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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Nov 2015
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Sep 2015
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Jul 2015
Volume 43, Issue 3 - May 2015
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Mar 2015
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Studies on Wood Quality and Growth of Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. in Korea - Physical Properties -
Han, Ju-Hwan ; Jeong, Jae-Hun ; Lee, Gooi-Yong ; Kim, Byung-Ro ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.1
Relationship between annual ring width and physical properties of 24-year old alder woods (Alnus glutinosa L.) that had different seed origins from four provenances such as Bulgary, Italy, United Kindom, and Yugoslavia was investigated. No difference among different origins of seeds was found for the moisture content, density, and shrinkage or tangential radial (T/R) ratio. These properties had also no relationship with the growth rate. As important parameters among wood quality indices, no difference in the density or shrinkage on wood that has different growth rates was detected among alder woods from four different origins of seeds. Therefore, it is considered that higher growth rate might be a key factor for selecting the seed origin of the alder tree.
Delignification Effect on Properties of Lignocellulose Nanofibers from Korean White Pine and Their Nanopapers
Jang, Jae-Hyuk ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 9~16
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.9
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of delignification on properties of lignocellulose nanofibers (LCNFs) prepared by wet disk-milling (WDM) after steam and ozone oxidation pre-treatments and their nanopaper sheets. Delignification treatment was effective to obtain fine morphology with uniform fiber diameter less than 35 nm without aggregation, and increased the specific surface area (SSA) and filtration time of LCNFs. In particular, SSA and filtration time of the LCNFs prepared by WDM after ozone pretreatment increased 1.5 and 5.4 times after further delignification. Delignification also increased whiteness and decreased the redness of nanopaper sheets. The highest color difference (41.9) before and after the delignification was obtained in LCNFs prepared by WDM after the steam pretreatment. Tensile properties of nanopaper sheets were also increased by further delignification. The highest tensile strength was found to be 142 MPa.
Effect of Different Delignification Degrees of Korean White Pine Wood on Fibrillation Efficiency and Tensile Properties of Nanopaper
Park, Chan-Woo ; Lee, Seo-Ho ; Han, Song-Yi ; Kim, Bo-Yeon ; Jang, Jae-Hyuk ; Kim, Nam-Hun ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 17~24
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.17
In this study, the effect of delignification degree of Korean white pine wood on fibrillation efficiency by wet disk-milling (WDM) and the properties of thus-obtained microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) were investigated. The effect on the tensile properties of nanopaper was also investigated. The delignification degree was adjusted by repeating `Wise` method using sodium chlorite and acetic acid. The increase in delignification degree improved fibrillation efficiency, showing the smaller nanofiber dimension at the shorter WDM time. The filtration time of MFC water suspension was increased by the increase of WDM cycles. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of the nanopaper were increased by increasing delignification degree and disk-milling cycles.
Review of Visual Grading and Allowable Stress Determination Methodologies for Domestic Softwood
Kong, Jin Hyuk ; Jeong, Gi Young ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 25~35
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.25
The goal of this study was to review the visual grading and allowable stress determination methodologies for the domestic softwood. Previous studies used different grading (KFRI 1995-27, KFRI 2000-39, KFRI 2007-3, KFRI 2009-1) and allowable stress determination methodologies (ASTM D 245, KS F 2152, JAS 1990). The results of the visual grading were different by each researcher. Compared to the
grade proportion from the previous studies using the previous specification on visual grading (KFRI 1995-2007), a higher
grade proportion was found from the studies using the current specification (KFRI 2009). Compared to the allowable stress values from the small clear sample, the higher allowable stress values from the structural size were found. The results indicated that the strength reduction factor used in small clear sample was too conservative for the different grades. To obtain consistent results for the grade, it is required to have experts in visual grading and authorized organizations. An official standard methodology for the allowable stress value determination needs to be defined for the reliable stress value.
Determination of True Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rigidity for Domestic Woods with Different Slenderness Ratios Using Nondestructive Tests
Cha, Jae Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 36~42
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.36
This study examined true modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rigidity (G) for domestic woods with different slenderness ratios (L/D) using the static bending and stress wave tests. Bending properties of small clear wood specimen of three domestic wood species were determined at 12% moisture content. The results of this study indicated that both MOR and MOE of domestic woods were affected by the slenderness ratio. As the slenderness ratio increased, MOR and MOE increased. G and true MOE of domestic timber beams were obtained at different slenderness ratios by flexure test and stress wave test. The values reported here can be useful if these species woods are used for structural purposes. However, the reported values are only indicative and do not represent the true average of wood species due to the limited number of specimens tested.
Wood Shrinkage Measurement of Using a Flatbed Scanner
Park, Yonggun ; Chang, Yoon-Seong ; Yang, Sang-Yun ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ; Lee, Mi-Rim ; Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Kwon, Ohkyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 43~51
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.43
Wood shrinkage, an important study subject with regard to the use of wood, has long been studied by researchers. However, when the size of a wood specimen is measured, distortion must be taken into account, which can be accomplished by applying external force on the wood specimen. However, when measuring a large number of specimens, this technique can be a lengthy process. If the size is measured and the shrinkage is calculated from images acquired with a flatbed scanner, it is possible to reduce the error in the measurement and to shorten the measurement time because the images of many specimens can be acquired with one scan. To clearly establish the boundary between a wood specimen and the background in a scan, an image threshold method was applied here. The size of a wood specimen measured by means of a scanner image was found to be longer than the value determined with a vernier caliper. The maximum pixel size of a scan image for highly accurate shrinkage calculations compared with the use of a vernier caliper was 0.053 mm/pixel.
Forced Air-drying of Cross-cut Disks from Small-diameter Logs of Quercus variabilis
Lee, Joonwoo ; Kang, Chun-Won ; Park, Ro-Won ; Kang, Ho-Yang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 52~59
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.52
Cross-cut disks from small diameter oak logs were thermally modified and developed to make accessories such as a brooch. However it is known that domestic oaks are refractory and it is hard to dry their cross-cut disks without any drying defects. The cross-cut disks of Quercus variabilis (7 mm long in the longitudinal direction) were forced to dry in air at two different air velocities in summer and fall season, and their drying yields were investigated. Under the same condition, the average final moisture contents (MCs) of the specimens dried in the fall were lower than those dried in the summer. The average final MCs of the small diameter specimens dried at higher air velocity were slightly lower than those at lower air velocity while those of the large diameter specimen were not influenced by the air velocity. The number of the large diameter specimens with cross checkings was higher than that of the small diameter specimen. This discrepancy between two different diameters was twice in the fall, while it was more than four times in the summer. The large diameter specimens dried at low air velocity in Summer were cross-checked most, which was attributed to repeated water condensation and evaporation due to high humidity and low air velocity.
Moment Resistance Performance Evaluation of Larch Glulam Joint Bonded in Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic Rods
Lee, In-Hwan ; Song, Yo-Jin ; Jung, Hong-Ju ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 60~67
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.60
In order to evaluate the bond performance of domestic larch glulam and the glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) rod, the specimen with the GFRP rod bonded-in domestic larch glulam for pull-out test was produced. The test was carried out using various specimens with different gluing depth, width of glue-line and type of adhesive. The cantilever type rahmen structure specimen with bonded-in GFRP rods was produced based on the result of pull-out test, and its moment resistance performance was compared and examined with the moment resistance performance of slotted-in steel plate specimen. As a result of the pull-out test, the most excellent bond performance was found when the insertion depth of GFRP rods was 5 times larger than the diameter of GFRP rods. When the glue-line thickness was 1 mm, the bond performance improved by 17%~29% in comparison to the bond performance in the case of the glue-line thickness of 2 mm. Also, the bonded strength of the specimen used with poly-urethane adhesive was 2.9~4.0 times greater than the bonded strength of specimen used with resorcinol adhesive. The cantilever type rahmen structure specimen with bonded-in GFRP rods showed the moment resistance performance 0.82 times lower in comparison to the slotted-in steel plate specimen used with the drift pin, but the initial stiffness was similar as 0.93 times.
Hardness and Dimensional Stability of Thermally Compressed Domestic Korean Pine
Hwang, Sung-Wook ; Cho, Beom-Geun ; Lee, Won-Hee ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 68~75
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.68
We conducted a thermal compression of domestic Korean pinewood for a use in flooring. For the evaluation of flooring material, we measured dimensional stability and surface hardness of thermally compressed wood. It is possible to make high-specific gravity woods with a range of 0.82-0.92 after the thermal compression with 50% compression set. The surface hardness increased with an increase in the pressing temperature. The highest value of surface hardness was
, which was obtained from the thermal compressed wood with pressing temperature of
and 30 minutes of pressing time. However, the surface hardness of woods treated at high temperature of
or greater decreased. The recovery of thickness decreased with increasing the pressing temperature. For dimensional stability, compression temperature was more dominant than compression time.
Furfural Production and Recovery by Two-stage Acid Treatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass
Shin, Gyeong-Jin ; Jeong, So-Yeon ; Lee, Hong-Joo ; Lee, Jae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 76~85
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.76
In this study, we investigated optimal reaction conditions for furfural production from lignocellulosic biomass by two-stage acid treatment. Furfural produced by this method was recovered using XAD-4 resin. Oxalic and sulfuric acid were used as catalysts for the first stage of treatment. The concentration of xylose in the hydrolysate obtained from the first stage was
with oxalic acid and
with sulfuric acid. The concentration of oligosaccharide was relatively high when sulfuric acid was used. Maximum yield of furfural, that is, 55.10% (
), was obtained when oxalic acid was used for the first stage and
of sulfuric acid was used for the second stage of treatment for 90 min. Furfural production yield increased with increasing the reaction time. Most of the furfural produced by this two-stage treatment method was recovered using XAD-4 resin.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cross Laminated Timber Using Plywood as Core Layer
Choi, Chul ; Yuk, Cho-Rong ; Yoo, Ji-Chang ; Park, Jae-Young ; Lee, Chang-Goo ; Kang, Seog-Goo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 86~95
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.86
This study was performed to study physical and mechanical properties of hybrid cross laminated timber (HCLT) with plywood as core layer in order to improve its mechanical properties for wooden housing. MOE, MOR, and dimensional stability of the HCLT were determined, depending on plywood composition and lamination direction. MOR value of the HCLT was improved as much as that of the glued laminated timber, which was 59.6% stronger than that of the cross laminated timber (CLT) control group. All MOE values of the HCLT were similar to glued laminated timber structure control group regardless of plywood composition and lamination directions. The dimensional stability of the HCLT was better than those of the glued laminated timber and CLT control group, owing to the use of plywood in the core.
Combustion Characteristics of Fire Retardants Treated Wood (I)
Son, Dong Won ; Kang, Mee Ran ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 96~103
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.96
The aim of this paper is to analyze combustion characteristics of treated woods by fire retardants which are prepared by several borate and phosphate compound solutions. The combustion characteristics for flame retardant treated wood were carried out using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to measure their combustion heat and flame retardant test using cone-calorimeter. The result of TGA and flame retardant test showed that single chemical solution affected the char forming and flame delay. The mixed retardants solutions was believed to be related to the efficacy and property of single chemical. The retention value and concentration of the retardants also affected the performance of fire retardant treated woods. The fire retardants FR1 and FR2 satisfied the requirement of The 3 Grade of Korean building codes.
Biological Damage and Risk Assessment of The Wood Cultural Properties in Fire Prevention Area
Kim, Dae Woon ; Chung, Yong Jae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 104~111
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.104
The three-year inspection of 20 tree stumps in the fire prevention area around the wooden building confirmed that termite colonies had been rapidly spread. In particular, four buildings among thirty one wooden buildings of Songgwang-sa temple were infected by the termite, indicating that the habitate of termite has been spread across the fire prevention area over the temple area. However, a non-destructive microwave diagnosis showed that internal damages have been progressed until now, suggesting a high risk to the building. These results suggest that the fire prevention area should be properly maintained to have harmful element controlled. Therefore, effective methods are required to eliminate tree stumps or wood materials used to establish fire prevention area near wooden buildings.
Influence of Copper Azole Retention Level to Wood Decay
Lee, Hyun-Mi ; Son, Dong-Won ; Lee, Han-Sol ; Hwang, Won-Joung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 112~121
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.112
In this study, Copper Azole (CuAz), a domestically available wood preservative for pressure treatment, was employed to perform an experimental research on its infiltration and decay properties in Japanese Red Pine. Test specimens were pressure-injected with CuAz-2 preservative to measure its preservative effectiveness, and then its impact on weight and mass losses. Furthermore, wood specimens were treated with CuAz-2 preservatives of various concentration levels before they were decayed with brown-rot-fungi in order to observe decay properties on light microscope (LM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). As a result, untreated specimen by Fomitopsis palustris showed the mass loss of more than 40%, and the value of preservative effectiveness of CuAz-2 by indoor decay was
. The concentration levels of CuAz-2 preservative were shown to cause significant variations in terms of decay progresses in the cross section, radial section, and tangential section. By contrast, untreated specimens had underwent serious decays in early wood, late wood, longitudinal resin canals, and ray, which led to vertical destruction of wood texture. As for the radial section, ray tracheid, ray parenchyma cell, and window like pits were decayed and destroyed. In the case of tangential section, uniseriate rays and vertical resin canals were seriously decayed. In conclusion, this study indicates that the adequacy of the current CuAz injection amount should be reviewed in the domestic environment because there are significantly different decays at different decay conditions.
Effect of Torrefaction Condition on The Chemical Composition and Fuel Characteristics of Larch wood
Kim, Sang Tae ; Lee, Jae-Jung ; Park, Dae-Hak ; Yang, In ; Han, Gyu-Seong ; Ahn, Byoung Jun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 122~134
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.122
This study was conducted to investigate the potential of torrefied larch wood as a raw material of pellets. First of all, larch chip was torrefied at the temperatures of 230, 250 and
for 30, 50 and 70 min. Secondly, moisture content, moisture absorption, higher heating value and ash content of the torrefied chip were measured to examine the effects of torrefaction conditions on the fuel characteristics of larch. Thirdly, surfaces of the torrefied chip were observed by light microscope (LM), field emission scanning microscope (FE-SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDXS). With the increases of torrefied temperature and time, contents of lignin increased and those of hemicellulose reduced. Moisture content of torrefied larch chip was greatly lower than that of non-torrefied chip. Moisture absorption of the torrefied chip decreased as torrefaction temperature increased. As torrefaction temperature increased, higher heating value and ash content of larch chip increased. However, durability of torrefied-larch pellets was remarkably lower comparing to non-torrefied-larch pellets. When surface of larch chip was observed by LM and FE-SEM, surface color and cell wall of the chip was getting darker and more collapsed with the increases of torrefaction conditions. Through the analysis of SEM-EDXS, distribution and quantity of lignin existing on the surface of larch chip increased with the increases of torrefied conditions. In conclusion,
/50 min might be an optimal condition for the torrefaction of larch with the aspect of fuel characteristics, but torrefaction condition of
/30 min should be considered according to the durability of torrefied-larch pellets.
A Study on Fuel Characteristics of Mixtures Using Torrefied Wood Powder and Waste Activated Carbon
Lee, Chang Goo ; Kang, Seog Goo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 1, 2015, Pages 135~143
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.1.135
This study evaluated fuel properties of composite materials which were prepared by mixing a waste activated carbon from the used purifier filter with torrefied wood powder. Wood species of the raw material of torrefied wood powder are oak wood (Quercus serrata Thunb. ex Murray) and pine wood (Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc). And the treatment conditions used for this study were 300 s, 450 s, and 600 s at
for the wood roaster. Also, the mixing ratios are 5 : 95, 10 : 90, 15 : 85, 20 : 80, 40 : 60, 60 : 40 and 80 : 20 (waste activated carbon : torrefied wood powder). The fuel properties such as highly heating value (HHV), elementary analysis and ash content were evaluated. The results obtained are followings; 1. Despite the same treatment condition of wood roasting, pine wood has higher carbon contents than oak wood. Therefore, pine wood indicated the optimum carbonization at low temperature and short treatment times. 2. The gross calorific value and ash content increased as the mixing ratio of waste activated carbon increased. 3. Mixtures of the waste activated carbon and torrefied wood powder showed greater gross calorific value than those of the mixtures of waste activated carbon and the untreated wood powder. Also, the pine wood resulted in higher heating value that thaose of the oak wood. 4. When composite fuels that were composed waste activate carbon and wood powder are used, higher temperature conditions are required because the combustion is incomplete at
and 4 hours. 5. The increasing rate of the gross calorific value of mixtures of waste activated carbon and untreated wood powder is higher than does the mixtures of waste activated carbon and torrefied wood powder. Also, this phenomenon is more obvious for pine woods. Therefore, an optimal mixing ratio of waste activated carbon was determined to be between 5% and 10% (wt%). Also, this condition satisfied the requirement of the No.1 grade of wood pellet.