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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
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Seasonal Variation of Global Volume Transport Calculated from an Ocean General Circulation Model
Jang, Chan-Joo ; Noh, Yign ; Kim, Cheol-Ho ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 1~18
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.001
Seasonal variation in global transport calculated from an ocean general circulation model (OGCM) has been assessed through the comparison with observational estimates. The OGCM based on the GFDL MOM1.1 has honzontal grid interval of 10 and 21 verticle levels, and was integrated for 31 years forced by climatological wind stress, freshwater flux, and heat flux with restoring. General features of the world ocean circulation are well reproduced, which include the western boundary currents such as the Kuroshio and the Agulhas Current, the Equatorial Current system, the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, and the Weddell Sea gyres. Also well resolved is the remarkable seasonal variation in the depth-integrated flows in the northern Indian Ocean due to the monsoonal wind. Monthly variation is found to be dominant in the transport of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current through the Drake Passage in accordance with observational estimates. It has been shown that the mid-latitude depth-integrated flows obey the Sverdrup relation, except for some regions such as continental shelf regions where the interaction between stratification and bottom topography is critical.
Precipitation Anomalies Around King Sejong Station, Antarctica Associated with E1Niño/Southern Oscillation
Kwon, Tae-Yong ; Lee, Bang-Yong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 19~31
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.019
Precipitation variability around King Sejong Station related with E1
/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using the gauge-based monthly data of its neighboring stations. Though three Ant-arctic Stations of King Sejong (Korea), Frei (Chile), and Artigas (Uruguay) are all closely located within 10 km, their precipitation data show mostly insignificant positive or rather negative correlations among them in the annual, seasonal and monthly precipitation. This result indicates that there are locally large variations in the distribution of precipitation around King Sejong Station. The monthly data of Frei Station for 31 years (1970-2000) are analyzed for examining the ENSO signal in precipitation because of its longer precipitation record compared to other two stations. From the analysis of seasonal precipitation, it is seen that there is a tendency of less precipitation than the average during E1
events. This dryness is more distinct in fall to spring seasons, in which the precipitation decreases down to about 30% of seasonal mean precipitation. However, the precipitation signal related with La
events is not significant. From the analysis of monthly precipitation, it is found that there is a strong negative correlation during 1980s and in the late 1990s, and a weak positive correlation in the early 1990s between normalized monthly precipitation at Frei Station and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the
3.4 region. However, this relation may be not applied over the region around King Sejong Station, but at only one station, Frei.
Restoration Needs for Coastal Vegetated Ecosystem in Korea: An Introduction
Je, Jong-Geel ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 33~37
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.033
Seasonal Patterns of Sediment Supply to Coastal Foredune of Seungbong Island, Korea
Woo, Han-Jun ; Seo, Jong-Chul ; Kweon, Su-Jae ; Je, Jong-Geel ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 39~45
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.039
The seasonal patterns of sediment supply were investigated during the period of June 1999 to June 2000 on a coastal foredune of Seungbong Island, Korea. Sediment supply was determined from measurements of geomorphic changes in the foredune and beach along six lines. Most sands were deposited on the dunefoot and foredune area during the winter and spring, from November to April. The largest amount of sands was deposited along the lines 5 and 6 near the sea-dike in the southern tip of the dune area. In general, the sand on the beach was gradually eroded in spring, summer and fall but deposited in winter. Total sediment accumulation over the study period was
for the foredune and
for the beach. The volume of the foredune increased in the winter and spring, whereas the volume of beach increased in the winter. Variation in sediment deposition appears to be controlled primarily by variations in the seasonal wind regime.
Preliminary Studies on the Relationship between Reed and Bacterial Communities in the Salt Marsh Environment of Namyang Bay, Korea
Kwon, Kae-Kyoung ; Je, Jong-Geel ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 47~53
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.047
To evaluate the effect of reed population on the distribution and activities of microorganisms, vertical distribution of heterotrophic bacteria, degradation rate of cellulose, extracellular aminopeptidase activity (APA) and metabolic diversity based on GN2 Microlog plate were measured at two salt marsh stations in Hogok-ri, Namyang Bay, west coast of Korea. The number of heterotrophic bacteria at station 1 (reed population inhabited area) showed 2 to 6 times higher than that of station 2 (exposed area) with exception in the surface layer. Cellulose degradation rates in station 1 showed more than 50%. month-I and higher than that of station 2 (10.2 to 38.4%.
). Yet the APA at two stations did not show difference except surface layer and suggested that APA might not be a significant factor in degrading marsh plant debris. Lipid class compounds, cell wall polymers and L-alanine were widely used by microorganisms. The number and activities of bacterial populations especially concerned in plant debris degradation seemed to be stimulated by the reed communities.
Distribution of Eelgrass, Zostera marina L. on Coasts of the Korean Peninsula: Preliminary Study for Eelgrass Restoration
Lee, Sang-Yong ; Kwon, Chun-Jong ; Lee, Kun-Seop ; Choi, Chung-Il ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 55~61
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.055
Eelgrass, Zostera marina L. widely spreads throughout all the coastal areas of the Korean Peninsula. However, some previously reported eelgrass populations disappeared. The disappearance was probably caused by anthropogenic disturbance such as reclamation and pollutant or exceeded nutrient release. Eelgrass beds occurred from the intertidal to the subtidal zone, mainly in lagoon, estuaries, ports, barrier reef and bays. Eelgrass beds were also found at the intertidal mud and sand flats, subtidal mud and sandbank in more exposed areas. Habitat characteristics of eelgrass beds distributed on the coasts of the Korean Peninsula varied among coast areas. Eelgrass distributed constantly throughout the southern coast of Korea, while the distribution was limited at lagoon, bay, port, or barrier reef on the eastern coast, because of steep water depth and high wave energy in that coast. On the western coast, eelgrass mainly appeared at the intertidal and subtidal zones in islands. Sediment characteristics of the Z. marina beds varied with locality, tidal current and water motion. Sediments of Z. marina beds were composed of sand, muddy sand, sandy mud and mud. Mean grain size ranged from 1.5 to 4.1 phi.
A Preliminary Study on Changes in Macrobenthic Assemblages in the Fenced Experimental Plots for Restoring Tidal Marsh, Hogok-ri Tidal Flat, West Coast of Korea
Koo, Bon-Joo ; Je, Jong-Geel ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 63~71
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.063
This preliminary study on the changes of macrobenthic assemblages in experimental sediment fences was conducted as a part of tidal marsh restoration project. Intertidal sediment fences were designed to increase the efficiency of trapping sediments on unvegetated tidal flats in order to raise sediment elevation and to allow colonization of intertidal vegetation. Although increment of soil surface level was not observed over the first three months of the study, it was possible to obtain some effects of the sediment fence. Three months later, the particle sizes of the surface sediment at experimental plots became much finer compared to unfenced areas on the natural mudflats located in the same tide level as that of the plots. The difference was much greater on the plot with drainage canals than on the plot without ones. Species diversity of the experimental plots became much higher than that of natural sites. Perinereis aibuhitensis and Glauconome chinensis which were absent from initial community appeared with high density in the plot with drainage canals. Those species were significantly different in abundance between the experimental plot and the natural mudflat. Changes in species composition were not detected in another experimental plot without drainage canals.
Visual Preferences for Simulated Restorations of Disturbed Coastal Landscapes
Ahn, Tong-Mahn ; Kim, Myung-Soo ; Jung, Soo-Jung ; Oh, Min-Keun ; Hur, Hak-Young ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 73~77
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.073
This study intends to find out what manmade elements in typical moderately disturbed coastal landscape are most adversely affecting its aesthetic quality. Simulation photos including a combination of five most common manmade structures (houses, roads, power lines, embankments, and aquaculture facilities) found on coastal areas were made, and thirty eight subjects in the field of landscape architecture and forty eight average subjects were asked to evaluate their visual preferences of the 32 simulation photos using seven levels of Likert scale. Overall, average and professional subjects did not show significant differences in their evaluations. Visual preferences were greatly influenced by the presence of the manmade structures. A natural coastal landscape without any manmade structures was most preferable, and a disturbed coastal landscape by all five manmade structures was least preferable. Power lines had the most serious negative impact on the landscape, and followed by the embankment. In coastal landscape restoration works and management, priority needs to be given to these manmade structures which have bigger negative landscape impacts.
Typical Coastal Vegetation of Korea
Min, Byoeng-Mee ; Je, Jong-Geel ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 79~86
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.079
It was found that 14 coastal habitats in South Korea have comparetively natural vegetation. The habitats were classified into three types - intertidal flats, sand dunes, and estuaries. There were four intertidal flats, five sand dunes and five estuaries. Except for Cynodon dactylon and Tetragonia tetragonoides, all of the main halophytes and sand dune plants were found in the habitats. These two species were mainly distributed on the southern coast. This study identified coastal vegetation, such as pure stands of Suaeda japonica on intertidal flats, mixed halophyte communities around the high-water mark, pure stands of Vitex rotundifolia on stable sand dunes, mixed communities dominated by Carex kobomugi on unstable sand dunes, and pure stands of Phragmites communis in estuaries. The types of coastal vegetation may depend on sediment types, the inundation time of seawater and the stability of sediments.
Emergy Perspectives of Ecosystem Restoration in Korea
Kang, Dae-Seok ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 87~92
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.087
The emergy (spelled with an 'm') concept was introduced to provide a new insight into ecosystem restoration efforts in Korea. The emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind previously required directly and indirectly to make a product or service. It is an effort to evaluate the true contributions of natural resources to our economy. It tries to include both contributions from natures free works and human services to develop and process natural resources. The emergy evaluation can be used to select a restoration alternative that yields more to the economy with less stress to the environment, by comparing different alternatives with indices expressed in emergy. It can also be used to assess the success of ecosystem restoration projects. Pulsing dynamics in which a slow build-up of production is followed by a frenzied consumption in relatively short time period seems to be a general feature of all systems. Any ecosystem restoration effort, therefore, should consider the whole pulsing cycle for a successful implementation.
A Review of Wetland Policies and Related Guidelines of Leading Nations and Korea with Emphasis on Creation of Artificial Wetlands
Lee, Yong-Hee ; Lee, Mi-Jin ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 93~114
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.093
Legal regimes of major countries actively involved in wetland programs including USA, Japan, Germany, Netherlands, and Denmark, show that these leading nations have developed their own legal regimes and policies for the conservation and restoration of wetlands since early 1990s. The main feature of their position is to preserve, create and restore wetlands, including tidal flats. However, this approach, so called 'mitigation' policy, is thus far, not a fully established policy but an evolving one. For Korea, there are only a few laws and policies which hint at the importance of creating coastal wetlands as a conservation measure, however, most of those systems only exist as vague provisions which lack any tangible and compulsory implementing procedures and technical guidelines. It seems that it is necessary to strengthen the legal measures for conserving coastal wetlands in Korea including specifying economic assessment methods and funding sources for the creation, restoration and rehabilitation of tidal flats to firmly establish a national wetland mitigation policy.
Yubu Island, the Important Waterbird Habitat on the West Coast of Korea and Its Conservation
Lee, Han-Soo ; Yi, Jeong-Yeon ; Kim, Hwa-Chung ; Lee, Si-Wan ; Paek, Woon-Kee ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 1, 2002, Pages 115~121
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.1.115
Yubu Island is located within the estuary of the Geum River, South Chungcheong Province
, Korea. The island is surrounded by a broad and sandy mudflat, which is typical in the west coast of Korea, and is located 4km off from Gunsan City. Less than 100 humans live on the island, occupying 30 houses. After we discovered that this island was a very important waterbird habitat especially for the East Asian subspecies of the Eurasian oystercatcher, Haematopus ostralegus osculans. Waterbirds were monitored once every month from August 1999 to July 2000. The highest number of oystercatchers counted was 3,200 in December 1999, and the birds seemed to remain in the area continuously from September to next February. About 200 breeding and non-breeding birds remained during the breeding season. In August, early migrants returned to the island, with the number reaching 1,060 individuals. This island is also very important for other waterbirds. Endangered or significant species occurring at this site, and their maximum counts were: chinese egret Egretta eulophotes (5), black-faced spoonbill Platalea minor (17), brant Branta bernicla (1), common shelduck Tadorna tadorna (8,000), hooded crane Grus monacha (2), spoon-billed sandpiper Ewynorhynchus pygmeus (7), dunlin Calidris alpina (6,500), great knot Calidris tenuirostris (24,000), far eastern curlew Numenius madagascariensis (2,500), spotted greenshank Tringa guttifer (4) and Saunders's gull Larus saundersi (1,200). During the 12 month survey period, we observed 52 waterbird species and the total of the maximum counts for the separate species was 73,308, implying that perhaps 150,000 birds could be using the immediate area, if a turnover rate of 2 was assumed.