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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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Journal DOI :
The Korean Society of Wood Science Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 44, Issue 4 - Jul 2016
Volume 44, Issue 3 - May 2016
Volume 44, Issue 2 - Mar 2016
Volume 44, Issue 1 - Jan 2016
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Studies on Wood Quality and Growth of Alnus glutinosa in Korea - Anatomical Properties -
Kim, Min-Ji ; Kim, Byung-Ro ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 295~301
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.295
In this study, relationship between seed origin and growth rate of Alnus glutinosa from different seed collection (Yugoslovia, ltaly, United Kingdom, Bulgaria) was investigated with focused on anatomical properties as wood fiber length, vessel element length and diameter. Alnus glutinosa showed diffuse-porous wood with scalariform perforation in alternate pitting. Ray height was 9~11 in tangential section and ray number were 16~26 in cross section. There were no differences on latewood focused on wood fiber length, length and diameter of vessel element, but difference on earlywood. Other than Yugoslavian seed, there was better growth rate with shorter wood fiber and vessel element length on latewood. However, seed from Yugoslovain showed better growth rate with longer wood fiber and vessel element length than other 3 seed orgins.
Effects of The Knife-incising and Kerfing Pretreatment on Moisture Content and Surface Check Occurrence of Douglas-fir Heavy Timber
Lee, Chang-Jin ; Lee, Nam-Ho ; Oh, Seung-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 302~314
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.302
This study was carried out to confirm the effects of the knife-incising and kerfing pretreatment on the moisture content and surface check occurrence of Douglas-fir heavy timber. In the case of moisture content, the moisture gradient that formed in the inner part of the specimen was observed in all specimens. In addition, the moisture gradient was formed differently from the surface layer to 72 mm depending on the pretreatment conditions, and it was formed gradually in the kerfing than the knife-incising. In addition, it was found that the solid volume should be considered when measuring the average moisture content. In the case of surface check, the surface check occurrence was reduced in the knife-incising, kerfing, and the combination of knife-incising and kerfing than the control. In particular, the kerfing treatment was shown that the expansion of surface check width was effectively suppressed. In the case of knife-incising treatment, although the surface check was less than the control, the preventive effect on the surface check occurrence did not reach the level of the kerfing treatment.
Bending and Bonding Strength Performances of Larix Block-glued Glulam
Lee, In-Hwan ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 315~322
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.315
Block-glued glulam is a structural material that can be used as a construction member of a large-section wooden building, which is produced by edgewise bonding of two or more glulam beam elements. The edgewise bonding performance of the block-glued glulam was examined through delamination test and block shear strength test. According to the test results, the block-glued glulam that was manufactured with 1.5 MPa of compressive pressure after applying
of Resorcinol adhesive showed the best edgewise bonding performance. The block-glued glulam produced in a good edgewise bonding condition was compared with a control glulam with the same section modulus for bending strength performance. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) in bending was similar to that of the control glulam. The modulus of rupture (MOR) of the block-glued glulam was higher by 27% than that of the control glulam. No interfacial failure or cohesive failure were observed in the edgewise bonding layer.
Physicochemical Properties and Growth Characteristics of Wood Chip and Peat Moss Based Vegetation Media
Kim, Ji-Su ; Jung, Ji Young ; Ha, Si Young ; Yang, Jae-Kyung ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 323~336
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.323
This study was carried out to evaluate the physicochemical properties of steam exploded wood chips for peat moss substitute in vegetation media. Also, the mixtures at the different ratios of peat moss and pretreated wood chips (90 : 10, 70 : 30 and 50 : 50 (w/w), respectively) were evaluated by physicochemical and plant growth characteristics. The pretreated wood chips was showed that bulk density, porosity and pH were
, 93.3% and 5.7, respectively. This result indicates that physicochemical properties was improved when wood chips was apply to steam explosion in the range of optimum physicochemical condition for vegetation media. In particular, the mixture ratio of peat moss and pretreated wood chips to 70 : 30 (w/w) showed higher seed germination, plant height and leaf growth than peat moss. Also, the bulk density, porosity, water holding capacity, pH and C/N ratio were
, 91.8%, 76.1%, 5.2 and 51.0 in the range of optimum physicochemical condition for vegetation media.
Development of Quantitative Analytical Method for Isoflavonoid Compounds from Fruits of Cudrania Tricuspidata
Yoon, Sun Young ; Kim, Seok Ju ; Sim, Su Jin ; Lee, Hak-Ju ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 337~349
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.337
In this study, an analytical method to evaluate the quality of isoflavonoid compounds purified and isolated from the fruits of Cudrania tricuspidata was developed and validated using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC). The fruits of C. tricuspidata were extracted with methanol and further fractioned with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and water. The resulting ethyl acetate extract separated into four isoflavonoid compounds by a combination of silica gel and sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The structures of the compounds were elucidated as alpinumisoflavone, 6,8-diprenyl genistein, 6,8-diprenyl orobol, 4`-O-methylalpinumisoflavone by various techniques such as UV-Vis, ESI-MS,
spectroscopy. Finally, a method to characterize the compounds was developed by using the UPLC equipped with a
column and a gradient mobile phase system consisting of 2% acetic acid in water (solvent A) and 2% acetic acid in methanol (solvent B). The developed method was validated with the parameters such as selectivity, linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy, and precision, which are defined by the ICH (International Conference on Harmonization). Using the validated method, the compounds in the fruits harvested in different months were also quantitatively analyzed. We propose this approach this approach can readily be utilized as an efficient evaluation method to quantify the extracts of C. tricuspidata.
Study on The Thermochemical Degradation Features of Empty Fruit Bunch on The Function of Pyrolysis Temperature
Lee, Jae Hoon ; Moon, Jae Gwan ; Choi, In-Gyu ; Choi, Joon Weon ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 350~359
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.350
We performed fast pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB) in the range of temperature from
and 1.3 s of residence time. The effect of temperature on the yields and physicochemical properties of pyrolytic products were also studied. Elemental and component analysis of EFB showed that the large amount of potassium (ca. 8400 ppm) presents in the feedstock. Thermogravimetric analysis suggested that the potassium in the feedstock catalyzed degradation of cellulose. The yield of bio-oil increased with increasing temperature in the range of temperature from
, while that of gas and biochar decreased and showed monotonous change each with increasing temperature. When the EFB was pyrolyzed at
, the yield of bio-oil and char decreased while that of gas increased. Water content of the bio-oils obtained at different temperatures was 20~30% and their total acid number were less than 100 mg KOH/g oil. Viscosity of the bio-oils was 11 cSt (centistoke), and heating value varied from 15 to 17 MJ/kg. Using GC/MS analysis, 27 chemical compounds which were classified into two groups (cellulose-derived and lignin-derived) were identified. Remarkably the concentration of phenol was approximately 25% based on entire chemical compounds.
Improvement in The Fuel Characteristics of Empty Fruit Bunch by Leaching and Wet Torrefaction
Gong, Sung-Ho ; Lee, Hyoung-Woo ; Lee, Jae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 360~369
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.360
In this study, sequential leaching and wet torrefaction were performed to improve the fuel characteristics of empty fruit bunch (EFB). Leaching was carried out at
for 5~30 min. The highest ash removal efficiency of 55.99% was achieved when leaching was performed at
for 10 min. The ash removal efficiency was dependent more on leaching temperature than time. Wet torrefaction was carried out at
for 5~40 min, following the leaching. Most of the inorganic compounds were removed at removal efficiencies of 41.05~63.58% during sequential leaching and wet torrefaction, while silica remained in the biomass. Chloride, calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus showed more than 80% removal efficiencies. The calorific value of EFB increased to 7.96% (4730 kcal/kg) in comparison to the raw material (4390 kcal/kg) when wet torrefaction was performed at
for 40 min following leaching.
Prediction of Heat-treatment Time of Black Pine Log Damaged by Pine Wilt Disease
Han, Yeonjung ; Seo, Yeon-Ok ; Jung, Sung-Cheol ; Eom, Chang-Deuk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 370~380
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.370
The black pine logs damaged by pine wilt disease in Jeju-do were heat-treated to extend the utilization of domestic trees damaged by pine wilt disease. The heat-treatment of wood requires wood to be heated to
for 30 min at the core. The average moisture content and top-diameter of the black pine logs were ranged from 46% to 141% and from 180 mm to 500 mm, respectively. And the basic specific gravity and oven-dry specific gravity of the black pine logs were 0.47 and 0.52, respectively. The time required for heat-treatment at
temperature was ranged from 7.7 h to 44.2 h, depending on moisture content and top-diameter. The temperature distribution was used to predict the time required for heat-treatment of black pine log with various moisture contents and top-diameters using finite difference method. The thermal properties of wood including the thermal conductivity and specific heat in accordance with moisture content were calculated. Heat transfer coefficient for mixed convection in form of adding natural convection and forced convection was used for heat transfer analysis. The error between the measured and predicted values ranged from 3% to 45%. The predicted times required for heat-treatment of black pine log with 50% moisture content and 200 mm, 300 mm, and 400 mm top-diameter were 10.9 h, 18.3 h, and 27.0 h, respectively. If the initial moisture content of black pine log is 75%, heat treatment times of 13.6 h, 22.5 h, and 32.8 h were predicted in accordance with top-diameter. And if the initial moisture content of black pine log is 100%, heat treatment times of 16.2 h, 26.5 h, and 38.2 h were predicted in accordance with top-diameter. When the physical properties of logs damaged by pine wilt disease are presented, these results can be applicable to the heat-treatment of red pine and Korean pine logs as well.
Biopolishing of Cotton Fabric using Crude Cellulases from Acanthophysium sp. KMF001
Shin, Keum ; Yoon, Sae-Min ; Kim, Juhea ; Kim, Young-Kyoon ; Kim, Tae-Jong ; Kim, Yeong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 381~388
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.381
Biopolishing using cellulases was introduced in the production of cotton fabric in order to improve the quality of fabric environmental friendly and is commonly used in the textile industry. In this study, the application of a crude cellulase from Acanthophysium sp. KMF001, which was excellent for the saccharification of cellulose, on biopolishing was evaluated. The optimum treatment biopolishing condition was at
and pH 4.5 for 60 minutes with 10% crude cellulase of fabric weight. After the optimized biopolishing, the crude cellulase of Acanthophysium sp. KMF001 reduced the tensile strength of the tested cotton fabric less than a commercial cellulase. The appearance of the cotton fabric after the treatment of the crude cellulase of Acanthophysium sp. KMF001 was similar to the fabric after a commercial cellulase treatment. All these results support that the crude cellulase of Acanthophysium sp. KMF001 was a good biopolishing cellulase.
Enhancement of Ethanol Production by The Removal of Fermentation Inhibitors, and Effect of Lignin-derived Inhibitors on Fermentation
Um, Min ; Shin, Gyeong-Jin ; Lee, Jae-Won ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 389~397
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.389
In this study, ethanol was produced from a biomass hydrolysate that had been treated by electrodialysis (ED) and Amberlite XAD resin to remove fermentation inhibitors. Most of the acetic acid (95.6%) was removed during the ED process. Non-ionizable compounds such as total phenolic compounds, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, and furfural were effectively removed by the XAD resin treatment. Ethanol production was improved when the ED-treated hydrolysate was treated with XAD-4 resin for a short reaction time. The highest ethanol production from ED-treated hydrolysate was
(after 72 h of fermentation) when the treatment with XAD-4 resin was for 5 min. Among the lignin-derived fermentation inhibitors tested, syringaldehyde in low concentrations (1 and 2 mM) in the hydrolysate increased ethanol production, whereas a high concentration (5 mM) inhibited the ethanol production process. A synthetic medium containing syringaldehyde and ferulic acid was prepared to investigate the synergistic effect of inhibitors on ethanol fermentation. Ethanol production decreased in the mixture of 1 mM syringaldehyde and 1 mM ferulic acid, implying that the effect of ferulic acid on ethanol fermentation is comparable to that of syringaldehyde.
Size Fractionation of Cellulose Nanofibers by Settling Method and Their Morphology
Park, Chan-Woo ; Han, Song-Yi ; Lee, Seung-Hwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 398~405
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.398
The cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) were prepared by wet disk-milling (WDM) and fractionated by settling method into supernatant, middle and sediment fractions. The diameter and its distribution of the fractionated CNFs were investigated. With increasing WDM passing number, precipitation became delayed. Weight fraction at sediment fraction was decreased, whereas those at supernatant and middle fractions were increased with increasing WDM passing number. Diameter distribution of CNFs at supernatant fraction was narrowest and became broaden at middle and sediment fraction. Filtration time was longer in order of supernatant, middle and sediment fraction.
Physical and Mechanical Properties of The Lignin-based Carbon Nanofiber-reinforced Epoxy Composite
Youe, Won-Jae ; Lee, Soo-Min ; Lee, Sung-Suk ; Kim, Yong Sik ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 406~414
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.406
The lignin-based carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composite has been prepared by immersing carbon nanofiber mat in epoxy resin solution in order to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties. The thermal and mechanical properties of the carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composite were analyzed using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and tensile tester. It was found that the thermal properties of the carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composite improved, with its glass-transition temperature (
) increased from
of epoxy resin itself) to
. The tensile strengths of carbon nanofiber mats made from both lignin-g-PAN copolymer and PAN were 7.2 MPa and 9.4 MPa, respectively. The resulting tensile strength of lignin-based carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composite became 43.0 MPa, the six times higher than that of lignin-based carbon nanofiber mats. The carbon nanofibers were pulled out after the tensile test of the carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composite due to high tensile strength (478.8 MPa) of an individual carbon nanofiber itself as well as low interfacial adhesion between fibers and matrices, confirmed by the SEM analysis.
Bending Strength Performance Evaluation of Glass Fiber Cloth Reinforced Cylindrical Laminated Veneer Lumber
Lee, In-Hwan ; Hong, Soon-Il ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 415~423
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.415
Cylindrical laminated veneer lumber (LVL) is produced by winding the veneer tape on a circular cylinder. The veneer tape was produced by cutting the veneer into a rectangular shape and sewing it in a vertical direction to the fiber. The tensile strength test was carried out by producing the veneer tape specimen with different species of veneer, types and combinations of sewing yarn. The Radiata pine veneer tape produced with three sewing lines using the reinforced sewing thread had the best tensile strength. Also, the separation and snapping problems of the veneer tape were improved, resulting in the improvement in the workability of cylindrical LVL. The bending strength of various cylindrical LVL produced with different types of veneer tape and a different number of lamination layers and the application of reinforcement with glass fiber cloth was compared with that of Larix log. Bending MOR of cylindrical LVL reinforced with glass fiber cloth at the volume ratio of 11% was improved by 65% in comparison to the non-reinforced cylindrical LVL. In the case of the cylindrical LVL produced with 2 sewing lines of veneer tape, a fracture occurred at the butt joint between the veneer tapes. However, in the case of the cylindrical LVL produced with 3 sewing lines of veneer tape a fracture occurred in the fiber direction.
Comparison of Moisture Absorption/Desorption Properties of Carbonized Boards Made from Wood-Based Panels
Lee, Min ; Park, Sang-Bum ; Lee, Sang-Min ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 424~429
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.424
In this study, the carbonized boards were manufactured from different types of wood-based panel and then their moisture absorption/desorption properties were investigated and compared. The carbonization temperature was maximum
with 2 h maintains. Test results showed higher absorption/desorption capacity on carbonized plywood than carbonized MDF, PB, and OSB, respectively. However, carbonized MDF, OSB, and plywood had similar absorption/desorption rate per hour. It means carbonized OSB and plywood can transfer moisture into deeper side and then possibly hold more amount of water. Based on SEM images, carbonized OSB and plywood showed more like wood structure, while carbonized MDF and PB had only wood fiber or/and chunk of wood fragments. Therefore, original wood structure may affect moisture absorption/desorption capacity. In order to manufacture high moisture absorbing/desorbing carbonized board, wood structure should be considered and then carbonized.
Emission Properties of Volatile Compounds from Medicine Herb Residues Board
Roh, JeongKwan ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 430~439
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.430
Medicine herb residues boards were manufactured by using medicine herb residues, and emission properties of volatile compounds from boards were examined under various temperature conditions. The volatile compounds were identified with analysis of TD GC/MS by absorbing their flavor components in Tenax tubes. Total 88 volatile compounds were identified from the board. The number of identified compounds at temperature conditions of
were 44, 55, and 65 kinds, respectively. The number of volatile compounds and the total peak area tended to increase with an increase in the temperature. The number of the flavor components detected in all temperature conditions were 34 kinds. Hydrocarbon compounds showed 93% of the detected flavor compounds at
, 92% at
, and 90% at
. Ether compounds accounted for 4% and ketone, aldehyde, and acid-type compounds were detected in a small quantity. The hydrocarbons were composed of 17 kinds of monoterpenes and 39 kinds of sesquiterpenes, which accounted for 11% and 80%, respectively. The most detected compound of monoterpene was limonene, and the major flavor components of sesquiterpenes were
. Anethole (3.26%) known for ether compounds was detected considerably in all temperature conditions. The results suggest that the manufactured medicine herb residues board include various types of flavor compounds and the flavor compounds might be useful for the manufacture of various products.
Analysis of Hygrothermal Performance for Standard Wood-frame Structures in Korea
Chang, Seong Jin ; Kang, Yujin ; Wi, Seunghwan ; Jeong, Su-Gwang ; Kim, Sumin ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 440~448
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.440
As recent buildings become more air tight, the natural ventilation rate is significantly reduced and it leads to difficulty in removing accumulated moisture in buildings. Hot and humid weather in summer and the large amount of moisture caused by indoor activity are the major factors of moisture problem in Korea. The hygrothermal behavior of building environment has to be considered carefully to reduce condensation risk and mold growth potential, and comfortable indoor environment. In this study, we evaluated hygrothermal behavior of Standard Wood-frame Structure published in the Korea Rural Community Corporation Using WUFI simulation program. The results indicated that the total water contents of wood wall measured in 2014 was lower than wood wall in 2010. As a result of evaluation by separating the farming and fishing areas, Moisture problems in fishing area became larger. The walls had a significant impact on the relative humidity than the temperature each areas. Furthermore, excessive water content problem of the wood-based material was reduced in the wall that could be applied in the fishing villages by changing the outdoor finishing materials. And Mold growth risk on the interior materials could be removed through the different setting of the indoor temperature during summertime.
Assessment of Carbon Emission for Quantification of Environmental Load on Structural Glued Laminated Timber in Korea
Chang, Yoon-Seong ; Kim, Sejong ; Son, Whi-Lim ; Lee, Sang-Joon ; Shim, Kug-Bo ; Yeo, Hwanmyeong ; Kim, Kwang-Mo ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 449~456
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.449
This study was aimed to quantify the amount of carbon dioxide emissions and to suggest suitable plans which consider the carbon emission reduction in the manufacturing process of the domestic structural glued laminated timber. Field investigation on two glued laminated timber manufacturers was conducted to find out material flow input values such as raw materials, transportation, manufacturing process, and energy consumption during manufacturing process. Based on the collected data and the relevant literatures about life cycle inventory (LCI), the amount of carbon dioxide emission per unit volume was quantified. Results show that the carbon dioxide emissions for sawing, drying and laminating process are 31.0, 109.0, 94.2 kg
, respectively. These results show 13% lesser amount of total carbon dioxide emissions compared with the imported glued laminated timber in Korea. Furthermore, it was decreased about 37% when the fossil fuel would be replaced with biomass fuel in drying process. Findings from this study is effectively used as the basic data on the life cycle assessment of wooden building.
Research Trend of The Heat-Treatment of Wood for Improvement of Dimensional Stability and Resistance to Biological Degradation
Kim, Yeong-Suk ;
Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology, volume 44, issue 3, 2016, Pages 457~476
DOI : 10.5658/WOOD.2016.44.3.457
This was investigated on the major issues and research trends regarding the heat-treatment of woods through literature reviews. The principal heat-treatment technologies utilized for industrial purposes include the Plato-process (Netherlands), the Retification process (France), the OHT-process (Germany), and the Thermowood Process (Finland). Factors that mainly influence the heat-treatment process are the wood species, process temperature, processing time, and the heating medium (air, steam, vacuum, N2, oil, etc.). Researches on investigating the optimal conditions with these process conditions being the variables stand as the mainstream. Heat-treated woods present dimensional stability improvement, but mass loss and strength reduction, a wide variations for decaying inhibition, and insufficient resistance against mold, wood borer, and termites. For further improvement in respects of durability or resistance to biological degradation, necessity to search for more suitable heat treatment process and processing conditions fit for each wood species has been suggested. Exploiting new ways to utilize heat-treated wood and extending its range of use have been considered to be important matters that need more effort put into for the sustainable and sound environment as well as saving the wood resources.