers. The objective of our study was to evaluate the natural antioxidants and anticancer agent potential of Phyllostachys. The chemical composition of steam extract from Phyllostachys was carried out using GC-MS. The steam extract of Phyllostachys was dominated by monoterpenes (62.96% - 71.36%) and sesquiterpenes (23.58% - 33.13%) as the main compounds. The antioxidant activities of the steam extract was determined using a DPPH scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity test systems. Furthermore, the amounts of total phenolics in steam extract were determined spectrometrically The steam extract of P. pubescens and P. bambusoides were presented the high activity (69.4% and 64.0%, respectively.). The steam extract from Pyllostachys species showed a hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity of approximately 50.4% - 54.6% when compared to that of the standard gallic acid. The anticancer activities of steam extract were determined using a MTT assay. Assessment of the cytotoxic effect of the steam extract on PC-3 cells showed that the P. bambusoides (20.85%) and P. pubescens (20.41%) were superior in induced cytotoxicity compared with the steam extract of P. nigra var. henonis (1.15%). Findings from this study indicated that steam extract of P. bambusoides and P. pubescens possessed potential as medicinal drug especially in prostate cancer treatment.
Sound Absorption and Physical Properties of Carbonized Fiberboards with Three Different Densities
Lee, Min ; Park, Sang-Bum ; Byeon, Hee-Seop ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 555~562
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.555
Characteristics of carbonized fiberboard such as chemical materials absorption, electromagnetic shielding, and electrical and mechanical performance were determined in previous studies. The carbonized board therefore confirmed that having excellent abilities of these characteristics. In this study, the effect of density on physical properties and sound absorption properties of carbonized fiberboards at
were investigated for the potential use of carbonized fiberboards as a replacement of conventional sound absorbing material. The thickness of fiberboards after carbonization was reduced 49.9%, 40.7%, and 43.3% in low density fiberboard (LDF), medium density fiberboard (MDF), and high density fiberboard (HDF), respectively. Based on SEM images, porosity of carbonized fiberboard increased by carbonization due to removing adhesives. Moreover, carbonization did not destroy structure of wood fiber based on SEM results. Carbonization process influenced contraction of fiberboard. The sound absorption coefficient of carbonized low density fiberboard (c-LDF) was higher than those of carbonized medium density fiberboard (c-MDF) and carbonized high density fiberboard (c-HDF). This result was similar with original fiberboards, which indicated sound absorbing ability was not significantly changed by carbonization compared to that of original fiberboards. Therefore, the sound absorbing coefficient may depend on source, texture, and density of fiberboard rather than carbonization.
Dowel-embedment Properties-Based Finite Solid Element Model for Bolted Connections
Hong, Jung-Pyo ; Kim, Hyun-Bae ; Oh, Jung-Kwon ; Lee, Jun-Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 563~570
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.563
Two transversely isotropic plasticity-based models for wood, derived from the standard compression properties and the embedment properties were investigated for suitability of application for bolted connections. It was found that the conventional connection models involving the compression properties were incapable of simulating the real behaviour of the connections because the compression properties provided too stiff foundation to represent embedding behaviour of wood under the bolt. However, wood foundation-based connection model that was newly developed using the bolt embedment properties showed good agreement with the actual behaviour of bolted connections.
Evaluation of The Moment Resistance Joint Strength of Larch Glulam Using Glass Fiber Reinforced Wood Plate
Song, Yo-Jin ; Jung, Hong-Ju ; Park, Hyun-Ho ; Lee, Hak-Young ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 571~578
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.571
As a way of developing wooden joint development, a glass fiber reinforced wood plate was manufactured to replace a steel plate. Also, the fracture toughness was evaluated. Through application to a cantilever-type specimen made of a column and a beam, the moment resistance performance was evaluated. For the fracture toughness specimen of the wood plate, 12 types were manufactured by varying the combination of a main member (veneer and plywood) and reinforcement (glass fiber sheet and glass fiber cloth). The results of the fracture toughness test indicated that the 5% yield load of the specimen using plywood was 18% higher than that of the specimen using veneer, and that the specimen reinforced by inserting glass fiber sheets between testing materials (Type-3-PS) had the highest average 5% yield load 4841 N. Thus, a moment resistance strength test was performed by applying Type-3-PS to a column-beam joint. The results of the test indicated that compared to the specimen using a steel plate and a drift pin (Type-A), the maximum moment ratio of the specimen using a glass fiber reinforced wood plate (Type-3-PS) and a drift pin (Type-B) was 0.79; and that a rupture occurred in the wood plate due to high stiffness of the drift pin. The maximum moment ratio of the specimen using a glass fiber reinforced wood plate (Type-3-PS) and a glass fiber reinforced wooden laminated pin (Type-C) was 0.67, which showed low performance. However, unlike Type-A, a ductile fracture occurred on Type-C, and the load gradually decreased even after the maximum moment.
Inhibitory Effects of Camellia sinensis Extract on the Development of Atopic Dermatitis-like Lesions in NC/Nga Mice
Kim, Tae Hong ; Ha, Si Young ; Yang, Jae-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 579~589
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.579
Atopic dermatitis (AD) syndrome is one of the most common and severe skin diseases in Korea; a large population has this disease. We examined the effects of the extract from the leaf and sprig of Camellia sinensis on the development of AD by using NC mice as a model of atopic dermatitis. Oral administration of the extract to NC/Nga mice treated with 2,4?dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions as shown by a significant decrease in the skin symptoms of the disease and a decrease in ear thickness and levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE) and thymus-and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) level in the skin. Administration of the extract markedly suppressed the DNCB-induced mRNA expression of interleukin 4 (IL-4) and tumor necrosis factor
). The findings suggest that transdermal application of the extract may modulate in the skin of NC/Nga mice. The extract was effective for the prevention and treatment of AD.
Evaluation Methods of Flame Retardants for Wooden Cultural Properties
Son, Dong Won ; Han, Gyu-Seong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 590~596
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.590
Wooden cultural heritages of Korea have been destroyed by fire in many cases. As a result, a number of methods to protect wooden cultural properties against fire were introduced. A way of protecting wooden cultural properties installations of fire equipments such as sprinkler, fire alarm system, or fire extinguisher. Another way of protecting wooden cultural properties is to treat them with flame retardants for their safety. Development of a very effective flame retardant with a good performance without affecting danchung and wood quality is required. At the same time, methods of evaluating flame retardant treated woods should be devised to assess their efficacy. In this study, combustion characteristics using cone-calorimeter, limit oxygen index, moisture absorption, iron corrosive and weathering were analyzed to evaluate the flame resistance efficacy and performance of flame retardants treated woods. The evaluation methods of flame retardants for wooden cultural heritage were suggested.
Formaldehyde Release from Medium Density Fiberboard in Simulated Landfills for Recycling
Lee, Min ; Prewitt, Lynn ; Mun, Sung Phil ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 597~604
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.597
Laboratory-scale landfills (simulated landfills) were designed to determine the formaldehyde released into air and leachate from medium density fiberboard (MDF). Simulated landfills were constructed using cylindrical plastic containers containing alternating layers of soil and MDF for a total of five layers. The highest concentration of formaldehyde was found in the air and leachate from the MDF only treatment compared to treatments containing MDF and soil. At the end of the study (28 days), formaldehyde concentrations in air and leachate from treatments containing MDF and soil decreased by 70 percent and 99 percent, respectively, while the treatment containing MDF only still released formaldehyde into the air and leachate. Therefore, waste MDF after storing 4 weeks in water may be recycled as compost or mulch based on formaldehyde leaching. Also, these data indicate soil restricts formaldehyde release into air and leachate and provides new information about the fate of wood-based composite waste containing UF resin disposed in landfills.
Microstructure of Cured Urea-Formaldehyde Resins Modified by Rubber Latex Emulsion after Hydrolytic Degradation
Nuryawan, Arif ; Park, Byung-Dae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 605~614
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.605
This study investigated microstructural changes of cured urea-formaldehyde (UF) resins mixed with aqueous rubber latex emulsion after intentional acid etching. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used in order to better understand a hydrolytic degradation process of cured UF resins responsible for the formaldehyde emission from wood-based composite panels. A liquid UF resin with a formaldehyde to urea (F/U) molar ratio 1.0 was mixed with a rubber latex emulsion at three different mixing mass ratios (UF resin to latex = 30:70, 50:50, and 70:30). The rate of curing of the liquid modified UF resins decreased with an increase of the rubber latex proportion as determined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurement. Ultrathin sections of modified and cured UF resin films were exposed to hydrochloric acid etching in order to mimic a certain hydrolytic degradation. TEM observation showed spherical particles and various cavities in the cured UF resins after the acid etching, indicating that the acid etching had hydrolytically degraded some part of the cured UF resin by acid hydrolysis, also showing spherical particles of cured UF resin dispersed in the latex matrix. These results suggested that spherical structures of cured UF resin might play an important role in hindering the hydrolysis degradation of cured UF resin.
Effect of Carbonization Temperature on Hygric Performance of Carbonized Fiberboards
Lee, Min ; Park, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 615~623
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.615
Increases of public attention on healthy environment lead to the regulation of indoor air quality such as Clean Healthy House Construction Standard. This standard covers emission of total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) (e.g., formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene), ventilation, and use of environmentally-friendly products or functional products. Moisture absorption and desorption abilities are a recommended functionality for improving indoor air quality. In this study, moisture absorption and desorption capacities of carbonized board from wood-based panels and other materials were determined by using UNT-HEAT-01 according to ISO 24358:2008. Pine had higher moisture absorption and desorption capacities (
, respectively) than hinoki cypress, cement board, gypsum board, oriented strand board, and medium density fiberboard (MDF). The moisture absorption and desorption capacities differed considerably according to the wood species. After carbonization process at
, the absorption and desorption ability of MDF increased to 38% and 60%, respectively. However, moisture absorption and desorption capacities decreased with increasing carbonization temperature, but they were still higher than original MDF. Therefore, it is suggested that carbonization below
can improve moisture absorption/desorption capacities.
Insecticidal Activity of Extracts Isolated from Syzygium Aromaticum
Jung, Ji Young ; Yang, Jae-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 5, 2014, Pages 624~633
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.5.624
This study separated the crude extract (70% ethanol) of and its three fractions (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts) on the basis of polarity indexes, and examined for their insecticidal activities against aphid (Uroleucon lactucicola). For crude extraction, the 70% ethanol extract showed the best extract yield (58.0%) and insecticidal activity (69.0%) among the various concentrations tested (water, 30% ethanol, 50% ethanol, 70% ethanol and 95% ethanol). The major chemical compounds of different fractions (hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts) were identified as eugenol by head space-GC-MS analysis. The hexane extract showed the highest eugenol content (43.7%) and insecticidal activity (80.0%). The insecticidal activity is accordingly believed to be attributable to the eugenol component. This may provide a useful starting point for the development of bio-pesticides.