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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 42, Issue 6 - Nov 2014
Volume 42, Issue 5 - Sep 2014
Volume 42, Issue 4 - Jul 2014
Volume 42, Issue 3 - May 2014
Volume 42, Issue 2 - Mar 2014
Volume 42, Issue 1 - Jan 2014
Selecting the target year
Anatomical Characteristics of Major Plantation Species Growing in Indonesia II
Jang, Sa-Ra ; Jang, Jae-Hyuk ; Kim, Jong-Ho ; Febrianto, Fauzi ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 635~645
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.635
The anatomical characteristics of eight major wood species planted in Indonesia were investigated to provide valuable information for their effective utilization. The growth-ring boundaries of Damar and Sumatran pine were indistinct. Resin canal was found in Sumatran pine but it was not observed in Damar. Cupressoid pit and taxodioid pit were found in Damar and window-like pit and pinoid pit were observed in Sumatran pine. Tracheid length of Damar and Sumatran pine was shorter than
. There were uniseriate rays in Damar and Sumatran pine and fusiform ray in Sumatran pine. All the hardwood species observed in this study were diffuse-porous. They had different vessel groups, i.e., solitary pore in Afrika and Simpur Batu, pore cluster in Angsana and mostly 2-4 rows of radial pore multiple in Mahoni. Mindi and Trembesi had mostly 2-3 rows of radial pore multiple with paratracheal parenchyma as aliform and confluent types. Afrika, Mahoni and Simpur Batu showed heterocellular rays which composed of procumbent cells in the body and mostly 1-2 rows of upright and/or square cells in the margin. All ray cells procumbent was observed in Angsana, Mindi and Trembesi. The large rays commonly exceeding 1 mm in height and ray width of 3~6 cells were observed in Simpur Batu. The other five hardwood species showed ray width of 1~3 cells. Vessel number per
of Angsana and Simpur Batu was higher than those of the other hardwood species. The length of wood fiber and tracheid showed a tendency to increase from pith to bark. By IAWA list, fiber length of hardwoods was classified into long in Simpur Batu and short in Angsana and Trembesi.
Study on the Variations of Inter-annual Tracheid Length for Korean Red Pine from Sokwang-ri in Uljin
Seo, Jeong-Wook ; Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Park, So-Yeon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 646~652
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.646
This study was carried out to test the possibility that tracheid length of red pine growing in Sokwang-ri in Uljin could be used as one of variables to estimate its wood properties. For the study, forest stands of V (500 m a.s.l.) and VIIII (900 m a.s.l.) age class plots were selected in the region, and three trees in each plot were investigated. The tracheid length was separately measured for early- and latewood. It took approximately 25 and 40 years for V and VIIII age class stands, respectively, until the length was stabilized. The lengths in latewood were 3.14 (V age class) and 3.30 (VIIII age class) mm, and in earlywood 2.98 (V age class) and 3.15 (VIIII age class) mm. The lengths in latewood therefore were longer than in earlywood and the lengths for VIIII age class were longer than for V age class. However, the ratio between their lengths in early- and latewood was the same as 0.96 in all age classes. It might be verified whether this ratio can be used as a variable to test the wood property according to provinces by comparing it with others.
Determination of Equilibrium Moisture Content of Outdoor Woods by Using Hailwood-Horrobin Equation in Korea
Ra, Jong-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 653~658
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.653
This research was carried out to investigate equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of wood in outdoor locations in Korea. EMC was calculated using Hailwood-Horrobin equation for 73 different locations in Korea using the 1981 to 2010 climate normal data obtained from the Korea Meteorological Admnistration (KMA). Daegu showed the lowest values of EMC (11.5), and the highest EMC values (15.8) was found in Heuksando. Considering the season effect, summer (June, July, August) showed the highest values 15.3, followed by autumn (September, October, November) 13.7, winter (December, January, February) 12.2, and spring (February, March, April) 12.0. Monthly EMC showed the lowest values 11.6 in April and July showed the highest EMC values 16.1. The smallest changes in monthly EMC were found in Jeju island and Heuksando showed the largest values 8.7. A proper wood drying based on average EMC is more required in the regions with larger variation in EMC.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Quercus serrata according to Stand Characteristics in Southern Region of Korea
Won, Kyung-Rok ; Hong, Nam-Euy ; Lee, Kwang-Soo ; Jung, Soo-Yung ; Yoo, Byung-Oh ; Park, Young-Bae ; Chong, Song-Ho ; Byeon, Hee-Seop ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 659~665
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.659
Wood properties are affected by environmental factors such as soil and climate change. There were close relationships between mechanical properties and stand characteristics for Quercus serrata stands in Gyeongsangnam-do Province, Jeollanam-do Province and Je-ju island. Both compression and shear strengths of woods showed a negative correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH) and the number of tree per hector, while they are positively related with with tree age, altitude, and drainage. The annual ring width was also negatively correlated with tree age, altitude, drainage, DBH, and tree height. However, anatomical characteristics of wood did not show much variation depending on the provincial regions. These results brought a conclusion that Quercus serrata in southern region could be useful forest resources for the utilization of wood.
Mechanical Properties of Thermally Compressed Domestic Softwoods
Hwang, Sung-Wook ; Cho, Beom-Geun ; Lee, Won-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 666~674
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.666
In this study, we investigated mechanical properties of Korean softwoods after applying thermal compression. Density of compressed woods was notably increased with thermal compression. In case of 50% compression set, density of Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis), Japanese red pine (P. densiflora), and Larch (Larix kaempferi) wood was increased by 71%, 74%, and 76%, respectively, when compared to the control group. The strength of woods was increased and quality of the woods became homogeneous with an increases in the compression set. On the 50% compression set, the compressive strength, bending strength, and hardness of Korean pine wood was increased by 76%, 83%, and 55%, respectively compared to the control group. Longitudinal compressive strengths of Japanese red pine wood increased by 69%, 130%, and 76%, respectively and those of Larch wood increased by 77%, 120%, and 44%, respectively. In thermal compression wood, mechanical properties of Larch wood was the highest, while those of Korean pine wood were the lowest. However, Japanese red pine wood showed the highest in the increase rate of mechanical properties after the thermal compression.
Combustion Properties of Woods for Indoor Use (I)
Son, Dong Won ; Kang, Seog-Goo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 675~681
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.675
The purpose of this study is to analyze fundamental combustion characteristics of woods used for indoor applications. The combustion characteristics such as heat release rate, total heat release, gas yield, and mass loss were analyzed by the method of cone calorimeter or thermogravimetry. These analysis results show that material properties of wood are closely related to flammability. It was shown that the relationship between the mass loss and gas emission. The results of combustion properties of woods would be useful for fundamentals of guiding the safe use of wood indoor application.
Thermal Stability of Polypropylene-Based Wood Plastic Composites by The Addition of Ammonium Polyphosphate
Chun, Sang-Jin ; Lee, Sun-Young ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 682~690
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.682
In order to improve the thermal stability of wood plastic composites (WPC), thermal degradation behavior of WPC in this study was investigated by the addition of wood flour and fire retardant after hybridization of wood flour and ammonium polyphosphate (APP) into polypropylene (PP) matrix. Thermal degradation behavior of all formulations was analyzed with thermogravimetric analyzer under nitrogen environment at heating rate of
. As the thermal degradation temperature of wood flour is lower than that of PP, char layer formed by the wood flour decreases the speed of heat transfer to PP. In addition, the char layer increases the 2nd thermal degradation temperature and decreases the 2nd thermal degradation speed. The WPC treated with APP increases the 1st and 2nd degradation temperatures. In the case of WPC with high loading level of wood flour, the 1st thermal degradation temperature and 2nd thermal degradation rate were increased by the addition of APP, and then the amount of remnants at high temperature was increased by the increase of the APP loading level. In the case of WPC treated with APP, the amount of the remnants at high temperature was increased with the increase of wood flour content from 10 wt% to 50 wt%, indicating that char formation of the APP and wood flour occurred at the same time, resulting in high thermal stability effect by the increase of wood flour content.
Physico-mechanical Properties and Optimum Manufacturing Conditions of Bi-Sn Metal Alloy Impregnated Wood Composites
Park, Kye-Shin ; Lee, Hwa-Hyoung ; Kang, Seog Goo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 691~699
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.691
In order to improve the dimensional stability and durability of wood, this study attempted to impregnate bismuth (Bi) - tin (Sn) alloy metal with low melting temperature into solid woods of three species such as radiata pine, red oak and white oak, and investigated to determine an optimum condition of manufacturing the metal alloy-wood composites with natural wood grains. These Bi-Sn alloys were chosen for this study because they were harmless to human and melting at low temperatures. The composites resulted in high dimensional stability and low thickness swelling, and also showed much improved performance such as high bending strength, high hardness, high electric conductivity, and high thermal conductivity as floor materials. A proper impregnating condition of all specimens was determined as 10 minutes of the preliminary vacuum time, and
of the heating temperature. The proper processing condition for radiata pine wood was 2.5 minutes of the pressuring time at the pressure of
. For red oak wood, 10 minutes of the pressuring time at the pressure of
were the proper condition. The proper manufacture conditions for white oak wood was determined as 10 minutes of the pressuring time at the pressure of
Preparation of Lignocellulose Nanofibers from Korean White Pine and Its Application to Polyurethane Nanocomposite
Jang, Jae-Hyuk ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 700~707
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.700
The effect of steam and ozone pretreatments on fibrillation efficiency by wet disk-milling was investigated. Hemicellulose (40%) and lignin (42%) of Korean white pine were partially removed by steam and ozone pretreatments, respectively. With increasing wet disk-milling time, the diameter of fibers was significantly decreased and its size distribution became narrow. Especially, the average diameters of lignocellulose nanofibers after steam and ozone pretreatments were 19 nm and 12 nm, respectively. Thus-obtained lignocellulose nanofibers-reinforced polyurethane composite was prepared. Tensile strength and elastic modulus were drastically improved with increasing wet disk-milling time and lignocellulose nanofiber content. Nanocomposite reinforced by lignocellulose nanofibers after two pretreatments showed higher tensile properties, compared to that reinforced by lignocellulose nanofiber without pretreatment, at the similar wet disk-milling time.
The Strength and Applications of OSB Gusset Trusses for Field Assembly
Kim, Tae-Woo ; Ha, Bin ; Jang, Sang-Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 708~713
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.708
Trusses are widely used for wooden houses in the areas where wood construction in generalized for residential housings such as North America, Australian, New Zealand. In Korea, joist and rafter system is generally used because of the production cost, transportation cost and lack of experience required for truss manufacturing. In this study, roof trusses and flat trusses were manufactured by using oriented strand board (OSB) gusset plates for field assembly and tested under bending load to obtain the allowable loads. The allowable load and the actual load of 6m span roof trusses were 10.60 kN and 5.26 kN, respectively, which is regarded to be sufficient for use in construction. The allowable load and the actual load of 6m span floor flat trusses were 7.18 kN and 7.43 kN, respectively. For flat trusses, the allowable load is slightly lower than the actual load but the difference in very small, and it is thought that flat trusses can be used for construction by applying small change of structures and members.
Developing of Sound Absorption Composite Boards Using Carbonized Medium Density Fiberboard
Lee, Min ; Park, Sang-Bum ; Byeon, Hee-Seop ; Kim, Jong-In ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 714~722
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.714
In the previous study, a variety of wood-based panels was thermally decomposed to manufacture carbonized boards that had been proved to be high abilities of insect and fungi repellence, corrosion and fire resistant, electronic shielding, and formaldehyde adsorption as well as sound absorption performance. Based on the previous study, carbonized medium density fiberboard (c-MDF) was chosen to improve sound absorption performance by holing and sanding process. Three different types of holes (cross shape, square shape, and line) with three different sanding thickness (1, 2, and 3 mm) were applied on c-MDF and then determined sound absorption coefficient (SAC). The control c-MDF without holes had 14% of SAC, however, those c-MDFs with holes had 16.01% (square shape), 15.68% (cross shape), and 14.25% (line) of SAC. Therefore, making holes on the c-MDF did not significantly affect on the SAC. As the degree of sanding increased, the SAC of c-MDF increased approximately 65% on sanding treated c-MDFs (21.5, 21.83, and 19.37%, respectively) compared to the control c-MDF (13%). Based on these results, composite sound absorbing panel was developed with c-MDF and MDF (11 mm). The noise reduction coefficient of composite sound absorbing panel was 0.45 which was high enough to certify as sound absorbing material.
Nondestructive Bending Strength Evaluation of Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens Ceramics Made from Different Carbonizing Temperatures
Won, Kyung-Rok ; Oh, Seung-Won ; Byeon, Hee-Seop ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 723~731
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.723
Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique method using a resonance frequency mode was carried out for ceramics made by different carbonizing temperatures (600, 800, 1000,
) after impregnating the phenol resin with Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascen particle boards. Dynamic modulus of elasticity increased with increasing carbonizing temperature. There were a close relationship of dynamic modulus of elasticity and static bending modulus of elasticity to modulus of rupture (MOR). However, the result indicated that correlation coefficient was higher in dynamic modulus of elasticity to MOR than that in static modulus of elasticity to MOR. Therefore, the dynamic modulus of elasticity using resonance frequency by free vibration mode is more useful as a nondestructive evaluation method for predicting the MOR of ceramics made by different carbonizing temperature for Miscanthus sinensis var. purpurascens particle boards.
Change of Decay Hazard Index (Scheffer Index) for Exterior Above-Ground Wood in Korea
Kim, Taegyun ; Ra, Jong-Bum ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 732~739
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.732
This research was performed to investigate the effect of recent climate changes on wood decay hazard index (Scheffer index) in Korea. The index was determined using a climate data of 58 different locations obtained from the website of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA), and the wood decay hazard index was determined at the intervals of 10 years. Most of regions in Korea except Juju island showed wood decay hazard index values between 35 and 65, considered to be moderate decay hazard zones. But in recent 10 years (2003~2012), the wood decay hazard index was rapidly increased, resulting in showing many high decay hazard regions. The trend may be explained by the in crease of temperature and precipitation. The recent climate change of Korea turning into the weather of subtropical region may explain the increase of wood decay hazard index.
Structure Analysis of Water-soluble Polysaccharides Extracted from The Unripe Fruit of Cudrania tricuspidata
Kim, Seok Ju ; Lee, Kyung-Tae ; Youe, Won-Jae ; Lee, Sung-Suk ; Kim, Yong Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 740~746
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.740
The unripe fruit of cudrania tricuspidata was extracted with 50% ethanol. The crude water-soluble extracts were separated by liquid-liquid separation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol followed by precipitation with ethanol, and then the water-soluble polysaccharide (F1) was isolated by the fractionation through gel permeation chromatography using preparative PLaquagel-OH column with water. The structure was characterized by monosaccharide composition with HPAEC-PAD, methylation analysis with GC-MS, FT-IR and HPLC. According to the data, F1 was com posed of glucose (22.84 mM), galactose (13.75 mM), arabinose (45.87 mM), xylose (7.49 mM). It was revealed which uronic acid and acetyl group were not attached in F1. And it is constituted of 1-linked arabinose, 1,4-linked arabinose, 1,3-linked glucose, 1,4-linked galactose, 1,4-linked glucose, 1,3,6-linked galactose, 1,3,6-linked glucose and the ratio was showed 1.1 : 1.0 : 4.9 : 7.5 : 3.0 : 3.1 : 1.4 : 1.5.
Emission Characteristics of Volatile Organic Compounds by Humidifier with Using Hinoki Cypress Extracts
Lee, Min ; Park, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Sang-Min ; Lee, Hee-Young ; Kil, Duck-Han ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 747~757
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.747
Since the air contamination by air pollutants from indoor construction materials and daily supplies has been increased in recent decades, the public interest of using environmentally friendly products and improving indoor air quality also attracted much attention. As known as effects of phytoncide, it has been used in construction materials and daily supplies with various method. In this study, hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa) was used because of its high contents of phytoncide. The leaves of hinoki cypress (C. obtusa), which generated by pruning, were extracted by steam distillation, and then used as humidification water source. Volatile organic compound (VOC) from C. obtusa were characterized by GC-MS (Gas chromatograph-Mass spectrophotometry) in order to evaluate effects and risks of using C. obtusa extracts. Total 86 types and 116 types of VOC were detected from distilled water (DI water) and C. obtusa extracts, respectively. Aromatic compounds (DI water: 13 types, 53%; C. obtusa extracts: 13 types, 38%) and terpenoids (DI water: 16 types, 23%; C. obtusa extracts: 23 types, 33%) were detected more diverse types and higher amount than other compound categories. No additional aromatic compounds were found from C. obtusa extracts, so C. obtusa extracts did not affect on aromatic compounds emission. However, in terpenoids, total amount of emission from C. obtusa extracts increased to 33% from 23% (DI water) and 7 more types of compounds were found from C. obtusa extracts. Especially, from C. obtusa extracts, terpinen-4-ol was emitted 71 times higher than DI water. During the humidification with C. obtusa extracts, emitted terpenoid compounds were well known for higher anti-bacterial, anti-insect, and anti-septic functions, but also these had anti-hypertensive and anti-cancer activities. Therefore, terpenoids from C. obtusa extracts can help to improve public health by using humidifier.
Effect of Organic Acids Derived from Black Liquor on Growth of Selected Escherichia coli MG 1655
Moon, Joon-Kwan ; Um, Byung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 42, issue 6, 2014, Pages 758~767
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2014.42.6.758
In this study, we selected an Escherichia coli strain (E. coli MG 1655) metabolizing arabinose derived from acid hydrolyzed black liquor as a carbon source and investigated effect of organic acids (acetic acid, formic acid, and lactic acid) presented in black liquor on growth of the E. coli MG 1655. We measured growth of E. coli MG 1655 under various concentration of each and combined three kinds of organic acids. The E. coli MG 1655 shows tolerance to acetic acid, lactic acid and formic acid at these concentrations (
lactic acid and
formic acid, respectively), but displays some growth retardation over
acetic acid, lactic acid
, and formic acid
, respectively. In addition, formic acid was shown to be a critical factor affecting growth of the E. coli MG 1655 in the presence of three kinds of organic acids. These results indicate that the inhibitors should be removed at least
of acetic acid,
of lactic acid,
of formic acid for normal cell growth required for high yield fermentation. In addition, there is a need to construct recombinant strains that may be resistant to the same or higher organic acids concentration (>
) in the growth.