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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Jul 2016
Volume 44, Issue 3 - May 2016
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Influences of Artificial Defect of Wood Deck Using Non-destructive Ultrasonic Testing
Oh, Sei-Chang ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 1~8
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.1
Non-destructive ultrasonic testing was applied to evaluate the performance of wood deck material with hole as artificial defect. Ultrasonic velocities and modulus of elasticity were measured according to different diameters and numbers of holes, and comparative analysis to each data were done. From the results, ultrasonic velocities and modulus of elasticity decreased with an increase in the hole size and showed a negative linear correlation with the size of hole, respectively. As the hole size increased, ultrasonic velocities decreased, but their difference was small in the case of the hole size under 15 mm. Also, ultrasonic velocities and modulus of elasticity decreased with increasing the number of holes and showed a strong negative linear correlation to the number of holes. As the number of holes increased, ultrasonic velocities decreased to 3.5%, but modulus of elasticity decreased to 27%. Therefore, the number of holes showed greater influence to modulus of elasticity than ultrasonic velocity. Overall, the size and number of holes influenced to ultrasonic velocity and modulus of elasticity, and their influence will be greater as the size and number of holes increases. These results suggested that several ultrasonic parameters rather than a single ultrasonic velocity should be applied to detect small defects in wood decking materials.
Color Change of Major Wood Species Planted in Indonesia by Ultraviolet Radiation
Park, Se-Hwi ; Jang, Jae-Hyuk ; Qi, Yue ; Hidayat, Wahyu ; Hwang, Won-Joong ; Febrianto, Fauzi ; Kim, Nam-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 9~18
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.9
This study was performed to understand wood durability to climate deterioration of planted Indonesian wood specie such as Albizia, Gmelina, Mangium and Mindi. Wood samples were exposed to indoor and outdoor condition.
and Color changes (
) were determined by a spectrophotometer. As a result, color of all samples was changed more markedly by ultraviolet radiation. In indoor test with UV, brightness of wood specimens from four species was not changed and all samples were changed into more reddish and yellowish. In accelerated weathering test, all samples were bleached and changed into more greenish and blueish. In outdoor test, brightness of wood specimens decreased in Albizia and Gmelina and increased in Mangium and Mindi. All wood specimens in outdoor test were changed into more greenish and blueish. Albizia and Gmleina woods showed greater color change than those of Mangium and Mindi. Especially, color change of wood samples might be influenced greatly by moisture. In conclusion, wood color changed into more clearly by UV radiation. Therefore, exposing woods to UV radiation could be one of reasonable methods to improve wood quality on visual characteristic.
Combustion Characteristics of Useful Imported Woods
Seo, Hyun Jeong ; Kang, Mee Ran ; Park, Jung-Eun ; Son, Dong Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 19~29
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.19
The purpose of this study is to analyze the combustion and thermal properties in order to establish baseline data for the fire safety evaluation of imported wood. The combustion properties such as heat release rate, total heat release, gas yield, and mass loss were analyzed by the method of cone calorimeter test according to KS F ISO 5660-1 and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Analyzed species are five kinds of species as Merbau, Mempening, Garo Garo, Malas, and Dillenia. The heat released rate values showed the highest value of Malas as
, and Dillenia showed the lowest value as
. The data values were confirmed in the following order: Malas > Mempening > Garo Garo > Merbau > Dillenia. In case of the total heat release, it was measured in the following order: Mempening > Malas > Garo Garo > Merbau > Dillenia. The gas analysis results were that Dillenia showed the highest value of 0.034. Also, Mempening and Malas showed the lowest at 0.020 in the
. Min of mass reduction was shown as 74.79% Sargent cherry, on the other hand, Malas had a 83.52%. It showed a correlation between and of the CO and
generation and combustion characteristics of wood. The thermal decomposition temperature of the wood in the TGA were as follow that Merbau
, Garo Garo
. The aim of this study is to determine the combustion properties of imported wood according to ISO 5660-1. And, based on the results of this study, we would proceed with further research for improving the fire safety of wood for construction.
Lateral Load Performance Evaluation of Larch Glulam Portal Frames Using GFRP-Reinforced Laminated Plate and GFRP Rod
Jung, Hong-Ju ; Song, Yo-Jin ; Lee, In-Hwan ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 30~39
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.30
The evaluation of the lateral load performance for larch glulam portal frames was carried out using glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) as connector in two different systems: the GFRP-reinforced laminated plates combined with veneer, and GFRP rod joints glued with epoxy resins to replace usual metal connectors for the structural glulam rahmen joints. As a result the yield strength, ultimate strength, initial stiffness of glulams of GFRP rod joints glued with epoxy resin decreased to 49%, 52% and 61% compared to those of the conventional metal connector. This connector will be a stress device where the bonding strength between the GFRP rod and glued laminated timber is important. Thus, there will be a high possibility that a problem may occur when it is applied to the field. On the other hand, the GFRP-reinforced laminated plates and wood (Eucalyptus marginata) pin were measured all within 3% for all measurements of the yield strength, ultimate strength, initial strength and ductility factor, regardless of high cross sectional loss on the glued laminated timber slit joint. In addition, the variation of stiffness on the cycle was 35%, which was the lowest, confirming that it was almost the same performance as the specimen prepared with the metal connector.
Moment Resistance Performance Evaluation of Larch Glulam Joints using GFRP-reinforced Laminated Plate and GFRP Rod
Jung, Hong-Ju ; Song, Yo-Jin ; Lee, In-Hwan ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 40~47
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.40
Instead of metal connector generally used on the structural glued laminated timber rahmen joints, the GFRP reinforced laminated plates combining veneer and GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic) and bonded type GFRP rod were used as the connectors. As a result of moment resistance performance evaluation on the joint part applied with these connectors, the yield moment of specimen using the GFRP reinforced laminated plates and GFRP rod pin was measured 4 % lower in comparison to the specimen (Type-1) using the metal connectors, but the initial rotational stiffness was measured 29% higher. Also, the yield moment and rotational stiffness of the specimen using the GFRP-reinforced laminated plates and wood (Eucalyptus marginata) pin showed were measured 11% and 56% higher in comparison to the Type-1 specimen, showing the best performance. It was also confirmed through the failure shape and perfect elasto-plasticity analysis that it showed ductility behavior, not brittle fracture, from the shear resisting force by the pin and the bonding strength increased and the unification of member was carried out. On the other hand, in case of the specimen bonded with GFRP rod, it was impossible to measure the bonding performance or it was measured very low due to poor bonding.
Static Bending Strength Performance of Domestic Wood-Concrete Hybrid Laminated Materials
Byeon, Jin-Woong ; Cho, Young-June ; Lee, Je-Ryong ; Park, Han-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 48~56
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.48
In this study, to develop the lattice materials with a low environmental load for restoring the destroyed forest, 7 types of wood-concrete hybrid laminated materials were manufactured with domestic four softwoods, three hardwoods and concrete, and the effects of density of wood species on static bending strength performances were investigated. Bending MOEs of wood-concrete hybrid laminated materials increased with increasing density of wood species on the whole, and the values were higher than that of concrete by hybrid-laminating woods on the concrete. It was found that the measure values of bending MOEs were slightly lower than the calculated values calculated using equivalent cross-section method from MOE of each laminae of hybrid laminated materials and the difference between them was less than 10%. Bending proportional limit stresses of hybrid laminated materials showed 1.2-1.6 times higher than that of concrete by hybrid-laminating. Bending strength (MOR) of hybrid laminated materials increased with the density of wood species. By hybrid-laminating, the MOR of concrete was considerably increased. Therefore, it is considered that wood-concrete hybrid laminated materials can be applied as a materials with a low environmental load and durability for ecological restoration.
Bending Creep Performance of Domestic Wood-Concrete Hybrid Laminated Materials
Cho, Young-june ; Byeon, Jin-Woong ; Lee, Je-Ryong ; Sung, Eun-Jong ; Park, Han-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 57~66
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.57
In order to develop materials with a low environmental load for restoring the destroyed forest, seven types of wood-concrete hybrid laminated materials were manufactured with four softwoods, three hardwoods and concrete, and the effect of wood density on bending creep property was investigated. The bending creep curves showed a shape to considerably increase at the upper right side, and the curves were found to show a linear behavior beyond about 30 min - 1 hour, as behaviors of solid woods and wood-based materials. The initial compliances of wood-concrete hybrid-laminated materials decreased with an increase in the wood density, and those values showed 0.9 - 1.2 times of the concrete one. The creep compliances of hybrid laminated materials showed very low values, which were 0.4 - 0.8 times of the concrete ones. The relative creep were very low with a range from 8.2% to 17.0% range, which were 0.3 - 0.7 times of the concrete ones. These results indicate that these materials can be applied for restoring the destroyed forest to reduce creep deformation of the conventional concrete materials by hybrid-laminating concrete and woods.
Estimate of Bolt Connection Strength of Reinforced Glulam using Glass Fiber
Kim, Keon-ho ; Hong, Soon-il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 67~74
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.67
The yield shear strength of bolt connection in glass fiber reinforced glulam was predicted using a design-based equation, and was compared to the empirical yield shear strength. For the predicted equation, the mechanical properties of member (the elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, shear modulus) was tested. The fracture toughness factor (
) of glass fiber reinforced glulam was reflected to the revision of the design equation of bolted connection. The compressive strength properties to grain direction was influenced by annual ring angle and width of lamina. Compared with the revised yield shear strength of reinforced glulam, it was tended to be similar to the empirical yield shear strength on the diameter of bolt and the reinforcements. The revised yield shear strength from proposed formula of KBC was most appropriately matched in the bolt connection of the glass fiber reinforced glulam.
Evaluation of The Hygrothermal Performance by Wall Layer Component of Wooden Houses Using WUFI Simulation Program
Kang, Yujin ; Kim, Sumin ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 75~84
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.75
Thermal performance of wooden houses used by building materials effectively contributing to building energy saving has been improved. However, the performance was decreased to the condensation and mould growth from exterior wall because the moisture control was difficult to high insulation and airtightness. Therefore, the hygrothermal performance of exterior wall, that selected 5 types of wooden houses, evaluated using the hygrothermal simulation program: heat and moisture behavior, condensation and mould growth risk. Wooden houses were selected Rural houses standard plans '10 and '14,
type, EIFS and wood-based passive house. And the wall A, B, C, D and E were determined by layer component of each wall. The U-value of exterior wall are 0.171, 0.172, 0.221, 0.150,
. The OSB absolute water content of the wall A and C was exceeds the reference value of 20%, and it was confirmed that condensation occur at insulation material inner surface through the condensation evaluation in the winter. The wall D and E showed excellent results with condensation and water content evaluation compared to others. However, mould growth risk assessment in all five types of wall had have risk. We were determined that hygrothermal performance difference of exterior wall occur the difference in the layer structure rather than in thermal performance.
Investigation of Furfural Yields of Liquid Hydrolyzate during Dilute Acid Pretreatment Process on Quercus Mongolica using Response Surface Methodology
Ryu, Ga-Hee ; Jeong, Han-Seob ; Jang, Soo-Kyeong ; Hong, Chang-Young ; Choi, Joon Weon ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 85~95
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.85
In this study, furfural, which is one of the value-added chemicals, was produced from the hydrolyzate of Quercus mongolica using dilute acid pretreatment, and the optimal pretreatment condition was determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to obtain high yield of furfural. Based on Central Composite Design, the pretreatment experiment was designed with parameters such as reaction temperature (
), acid concentration (
), and reaction time (
) as independent variables, while dependent variable was furfural concentration (Y), and furfural yield (Z) was shown as percentage of Y per a dry weight basis. According to results of RSM, it was confirmed that reaction temperature (
) was the most influence factor and reaction temperature (
)-acid concentration (
) was the most significant interaction factor on furfural yield. Also, the optimal condition for the highest furfural yield was predicted at reaction temperature of
, acid concentration of 1.17%, and reaction time of 5 min by RSM, and expected maximum yield of furfural was 6.37%. Experimentally, the maximum yield of furfural produced at above optimal condition was 6.21%, and it was considerably similar with the predicted value, and therefore the model for furfural production from the hydrolyzate of Quercus mongolica during dilute acid pretreatment could be built using RSM.
A Study on The Thermal Properties and Activation Energy of Rapidly Torrefied Oak Wood Powder using Non-isothermal Thermogravimetric Analysis
Lee, Danbee ; Kim, Birm-June ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 96~105
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.96
This study investigated thermal properties and activation energy (
) of torrefied oak wood powders treated with various torrefaction times (0, 5, 7.5, 10 min) by using non-isothermal thermogravimetric analysis at heating rates of 10, 20,
to check the feasibility of rapidly torrefied oak wood powders as a fuel. As the torrefaction time increases, onset of thermal decomposition temperature, lignin content, and the amount of final residue of torrefied oak wood powders were accordingly increased with reduced hemicellulose content.
was determined by using Friedman and Kissinger models and respective R-square values were over 0.9 meaning very good availability of calculated
values of the samples were decreased with the increase of torrefaction time and the lowest
value ob served in the torrefied oak wood powders treated for 7.5 min showed high feasibility of rapidly torrefied oak wood powder as a biomass-solid refuse fuel.
Electrical Properties and Far-infrared Ray Emission of Ceramics Manufactured with Sawdust and Rice Husk
Oh, Seung Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 106~112
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.106
This study investigated electrical properties and far-infrared ray emission according to the carbonizing temperature and phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin impregnation ratio of ceramics manufactured using sawdust and rice husk. The far-infrared ray emission values and emission energy values decreased as the carbonizing temperature increased. The far-infrared ray emission values of the ceramics manufactured using a carbonizing process at
and a board with a PF resin impregnation ratio of 60 percent was 0.930; the emission energy presented the highest value of
. The electric resistance decreased as the carbonizing temperature increased. For the increase in the carbonizing temperature above
, ceramics was very close to a conductor due to the small resistance. The power consumption increased by the decrease of electric resistance and increase of the electric current in the case of a higher resin impregnation ratio.
Evaluation on Anti-fungal Activity and Synergy Effects of Essential Oil and Their Constituents from Abies holophylla
Kim, Seon-Hong ; Lee, Su-Yeon ; Cho, Seong-Min ; Hong, Chang-Young ; Park, Mi-Jin ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 113~123
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.113
This study was to investigate the antifungal activity of A. holophylla essential oil against dermatophytes, such as Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, and to determine the potential effective compound as dermatitis treatment. To evaluate the potential antifungal activities of A. holophylla essential oil and its fractions, paper disc diffusion and agar dilution method tested with morphological observation. Also, their major constituents were analyzed by GC/MS. To determine synergic effects of active ingredient from A. holophylla essential oil were carried out by checkerboard microtiter plate testing. The morphological changes of the dermatophytes exposed to active fraction G4 were observed by electron microscopes. As the results, the highest activities were identified in the fraction containing
-bisabolol. A mixture of
-bisabolol and bornyl acetate showed the synergy effects, expressing high potential effects. Also, morphological observation using electron microscopes showed a dramatic changes of cell membrane of E. floccosum and T. rubrum exposed to fraction G4 containing
-bisabolol. In conclusion, A. holophylla essential oil and its constituents were expected to be used as antifungal agent or raw material for dermatitis therapy.
Biomodification of Ethanol Organolsolv Lignin by Abortiporus biennis and Its Structural Change by Addition of Reducing Agent
Hong, Chang-Young ; Park, Se-Yeong ; Kim, Seon-Hong ; Lee, Su-Yeon ; Ryu, Sun-Hwa ; Choi, In-Gyu ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 124~134
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.124
The main goal of this study was to investigate biomodification mechanism of lignin by white rot fungus, Abortiporus biennis, and to depolymerize ethanol organosolv lignin for industrial application. In nitrogen-limited culture, A. biennis polymerized mainly lignin showing a rapid increase of molecular weight and structural changes depending on incubation days. At the initial incubation days, cleavage of ether bonds increased phenolic OH content, while the results were contrary in of the later part of the culture. Based on these results, ascorbic acid as a reducing agent was used to induce depolymerization of lignin during cultivation with white rot fungus. As a result, the degree of increase of average molecular weight of lignin was significantly declined when compared with those of the ascorbic acid free-experiment, although the molecular weight of fungus treated sample slightly increased than that of control. Furthermore, lignin derived oligomers in culture medium were depolymerized with the addition of ascorbic acid, showing that the average molecular weight was 381 Da, and phenolic OH content was 38.63%. These depolymerized lignin oligomers were considered to be applicable for industrial utilization of lignin. In conclusion, A. biennis led to the polymerization of lignin during biomodification period. The addition of ascorbic acid had a positive effect on the depolymerization and increase of phenolic OH content of lignin oligomers in medium.
Characteristics of Thermomechanical Pulps Made of Russian Spruce and Larix, and Myanmar Bamboo
Lee, Ji-Young ; Kim, Chul-Hwan ; Nam, Hyegeong ; Park, Hyunghun ; Kwon, Sol ; Park, Dong-Hun ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 135~146
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.135
Three fiber sources including Russian spruce (Picea jezoensis) and larix (Larix leptolepis), and Myanmar bamboo (Phyllostachys bambusoides) for thermomechanical pulp were explored to replace domestic pine (Pinus densiflora) pulp that has some limitations in an aspect of supply and pitch trouble. Thermomechanical pulps were manufactured under the identical condition, and then compared with their representative pulp properties and pulping process. Both Russian larix and Myanmar bamboo contained large amounts of extractives that would negatively affect mechanical pulping processes. Russian spruce showed the least contents in shives and pitch. Russian spruce and domestic pine reached an optimum freeness level within a short pulp processing time, which consumed less amount of refining energy compared to larix and bamboo. In particular, the spruce wood showed the highest brightness level which might lead to a less consumption of bleaching chemicals. It was expected that Russian spruce could be replaced with the domestic pine wood in respect of both pulping process and pulp quality.
Effect of Sugarcane Bagasse Soda-AQ Pulp Bleaching Properties by Type of Chelate Compounds and Simultaneous Process of (DQ) Stage
Lee, Jai-Sung ; Shin, Soo-Jeong ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 1, 2016, Pages 147~155
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.1.147
Pulp made from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was bleached in element chlorine free (ECF) sequence. The peroxide bleaching process for the final bleaching process has been introduced in order to reduce the use of chlorine dioxide. Prior to peroxide bleaching, different chelating chemicals were applied. When 4.5% of the total chlorine dioxide was used, bleached SCB pulp using additional DTPA chelate stage (DEDQP) resulted in 87.0% of the ISO brightness. However, bleached pulp using simultaneous stage of DTPA chelate and chlorine dioxide (DE(DQ)P) was reached at 83.9% of the ISO brightness. The viscosity of DEDQP bleached pulp was 25.6 cPs, and the one of DE(DQ)P bleached pulp was 21.9 cPs. Decreasing of chelate effect by chlorine dioxide led to a decrease in the final brightness and a lower viscosity. But simultaneous stage of EDTA chelate and chlorine dioxide (DE(DQ)P) led to higher final brightness (87.0% ISO) and higher viscosity (25.8 cPs) than those of the
bleached pulp (86.4% ISO, 25.2 cPs).