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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 23, Issue 4 - Dec 2001
Volume 23, Issue 3 - Sep 2001
Volume 23, Issue 2 - Jun 2001
Volume 23, Issue 1 - Mar 2001
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Composition and Structure of Macrofouling Communities on Ocean-going Ships in the Far East Sea Basin
Moshchenko, Alexander V. ; Zvyagintsev, Alexander Y. ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 63~75
Species composition and community structure of the fouling found on the hulls of 28 ships traveling through 6 main shipping routes (SR)in the Far East Sea Basin were analyzed using statistical methods. Samples obtained during 1976-1990 expeditions of the Institute of Marine Biology were used for the analyses. These samples were taken from the ships anchored in the harbor by SCUBA diving and in dry-docks of the Vladivostok ship-repairing yard. Similar composition of the fouling communities occurred on the ships travelling the same SR. In five cases, fouling was dominated by different Cirripedia communities. And, in one case, a community of the mussel Mytilus trossulus was found. In most cases the results of the factor analyses showed extremely low level of the relationships among different animals and algal species in fouling communities. Each ocean-going ship had an original structure of the fouling. Spatially disconnected animal associations of tropical and boreal origin may simultaneously coexist at the same ship. This paper testified to the originality of the zone of anthropogenic substrata as a benthos concentrator in the pelagic regions of the world ocean. The fouling from different zones showed that each zone possesses peculiar features and regularities of the composition and relationships between organisms dwelling here.
Distribution of Nutrients and Phytoplankton Biomass in the Area Around the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica
Kim, Dong-Seon ; Kang, Sung-Ho ; Kim, Dong-Yup ; Lee, Youn-Ho ; Kang, Young-Chul ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 77~95
Temperature, salinity, nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and primary production were measured within the upper 200 m water column in the area around the South Shetland Islands in January, 2000. Surface temperature was relatively high in the Drake Passage north of the South Shetland Islands and low in the northeastern area of the Antarctic Peninsula. In contrast, surface salinity was low in the Drake Passage and increased toward the Antarctic Peninsula, reaching the maximum value in the northeastern area of the Antarctic Peninsula. Surface nutrients were low in the Drake Passage and high in the area near the South Shetland Islands. Surface chlorophyll-a was also low in the Drake Passage and near the Antarctic Peninsula and high in the area of the northern King George Island. The study area could be classified as four geographical zones based on the characteristic shape of the T/S diagrams;the Drake Passage, the Bransfield Strait, the mixed zone, and the Weddell Sea. Each geographical zone showed apparently different physical, chemical, and biological characteristics. Phytoplankton biomass was relatively low in the Drake Passage and the Weddell Sea and high in the Bransfield Strait and the mixed zone. The low phytoplankton biomass in the Weddell Sea could be explained by the low water temperature and deep surface mixing down to 200 m. The high grazing pressure and low availability of iron could be responsible for the low phytoplankton biomass in the Drake Passage.
Volcaniclastic Sedimentation of the Sejong Formation (Late Paleocene-Eocene), Barton Peninsula, King George Island, Antarctica
Yoo, Chan-Min ; Choe, Moon-Young ; Jo, Hyung-Rae ; Kim, Yae-Dong ; Kim, Ki-Hyune ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 97~107
The Sejong Formation of Late Paleocene to Eocene is a lower volcaniclastic sequence unconformably overlain by upper volcanic sequence, and distributed along the southern and southeastern cliffs of the Barton Peninsula. The Sejong Formation is divided into five sedimentary facies; disorganized matrix-supported conglomerate (Facies A), disorganized clast-supported conglomerate (Facies B), stratified clast-supported conglomerate (Facies C), thin-bedded sandstone (Facies D), and lapilli tuff (Facies E), based on sedimentary textures, primary sedimentary structures and bed geometries. Individual sedimentary facies is characterized by distinct sedimentary process such as gravel-bearing mudflows or muddy debris flows (Facies A), cohesionless debris flows (Facies B),unconfined or poorly confined hyperconcentrated flood flows and sheet floods (Facies C), subordinate streamflows (Facies D), and pyroclastic flows (Facies E). Deposition of the Sejong Formation was closely related to volcanic activity which occurred around the sedimentary basin. Four different phases of sediment filling were identified from constituting sedimentary facies. Thick conglomerate and sandstone were deposited during inter-eruptive phases (stages 1, 3 and 4), whereas lapilli tuff was formed by pyroclastic flows during active volcanism (stage 2). These records indicate that active volcanism occurred around the Barton Peninsula during Late Paleocene to Eocene.
Meiobenthic Animals of the Tidal Flat Near the Yeonggwang Nuclear Power Plant
Kim, Dong-Sung ; Choi, Jin-Woo ; Kang, Rae-Seon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 109~119
Meiobenthic community structure of tidal flats near the Yeonggwang Nuclear Power Plant have studied during summer (June) and fall (October) 1997. Examination of sediment samples collected along the transects showed that there were 18 different types of meiobenthos in the study area. The most abundant meiobenthic animals belonged to Phylum Nematoda in both seasons and all transects. However, sediment samples collected near discharge areas, transects A and B, showed relatively lower abundance than other general coastal areas. Another abundant meiobenthic organism is benthic Harpacticoids which is very sensitive to any environmental changes. Polycheats and Ostracods were next abundant meiobenthos which also showed the difference between the study area and other general coastal areas. Only transect C maintained similar meiobenthic abundance and diversity to other coastal areas. Horizontal distribution for transects A and B showed higher densities in upper and mid tidal flat zones. On the other hand, transect C which is located furtherest from the discharges showed an increasing trend in abundance from upper to lower areas. For size distribution analyses showed that animals which fit into the meshsize of 0.125 mm were abundant, Vertical distribution of meiobenthic animals within the sediments for both sampling seasons showed the highest individual numbers in the surface sediment layers of 0-1 cm depth and showed a decreasing trend as sediment gets deeper. Each class of meiobenthos had different vertical profiles. When comparing survey transects A and B with other similar tidal flat areas, this sites seems to a very unstable environment of tidal flats near the Yeonggwang Nuclear Power Plant.
Conversion of Korean Geodetic Coordinates
Seo, Seung-Nam ; Kim, Sang-Ik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 121~130
Geodetic datums define the size and shape of the earth and the origin and orientation of the coordinate systems used to map the earth. A lot of different datums have been developed and each nation uses its own datum as the basis for coordinate systems used to identify positions in geographic information systems. Recently GPS receivers are widely used to find out location and GPS is based on the World Geodetic System 1984(WGS-84) datum. Therefore the diversity of datums in use today requires accurate conversion between coordinates in different datums. In this study a coordinate conversion program on Windows is developed to transform between Tokyo Bessel(1941), which is the reference datum in Korea, and WGS-84. Several examples of coordinate conversion are presented and computed results are tested and proved to be correct.
Comparisons of Ocean Currents Observed from Drifters and TP/ERS in the East Sea
Lee, Dong-Kyu ; Niiler, Pearn P. ; Suk, Moon-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 133~139
Ocean currents estimated from sea height anomalies derived from inter-calibrated TP/ERS are compared with daily mean currents measured with satellite-tracked drifters. The correlation coefficient between the geostrophic current from TP/ERS and surface current at 15 m depth from drifter tracks was found to be about 0.5. Due to the limitation of satellite ground tracks, small scale eddies less than 80 km are poorly resolved from TP/ERS. One of the interesting results of this study is that coastal currents along the eastern coast of Korea were well reproduced from sea height anomalies when the coastal currents were developed in association with eddies near the South Korean coast. The eddy kinetic energy (EKE) estimated from drifters, TP/ERS, and a numerical model are also compared. The EKE estimated from drifters was about 22 % higher than EKE calculated from TP/ERS. The pattern of low EKE level in the northern basin and high EKE level in the southern East Sea is shown in the EKE estimates derived from both the drifters and TP/ERS.
Kuroshio Observation Program: Towards Real-Time Monitoring the Japanese Coastal Waters
Ostrovskii, Alexander ; Kaneko, Arata ; Stuart-Menteth, Alice ; Takeuchi, Kensuke ; Yamagata, Toshio ; Park, Jae-Hun ; Zhu, Xiao Hua ; Gohda, Noriaki ; Ichikawa, Hiroshi ; Ichikawa, Kaoru ; Isobe, Atsuhiko ; Konda, Masanori ; Umatani, Shin-Ichiro ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 141~160
The challenge of predicting the Japanese coastal ocean motivated Frontier Observational Research System for Global Change (FORSGC) and the Japan Marine Science and Technology Center (JAMSTEC) to start a multiyear observational programme in the upstream Kuroshio in November 2000. This field effort, the Kuroshio Observation Program (KOP), should enable us to determine the barotropic and baroclinic components of the western boundary current system, thus, to better understand interactions of the currents with mesoscale eddies, the Kuroshio instabilities, and path bimodality. We, then, will be able to improve modeling predictability of the mesoscale, seasonal, and inter-annual processes in the midstream Kuroshio near the Japanese main islands by using this knowledge. The KOP is focused on an enhanced regional coverage of the sea surface height variability and the baroclinic structure of the mainstream Kuroshio in the East China Sea, the Ryukyu Current east of the Ryukyu's, and the Kuroshio recirculation. An attractive approach of the KOP is a development of a new data acquisition system via acoustic telemetry of the observational data. The monitoring system will provide observations for assimilation into extensive numerical models of the ocean circulation, targeting the real-time monitoring of the Japanese coastal waters.
POM/MICOM Inter-Comparison in Modeling the East Sea Circulation
Kim, Kuk-Jin ; Seung, Young-Ho ; Suk, Moon-Sik ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 161~172
A model-to-model comparison is attempted between Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and Miami Isopycnic Coordinate Ocean Model (MICOM) as a first step to extend our knowledge of models' performances in studying the East Sea circulation. The two models have fundamentally different numerical schemes and boundary conditions imposed on these models are not exactly the same each other. This study indicates that MICOM has a critical weak point in that it does not reproduce the shallow surface currents properly while it handles the thermohaline processes and associated movements of intermediate and deep waters efficiently. It is suggested that the mixed layer scheme needs to be modified so that it can match with inflow boundary conditions in order to reproduce the surface currents properly in MICOM. POM reproduces the surface current pattern better than MICOM, although the surface currents in POM appear to undergo the unrealistic seasonal variation and have exaggeratedly large vertical scale. These defects seem to arise during the process of adapting POM to the East Sea, and removing these defects is left as a future task.
Application of a Parallel Asynchronous Algorithm to Some Grid Problems on Workstation Clusters
Park, Pil-Seong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 173~179
Parallel supercomputing is now a must for oceanographic numerical modelers. Most of today's parallel numerical schemes use synchronous algorithms, where some processors that have finished their tasks earlier than others must wait at synchronization points for correct computation. Hence, the load balancing is a crucial factor, however, it is, in general, difficult to achieve on heterogeneous workstation clusters. We devise an asynchronous algorithm that reduces the idle times of faster processors, and discuss application of the algorithm to some grid problems and implementation on a workstation cluster using Message Passing Interface (MPI).
Development of the Korea Ocean Prediction System
Suk, Moon-Sik ; Chang, Kyung-Il ; Nam, Soo-Yong ; Park, Sung-Hyea ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 181~188
We describe here the Korea ocean prediction system that closely resembles operational numerical weather prediction systems. This prediction system will be served for real-time forecasts. The core of the system is a three-dimensional primitive equation numerical circulation model, based on
-coordinate. Remotely sensed multi-channel sea surface temperature (MCSST) is imposed at the surface. Residual subsurface temperature is assimilated through the relationship between vertical temperature structure function and residual of sea surface height (RSSH) using an optimal interpolation scheme. A unified grid system, named as [K-E-Y], that covers the entire seas around Korea is used. We present and compare hindcasting results during 1990-1999 from a model forced by MCSST without incorporating RSSH data assimilation and the one with both MCSST and RSSH assimilated. The data assimilation is applied only in the East Sea, hence the comparison focuses principally on the mesoscale features prevalent in the East Sea. It is shown that the model with the data assimilation exhibits considerable skill in simulating both the permanent and transient mesoscale features in the East Sea.
Prediction of SST for Operational Ocean Prediction System
Kang, Yong-Quin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 189~194
A practical algorithm for prediction of the sea surface temperatures (SST)from the satellite remote sensing data is presented in this paper. The fluctuations of SST consist of deterministic normals and stochastic anomalies. Due to large thermal inertia of sea water, the SST anomalies can be modelled by autoregressive or Markov process, and its near future values can be predicted provided the recent values of SST are available. The actual SST is predicted by superposing the pre-known SST normals and the predicted SST anomalies. We applied this prediction algorithm to the NOAA AVHRR weekly SST data for 18 years (1981-1998) in the seas adjacent to Korea (115-
). The algorithm is applicable not only for prediction of SST in near future but also for nowcast of SST in the cloud covered regions.
Development of a Nowcast System for the Taiwan Strait (TSNOW): Numerical Simulation of Barotropic Tides
Jan, Sen ; Wang, Yu-Huai ; Chao, Shenn-Yu ; Wang, Dong-Ping ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 23, issue 2, 2001, Pages 195~203
A fine-grid (3 km
3 km), three-dimensional nowcast system of sea levels, currents, temperature, and salinity is being developed for the Taiwan Strait. The project takes a balanced approach relying equally on models and observations, will have the capacity of real-time data assimilation, and is aimed at both practical and scientific applications. To determine boundary conditions and verify model results, eight coastal tide-gauge stations were first established along both sides of the strait. Strait-wide hydrographic surveys were conducted by research vessels. Currents are being measured using bottom-mounted ADCP moorings in a meridional deep channel off southwest Taiwan and along a traverse section in the central part of the strait. In addition to a fine-resolution three-dimensional model of the Taiwan Strait, an adjoint model and a larger-domain two-dimensional model were used to better determine boundary conditions in the northern and southern boundaries of the strait. In the first stage of model development, barotropic tides were successfully simulated in a hindcast mode. The protocol product has been released to general public, including government agencies, universities and general users.