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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 43, Issue 6 - Nov 2015
Volume 43, Issue 5 - Sep 2015
Volume 43, Issue 4 - Jul 2015
Volume 43, Issue 3 - May 2015
Volume 43, Issue 2 - Mar 2015
Volume 43, Issue 1 - Jan 2015
Selecting the target year
Dimensional Responses of Wood Under Cyclical Changing Temperature at Constant Relative Humidity
Yang, Tiantian ; Ma, Erni ; Shi, Yi ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 539~547
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.539
To investigate dimensional responses of wood under dynamic temperature condition, poplar (populous euramericana Cv.) specimens, 20 mm in radial (R) and tangential (T) directions with two thicknesses of 4 and 10 mm along the grain, were exposed to cyclic temperature changes in square wave between
at 60% relative humidity (RH) for three different cycling periods of 6 h, 12 h and 24 h. R and T dimensional changes measured during the cycling gave the following results: 1) Transverse dimensional changes of the specimens were generally square but at an opposite phase and lagged behind the imposed temperature changes. The phase lag was inversely correlated with cycling period, but positively related to specimen thickness, while the response amplitude was directly proportional to cycling period, but in a negative correlation with specimen thickness. 2) The specimens showed swelling hysteresis behavior. The heat shrinkage coefficient (HSC) became greater as cycling period increased or specimen thickness decreased. 3) Dimensional changes of the specimens produced deformation accumulation during repeated adsorption and desorption. The deformation accumulating ratio decreased with an increase in cycling period and specimen thickness. 4) Wood suffered 1.5 times as many dimensional changes per unit temperature variation as per unit humidity variation, and this deformation behaved even more seriously under static condition.
Environmental Assessments of Leachate from Medium Density Fiberboard in a Simulated Landfill
Lee, Min ; Prewitt, Lynn ; Mun, Sung Phil ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 548~557
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.548
This study investigated environmental assessments of leachate containing formaldehyde from medium density fiberboard (MDF) disposed in laboratory-scale simulated landfills. Environmental impact assessment of leachate was conducted by measuring formaldehyde, toxicity, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), bacterial enumeration, and pH. Amount of formaldehyde in leachate from MDF in soil decreased to the level of soil only treatment by 28 days, and toxicity decreased as the amount of formaldehyde decreased. BOD and COD levels in leachate from the treatments containing MDF exceeded permissible discharge levels of BOD or COD throughout the experimental period. The pH levels of all treatment were within permissible discharge range except on day 0. Fewer bacteria were observed in leachate from MDF in soil treatment than other treatments (MDF only, cured UF resin in soil, and soil only). Consequently, the leachate from disposal of MDF in soil detrimentally affect on environment. However, soil buffered formaldehyde leaching and pH on leachate in this study. Waste MDF may be required the pre-water soaking treatment for leaching formaldehyde to reclaim on land.
A Gallotannin from Cercidiphyllum japonicum Leaves
Lee, Tae-Seong ; Bae, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 558~565
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.558
Katsura tree (Cercidiphyllum japonicum Sieb. Et Zucc) leaves were collected, air-dried and extracted with 70% aqueous acetone, then concentrated and sequentially fractionated using n-hexane, methylene chloride (
), ethylacetate (EtOAc), and
. The EtOAc fraction was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column with various aqueous MeOH eluting solvents and finally treated with acetone-
(7:3, v/v) to isolate a gallotannin. According to the NMR analysis, including HSQC and HMBC, and with the comparison of authentic literature data, the isolate was elucidated as 6-m-digalloyl-1,2,3,4-tetra-O-galloyl
-D-(+)-glucose, one of hydrolyzable tannins and one of gallotannins. The compound was only gallotannin which was firstly isolated from the extracts of Katsura tree leaves, and has not been reported before in domestic tree sources.
Effect of Tree Age and Active Alkali on Kraft Pulping of White Jabon
Wistara, Nyoman J. ; Carolina, Anne ; Pulungan, Widya S. ; Emil, Nadrah ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 566~577
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.566
White Jabon (Anthocephalus cadamba Miq.) is one of the fast growing species in Indonesia and has the potential as the raw material for pulp and paper. In this research, 3, 5, and 7 years old White Jabon woods were pulped under different active alkali charge of 15%, 18%, 21%, 24%, and 27%, and its effect on delignification degree, kappa number, pulp yield, pulp viscosity, brightness, unbeaten freeness, and delignification selectivity was investigated. The results showed that tree age and active alkali concentration influenced the quality of pulp and pulping properties, except for that of unbeaten freeness. Delignification degree increased with increasing active alkali charge, and this brought about the decrease of pulp kappa number. The pulping yield tended to decrease below the Klason lignin of approximately 4%. Even though the 3 years old wood resulted in the highest brightness and highest delignification selectivity, the highest pulp viscosity was obtained with the 5 years old wood. The dominant fiber length of all wood ages was in the range of 1.2 - 2.0 mm. The 3 years old wood was considered to be the most promising raw material for kraft pulping in the view point of pulping properties, pulp quality and harvesting rotation.
Organosolv Pretreatment of Slurry Composting and Biofiltration of Liquid Fertilizer-Treated Yellow Poplar for Sugar Production
Kim, Ho-Yong ; Gwak, Ki-Seob ; Jang, Soo-Kyeong ; Ryu, Keun-Ok ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 578~590
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.578
The present study examines the influence of slurry composting and biofiltration liquid fertilizer (SCBLF) treatment on the biomass characteristics of yellow poplar, and the optimization of organosolv pretreatment for sugar production. After SCBLF treatment, total exchangeable cation contents of yellow poplar was increased from
, and as a result, biomass production of yellow poplar was also enhanced by 82.3%. Organosolv pretreatment was conducted with three independent variables: 1) reaction temperature:
; 2) acid concentration: 0.2% to 1.8%; and 3) reaction time: 1.6 min to 18.4 min. Reaction temperature was the most significant variable in water insoluble solid (WIS) recovery rate. High overall sugar yield was attained from pretreatment conditions approximately 50% of WIS recovery rate, and the highest overall glucose yield (44.0%) was achieved from pretreatment at
with 1.5% acid concentration for 5 min. Consequently, 21.1% of glucose and 5.8% of xylose were produced from the organosolv pretreatment of SCBLF-treated 8-year-old yellow poplar.
Phenolic Glycosides from Cercidiphyllum japonicum Leaves
Lee, Tae-Seong ; Min, Hee-Jeong ; Bae, Young-Soo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 591~599
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.591
Cercidiphyllum japonicum leaves were collected, air-dried and extracted with 70% aqueous acetone, then concentrated and sequentially fractionated using n-hexane, methylene chloride (
), ethylacetate (EtOAc), and
. A portion of EtOAc fraction (10 g) was chromatographed on a Sephadex LH-20 column, by the successively elution with various aqueous
, fraction 14-16). Compound 2 was isolated from fraction 6 and compound 1 was separated from fraction 11 and 12. Compound 3 and 4 were purified from fraction 13. The isolated compounds were elucidated as quercetin-3-O-
-L-rhamnopyranoside (1), chlorogenic acid (2), quercetin-3-O-
-L-arabinofuranoside (3) and quercetin-3-O-
-D-xylopyranoside (4) by the spectral and literature data, and by comparison with the authentic samples. These compounds were reported, for the first time, from the extracts of C. japonicum leaves. Also chlorogenic acid (2) has never been reported before in domestic tree species and can be used as an index compound for C. japonicum.
Optimization of The Organosolv Pretreatment of Yellow Poplar for Bioethanol Production by Response Surface Methodology
Kim, Ho-Yong ; Hong, Chang-Young ; Kim, Seon-Hong ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 600~612
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.600
We investigated the optimization of the organosolv pretreatment of yellow poplar for bioethanol production. Response surface methodology was used to determine the optimal conditions of three independent variables (reaction temperature, reaction time, and sulfuric acid (SA) concentration). Reaction temperature is the most significant variable in the degradation of xylan and lignin in the presence of an acid catalyst, and ethanol production increased with a decrease in the lignin content. The highest ethanol concentration (
) and theoretical ethanol yield (98.76%) were obtained at
(2.5 bar) with 1.6% SA for 16 min. However, because of excessive degradation of the raw material, the overall ethanol yield was less than under other pretreatment conditions which has approximately 50% of WIS recovery rate after pretreatment. The optimal conditions for the maximum overall ethanol yield (
with 1.22% SA for 15.9 min) were determined with a predicted yield of 17.11%, and the experimental values were very close (17.15%). Therefore, the quadratic model is reliable.
Manipulation of Surface Carboxyl Content on TEMPO-Oxidized Cellulose Fibrils
Masruchin, Nanang ; Park, Byung-Dae ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 613~627
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.613
Simple methods of conductometric titration and infrared spectroscopy were used to quantify the surface carboxyl content of cellulose fibrils isolated by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl radical (TEMPO)-mediated oxidation. The effects of different cellulose sources, post or assisted-sonication oxidation treatment, and the amount of sodium hypochlorite addition on the carboxyl content of cellulose were reported. This study showed that post sonication treatment had no influence on the improvement of surface carboxyl charge of cellulose macrofibrils (CMFs). However, the carboxyl content increased for the isolated cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs). Thus the carboxyl content of CNFs is different from those of their corresponding bulk oxidized cellulose and CMFs. Filter paper as a CNF source imparted a higher surface charge than did hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HWBKP) and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). It was considered that the crystallinity and microstructure of the initial cellulose affected oxidation efficiency. In addition, the carboxyl content of cellulose was successfully controlled by applying sonication treatment during the oxidation reaction and adjusting the amount of sodium hypochlorite.
Cellulase Activity of Symbiotic Bacteria from Snails, Achatina fulica
Kim, Jon Young ; Yoon, Sae Min ; Kim, Yeong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 628~640
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.628
Cellulase is the key enzyme in the use of cellulose-based biomaterials. Because of its structure, cellulose is difficult to be degraded by enzymes. In order to utilize cellulose-based biomaterials efficiently, evolutionary wisdom of how to use enzymes accurately and harmoniously in a biological system is needed, such as the cellulose digestive system in animals. In this study, the symbiotic bacteria from snails, Achatina fulica, were identified and their cellulase activity was evaluated. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 100 aerobic bacteria showed that they belonged to 9 genus and almost half of the bacteria were Lactococcus spp. Among 100 identified strains, only two Aeromonas sp. strains showed cellulase activity. Aeromonas sp. KMBS020 had both endo-
-glucosidase activities but Aeromonas sp. KMBS018 had
-glucosidase activity only. None of the 100 bacterial colonies had any cellobiohydrolase activity.
Service Life Estimation of ACQ-treated Wood Based on Biodeterioration Resistance
Pang, Sung-Jun ; Hong, Jung-Pyo ; Lee, Jun-Jae ; Oh, Jung-Kwon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 641~651
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.641
The aim of this study was to estimate the service life of alkaline copper quaternary (ACQ)-treated wood. The service life of preservative-treated wood was estimated by comparing a residual quantity of ACQ in wood with toxic threshold to fungi. Indoor and outdoor leaching tests were carried out in order to predict residual ACQ quantity within wood. As a result, the leaching ratio of ACQ from treated wood above ground via precipitation was 18.1% for 50 years. When the H4 treated wood, which is traditionally used in contact with the ground and fresh water, is used above-ground, the leaching ratio of ACQ for 50 years is 18.1% and the residual quantity of ACQ is
, which is higher than the toxic threshold of ACQ. Thus, the H4 treated wood used above-ground will be resistant to biodeterioration for at least 50 years.
Bearing Strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Glulam Bolted Connection
Kim, Keon-ho ; Hong, Soon-il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 652~660
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.652
To study the bearing characteristics of glass fiber reinforced glulam for structural design, bearing strength tests were performed. Bearing loads were applied in the direction parallel to the grains, and the holes were prepared in such a way that the bolts would bear and support all the layers. The yield bearing strengths of the glass fiber reinforced glulam were found to be similar to those of the non-reinforced glulam, and were almost constant regardless of increases in bolt diameter. The ratio of the experimental yield bearing strength to the estimated bearing strength according to the suggested equation of the Korea Building Code and National Design Specification was 0.91~1.03. For the non-reinforced glulam and the sheet glass fiber reinforced plastic glulam, the maximum bearing load was measured according to the splitting fracture of specimens under bolt. The textile glass fiber reinforced glulam underwent only an embedding failure caused by the bearing load. The failure mode of reinforced glulam according to bearing load will influence the failure behavior of bolted connection, and estimating the shear yield strength of the bolted connection of the reinforced glulam is necessary, not only by using the bearing strength characteristics but also using the fracture toughness of the reinforced glulam.
Shear Performance of Glass Fiber Reinforced Glulam Bolted Connection
Kim, Keon-ho ; Hong, Soon-il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 661~671
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.661
To evaluate the shear performance of the textile glass fiber and the sheet glass fiber reinforced glulam bolted connections, a tension type shear test was conducted. The average yield shear strength of the bolted connection of reinforced glulam was increased by 12% ~ 31% compared to the non-reinforced glulam. It was confirmed that the shear performance of 5D end distance of the glass fiber reinforced glulam connection corresponds to that of 7D of the non-reinforced glulam connection proposed in building design requirements in various countries. Compared to the non-reinforced glulam, the average shear strength of textile glass fiber reinforced glulam was markedly increased. The non-reinforced glulam and the GFRP reinforced glulam underwent a momentary splitting fracture. However, the failure mode of textile glass fiber reinforced glulam showed a good ductility.
Hydrolytic Stability of Cured Urea-Melamine-Formaldehyde Resins Depending on Hydrolysis Conditions and Hardener Types
Park, Byung-Dae ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 672~681
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.672
As a part of abating the formaldehyde emission of amino resin-bonded wood-based composite panels, this study was conducted to investigate hydrolytic stability of urea-melamine-formaldehyde (UMF) resin depending on various hydrolysis conditions and hardener types. Commercial UMF resin was cured and ground into a powdered form, and then hydrolyzed with hydrochloric acid. After the acid hydrolysis, the concentration of liberated formaldehyde in the hydrolyzed solution and mass loss of the cured UMF resins were determined to compare their hydrolytic stability. The hydrolysis of cured UMF resin increased with an increase in the acid concentration, time, and temperature and with a decrease in the smaller particle size. An optimum hydrolysis condition for the cured UMF resins was determined as
, 90 minutes, 1.0 M hydrochloric acid and
particle size. Hydrolysis of the UMF resin cured with different hardener types showed different degrees of the hydrolytic stability of cured UMF resins with a descending order of aluminum sulfate, ammonium chloride, and ammonium sulfate. The hydrolytic stability also decreased as the addition level of ammonium chloride increased. These results indicated that hardener types and level also had an impact on the hydrolytic stability of cured UMF resins.
Bonding Performance of Adhesives with Lamina in Structural Glulam Manufactured by High Frequency Heating System
Kim, Keon-Ho ; Kim, Se-Jong ; Yang, Sang-Yun ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ; Eom, Chang-Deuk ; Shim, Kugbo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 682~690
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.682
The bonding performance of two types of wood adhesives, namely phenol-resorcinol-formaldehyde (PRF) resin and melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resin for glued laminated timber manufactured by high frequency (HF) heating was evaluated. The HF heating system consists of HF oscillator with dielectric heating system for curing adhesives, and hydraulic press system for clamping glued laminated timber. The designed frequency and output power of the HF system was as 5 MHz and 60 kW, respectively. To verify dielectric heating mechanism under HF oscillation, the heat loss factors of laminae and adhesives were measured. The results show that it is possible to selectively heat adhesives for their curing due to the remarkably higher loss factor of the adhesives than those of wood laminae. The temperature of adhesive in the bonding line reached up to the set temperature within a few seconds by high frequency oscillating, which advanced the curing of adhesive afterwards. The bonding performance, such as shear strength of bonding line, water soaking delamination, and boiling water soaking delamination of PRF resin met the requirement of Korean Standard (KS), however the MUF resin did not meet the KS requirement of boiling water soaking delamination. These results indicate that the HF heating system is successful to manufacture glued laminated timbers with PRF resins to meet the bonding requirements.
A Fundamental Study for The Possibility of Charcoal as Green Infrastructure Materials
Choi, Jaehyuck ; Shin, Soo-Jeong ; Kim, Byung-Ro ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 43, issue 5, 2015, Pages 691~699
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2015.43.5.691
To evaluate the possibility of charcoal as Green Infrastructure (GI) materials, data such as moisture content, amount of adsorbed water, and amount of evaporation were collected. Some data from previous study were referenced to find out if correlations exist between results in this study and previous study. Only porosity was directly related to moisture content. Two mechanical charcoal had better abilities than traditional charcoal in all three categories. Mechanical black charcoal chips produced by National Forestry Cooperative Federation (NFCFC) adsorbed 333.3% of water in thirty minutes, 297.5% in five minutes, and evaporated around 75% water in four days. This ability is much higher than other five charcoal. Even though results of test showed various degrees and NFCFC was the best as GI materials, data of charcoal were also within acceptable range based on generally accepted characteristics of GI materials.