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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 24, Issue 4 - Dec 2002
Volume 24, Issue 3 - Sep 2002
Volume 24, Issue 2 - Jun 2002
Volume 24, Issue 1 - Mar 2002
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The Use of the Brown Algae Sargassum spp. in Heavy Metal Monitoring of the Marine Environment near Vladivostok, Russia
Khristoforova, N.K. ; Kozhenkova, S.I. ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 325~329
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.325
Concentrations of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and Cd in two seaweed species (Sargassum miyabei and S. pallidum) from different areas in Amursky Bay near Vladivostok were determined. An assessment of heavy metal pollution in this bay was made and the results were compared with those from some localities in the world ocean.
Changes of Sedimentary Environments in the Southern Tidal Flat of Kanghwa Island
Woo, Han-Jun ; Je, Jong-Geel ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 331~343
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.331
The southern tidal flat of Kanghwa Island with an area of approximately
is one of the biggest flats on the west coast of Korea. Surface sediments for sedimentary analyses were sampled at 83 stations in August 1997, September 1999 and August 2000. The very poorly-sorted mud sediments were predominant in the eastern part of the tidal flat, whereas the poorly-sorted sand-mud mixed sediments were dominant in the western part. The area of muddy sediment distribution diminished, but that of sandy mud sediment extended to southeastward tidal flat for three years. In the western part of tidal flat, deposition occurred during the period of spring to summer, whereas erosion occurred in winter. Sediment accumulation rates during three years indicated that the sediments deposited continuously in the eastern part of tidal flat, whereas eroded in the western part of tidal flat. Recently, construction of artificial structures such as new airport, island-connecting bridges and dikes near the tidal flat might change tidal current and river flow pattern. In order to reduce the ecological damage and to preserve tidal-flat environment, it is necessary to Investigate long-term impacts on sedimentary environment and ecology.
Ecological and Morphological Characteristics of Zostera caulescens Miki (Zosteraceae) in Korea
Lee, Sang-Yong ; Suh, Young-Bae ; Kim, Sang-Tae ; Choi, Chung-Il ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 345~357
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.345
Ecological characteristics on habitats and morphological features of the seagrass Zostera caulescens Miki in Korea were examined. The biogeographical distribution of Z. caulescens was confirmed in the south coast of the Korea. Zostera caulescens usually inhabits at the inner bay, where is sheltered from wave action and 3.0 to 6.5 m deep. The sediment in habitats is composed of very fine muddy sand or sandy mud. In morphology, Z. caulescens is easily distinguished from other species of the genus by the formation of vegetative canopy on the top of reproductive stems. The number of longitudinal ribs in testa was 24 revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) while the number of ribs in Z. marina has been often reported to be 16-20. Purplish anthocyanin spots were displayed on the surface when the testa was removed. We found that the size and shape of leaf epidermal cells in Z. caulescens were very different from those of Z. marina when the leaf cuticles were removed by maceration which could be useful characters for identifying Zostera species. The leaf of Z. caulescens displays two different casts of color when the fresh plant is closely observed. The margins of leaves appear brighter than the center of leaves due to the thickening by the development of paralleled venation in the middle of leaves. The comparison of two populations of Z. caulescens in Korea showed that they were considerably different in their shoot density and biomass. The shoot density and biomass at Gabae population was
respectively, while those at Jukrim population were
Phytoplankton of the Coastal Waters of Vladivostok (the North-western Part of the East Sea) under Eutrophic Conditions
Stonik, I.V. ; Orlova, T.Yu. ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 359~365
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.359
The qualitative and quantitative composition of the phytoplankton of the coastal waters off Vladivostok during the period 1991-1994 was studied. The following trends in the phytoplankton composition with decreasing distance from the source of eutrophication were revealed: 1) total density and bio-mass increased; 2) the density of the diatom Skeletonema costatum, which reflects a decrease in the Shannon-Weaver species diversity index during the summer microalgal bloom, increased significantly; and 3) the density of the non-diatom component of the phytoplankton increased.
Hydrography around Dokdo
Chang, Kyung-Il ; Kim, Youn-Bae ; Suk, Moon-Sik ; Byun, Sang-Kyung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 369~389
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.369
CTD data taken in the Ulleung Basin between 1996 and 2001 are analyzed to understand the hydrography around Dokdo. Major features occurring in the Ulleung Basin such as the path variability of the East Korean Warm Current (EKWC), the location and size of the Ulleung Warm Eddy (UWE) and the position of the Offshore Branch along the Japanese coast all influence the hydrography around Dokdo. The Dokdo area frequently lies in the eastern part of the meandering EKWC and the UWE that results in a filting of isolines sloping upwards to Dokdo in the Ulleung Interplain Gap (UIG) between Ulleungdo and Dokdo. Subsurface water near Dokdo then becomes colder and less saline than water near Ulleungdo. Two cases that are opposite to this general trend are also identified when the Dokdo area is directly affected by the EKWC and by a small scale eddy ffd by the Offshore Branch. High salinity cores and warm waters are then found near Dokdo with isolines sloping upwards to Ulleungdo. Freshening of the East Sea Intermediate Water was observed in the UIG when neither the EKWC nor the UWE was developed in the Ulleung Basin during June-November 2000.
Trace Organic Contaminants in Sediments from Deep-sea Basin near Dokdo, Korea
Yim, Un-Hyuk ; Oh, Jae-Ryoung ; Hong, Sang-Hee ; Li, Dong-Hao ; Shim, Won-Joon ; Choi, Hye-Kyung ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Shim, Jae-Hyung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 391~398
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.391
Trace organic contaminants in deep-sea sediments near Dokdo were analyzed. Total PAMs concentration ranged 14.8-314 ng/g dry weight and high molecular weight PAHs were dominant. The highest PAHs concentration was detected at A19 which located at Ulleung Basin. Most of organochlorines were under detection limit. Among the detected organochlorines, DDT compounds were dominant and followed by HCHs and HCB. Butyltin compounds and most of organophosphorus pesticides were not detected. Vertical distribution of PAHs showed typical sub-surface maximum and decreasing trends depending on depth. The highest PAHs concentration reached 454ng/g. Some organochlorines, DDT, HCH was detected and also showed decreasing trends. Other target organic pollutants were not detected in core sediments. Abnormally high level of PAHs concentration in A19 was discussed and the input sources were inferred to be the transport of sludge derived pollutant dumped at dumping site 'Byung' by deep current.
Trace Metals in Surface Seawaters and Mussels around the Dokdo, Korea
Kim, Kyung-Tae ; Kim, Eun-Soo ; Lee, Soo-Hyung ; Cho, Sung-Rok ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 399~406
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.399
Trace metals were investigated for the surface seawaters and mussels collected in adjacent sea to the Dokdo during 1999-2000. This study reports the temporal and spatial distributions of trace metals in seawaters and mussels of the Dokdo coastal areas. Clean technique for trace metal analyses was employed in all manipulations including the sampling and pretreatment procedures. The concentrations of dissolved Cu, Cd and Pb in the surface seawaters were similar to those of the previous data in the East Sea. Contents of particulate Al, Fe, Mn and Co were influenced by input of detrital materials from the Dokdo. The average EFs of particulate metals were to the order of Cd > Zn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Mn > Co > Fe, and the high values in Cd and Zn may be closely related to the preferential uptake of biogenic particles. With the exception of Cd, all metal contents in the mussels were in the same ranges with those from other world coastal areas. The Cd accumulation factor of mussel/seawater in this study was abnormally much higher than previous data from the Korean coasts.
Species Composition and Abundance of Zooplankton Community in Spring and Autumn around Dokdo
Kang, Jung-Hoon ; Kim, Woong-Seo ; Shim, Jae-Hyung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 407~417
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.407
Species composition and abundance of zooplankton were investigated around Dokdo in the East/Japan Sea in autumn 1999 and spring 2000. Vertical and horizontal hauls of a bongo net (
mesh size, 60cm diameter) were made to collect zooplankton sample. Surface temperature and salinity ranged from
, and from 32.9psu to 33.2psu in September 1999, respectively. In May 2000, surface temperatures were
at stations of A1 and A8, and salinity was 34.5psu at both stations. Zooplankton community was dominated by copepods which comprised 61% (September) and 60% (May) of total numerical abundance, respectively. The next dominant groups were appendicularians (11%) and chaetognaths (9%) in September 1999, and other crustaceans (27%) and appendicularians (4%) in May 2000. The 15.7% (September) and 23.2% (May) of copepods were in the juvenile stage of copepodites. The most dominant copepods were Oncaea media (10.4%) and Clausocalanus sp. (8.2%) which preferred warm water in September. In contrast, cold-water copepods such as Pseudocalanus minutus (9.4%) and Metridia pacifica (8.0%) were dominant in May. The results of cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis index showed that zooplankton community were classified into two groups which represented different water mass. The average abundance of zooplankton in September was 2.1 times higher than that in May, and species number of them in September outnumbered that in May by 29 species. Zooplankton community varied in associated with a characteristic of warm waters which affected marine ecosystem differently in the study area depending on seasons.
Marine Meiobenthic Faunal Communities of the Sediments near Dokdo in the East Sen, Korea
Kim, Dong-Sung ; Min, Won-Gi ; Kim, Woong-Seo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 419~427
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.419
Meiobenthic community structure near Dokdo was investigated during two survey periods of June, 1999 and October 2000. Meiobenthos were separated from the sediment core samples collected from eight stations. A total of 19 meiobenthic animal groups were identified from those core samples. The most abundant meiobenthic animals belonged to Phylum Nematoda in both seasons and all stations. Sarcomastigophorans, nauplius of crustaceans, and benthic harpactiocoids were the next abundant meiobenthos. Vertical distribution of meiobenthic animals showed the highest individual numbers in the surface sediment layers of 0-1cm depth with a steep decreasing trend with depth for the three sampling stations (A0, A9', A19) located in the continental slope. Horizontal distribution of meiobenthic animals for the study area near Dokdo showed lower density at the sampling stations near Dokdo and the lowest density of meiobenthos in A19 (depth-2261 m). For size distribution, analysis showed that animals which fit onto the mesh size of 0.125mm were abundant. This study suggested that the continental shelf near Dokdo have a more unstable environment fo meiobenthos than the continental slope.
Macrobenthic Faunal Assemblages on the Soft-Bottoms around Dokdo in the East Sea, Korea
Choi, Jin-Woo ; Hyun, Sang-Min ; Kim, Dong-Sung ; Kim, Woong-Seo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 429~442
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.429
The faunal assembalges of macrobenthos and their habitat conditions on the soft-bottoms around Dokdo(Dok Island) was investigated using a box corer and a van Veen grab in Sept. 1999 and May 2000. The sediments in the slope sites were composed of sand particles and those in Ullneung Basin were mud. The sediments in the shelf sites were in the range of fine to medium sand. The organic content of the slope sediments was in the range of 1 to 2%. The macrobenthos occurred at the slope sites represented by 15faunal groups belonging to 8 phyla, and the major faunal group was polychaetous annelids. They comprised ca. 80.6% in slope sites, and 84.8% in shelf sites. Dominant species in the slope were Exogone verugera(40.9%), Cossura longocirrata (8.4%), Tharyx sp. (6.6%), Scalibregma inflatum (4.9%), Aedicira sp. (4.7%), Aricidea ramosa (3.8%), and Sigambra tentaculata (3.7%). Dominant species in the shelf were Chone sp. (49.3%), Tharyx sp. (18.4%), Ophelina acuminata (6.7%), Chaetozone setosa (3.8%), Glycera sp. (2.6%), and Aedicira sp. (2.4%). The mean densities of macrobenthos in the slope and shelf area were
, respectively. The trophic composition of benthic polychaete worms in the slope area was different from that in shallow shelf area: surface deposit feeding worms were most abundant in slope area whereas filter feeding worms in shelf area. According to the cluster analysis and MDS plots, the spatial distribution of macrobenthos in Dokdo slope region was related with the sediment properties such as particle size and organic content. In the case of vertical distribution of macrobenthos in slope sites, most faunas concentrated in the upper sediment layer within 2cm depth.
Species Composition of Fish Eggs and Larvae in Spring and Autumn around Dokdo in the East Sea of Korea
Kim, Sung ; Yoo, Jae-Myung ; Lee, Eun-Kyung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 443~448
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.443
A study on the ichthyoplankton assemblage was conducted around Dokdo in the East Sea in September 1999 and May 2000. Sixteen species of fish larvae including eggs were collected during the surveys. Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) eggs and larvae were comprised of 2.0% and 94.5% of total samples in number, respectively. Muller's pearlside (Maurolicus muelleri) eggs and larvae were comprised of 95.0% and 3.2%, respectively. The other species mostly composed of warm water species were less than 2% of total samples in number. The number of species and abundance of the fish lawae and eggs were higher in September than in May. Although there were limited data on the ichthyoplankton around Dokdo in summer and winter, this study area seems to be used for the spawning or nursery ground of fishes.
The Fish Fauna around Dokdo in the East Sea, Korea
Myoung, Jung-Goo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 449~455
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.449
The fish fauna was investigated around Dokdo in the East Sea from Oct. 15 to Oct. 16, 1997 and May 12 to 15, 1999 Fishes found in this area were 63 species in 28 families : 58 species of 25 families in autumn (Oct., 1997), and 30 species of 15 families in spring (May, 1999). Apogon cookii and Tripterigion bapturum were unrecorded species in Korea. The 11 species of subtropical fishes including Pomacentridae (4 species) and Apogonidae (3 species) occupied about 20% of the fish fauna in autumn, whereas these subtropical fishes did not occur in spring.
Vertical Distribution of Mega-invertebrate and Calculation to the Stock Assessment of Commercial Species Inhibiting Shallow Hard-bottom in Dokdo, Korea
Park, Heung-Sik ; Park, Rae-Sun ; Myoung, Jung-Goo ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 457~464
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.457
Distribution and stock assessment of mega-benthos living in the shallow hard bottom around Dokdo were studied in July,2000. Depth and topographical conditions have affected to the densities and biomass of benthic animals. In shallow area, less than 10 m depth, turbo shell Batillus cornutus, mussel, Mytilus corusucs were dominated and showed distinct patterns in vertical distribution. On the other hand, the area over 10m depth, it showed diverse pattern depending on topography. Turbo shell, mussel and sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus were dominated in terms of fishery resources, but abalones were rarely sampled. Stock assessment were estimated to be 6.54 M/T, 3.89 M/T and 8.92 M/T, respectively. Some parts of coastal hard bottom around Dokdo, such as the area between Dongdo and Seodo, seemed to play an Important role as nursery ground. Therefore, it is necessary to the environmental monitoring for coastal fishery managements aspects.
Petrology and Geochemistry of Dokdo Valcanic Rocks, East Sea
Lee, Jong-Ik ; Hur, Soon-Do ; Lee, Mi-Jung ; Yoo, Chan-Min ; Park, Byong-Kwon ; Kim, Yea-Dong ; Kwon, Moon-Sang ; Nagao, Keisuke ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 465~482
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.465
Petrological, geochemical, and geochronological studies of Dokdo volcanic rocks, East Sea, have been carried out to understand their petrogenesis. Dokdo volcanic activity is divided into three stages according to occurrences and eruption ages of rocks. The second-stage activity is accompanied by large volume of pyroclastics and lavas of intermediate composition, and occupies most of the East and West islets. K-Ar biotite and whole-rock ages indicate that Dokdo volcanic activity occurred during late Pliocene and became systematically younger toward later stages: namely, 2.7-2.4 Ma for the first-stage trachyte, 2.4-2.3Ma for the second-stage trachyandesite and 2.2-2.1 Ma for the last-stage trachyte and dikes. Dokdo volcanic rocks are of intermediate to felsic compostions, and have OIB-like alkaline nature. The geochemical similarities between Dokdo and Ulleungdo volcanic rocks suggest that they were formed from the same mantle plume. However, considering the difference of eruption ages between Dokdo (2.7-2.1 Ma) and Ulleungdo (1.4-0.01 Ma) volcanic rocks, the former seems to have been formed by earlier hot spot activity.
Geomorphology and Volcaniclastic Deposits around Dokdo: Dokdo Caldera
Chun, Jong-Hwa ; Cheong, Dae-Kyo ; Park, Chan-Hong ; Huh, Sik ; Han, Sang-Joon ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 483~490
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.483
Detailed investigations on both submarine and subaerial volcaniclastic deposits around Dokdo were carried out to identify geomorphologic characteristics, stratigraphy, and associated depositional processes of Dokdo caldera. Dokdo volcano has a gently sloping summit (about 11km in diameter) and relatively steep slope (basal diameter is about 20-25 km) rising above sea level at about 2,270m. We found ragged, elliptical-form of Dokdo caldera with a diameter of about 2km estimated by Chirp (3-11 kHz) sub-bottom profile data and side scan sonar data for the central summit area of Dokdo volcano. We interpreted that the volcaniclastic deposits of Dokdo unconformably consist of the Seodo (west islet) and the Dongdo(east islet) formations based on internal structure, constituent mineral composition, and bedding morphology. The Seodo Formation mainly consisted of massive or inversely graded trachytic breccias (Unit S-I), overlain by fine-grained tuff (Unit S-II), which is probably supplied by mass-wasting processes resulting from Dokdo caldera collapse. The Dongdo Formation consists of alternated units of stratified lapilli tuff and inversely graded basaltic breccia (Unit D-I, Unit D-III, and Unit D-V), and massive to undulatory-bedded basaltic tuff breccias (Unit D-II and Unit D-IV) formed by a repetitive pyroclastic surge and reworking processes. Although, two islets of Dokdo are geographically near each other, they have different formations reflecting their different depositional processes and eruptive stages.
A Study on the Structure and Origin of the Dokdo and it's Surroundings in the East Sea (Japan Sea) Using Magnetic Anomalies
Kim, Chang-Hwan ; Park, Chan-Hong ; Min, Kyung-Duck ; Han, Hyun-Chul ; Kwon, Moon-Sang ; Shim, Jae-Seol ; Choi, Sung-Ho ; Oh, Soon-Bock ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 491~500
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.491
Magnetic anomalies in the Dokdo and it's surroundings were investigated with respect to structure and origin of the Dokdo and surrounding seamounts. After normal and diurnal correction of measured magnetic data, crossover correction was applied to reduce errors between sets of magnetic anomalies. The errors from crossover operation result in decrease of about 51%, from 62.2 nT to 30.1 nT in standard deviation. Reduction-to-the-pole, second vertical derivative and analytic signal processing were applied to explore magnetic anomaly signatures in detail. Magnetic anomalies are most complicated in the 1st-Dok seamount, show SWW-NEE linear pattern in the 2nd-Dok seamount and lower to the 3rd-Dok seamount. Different magnetic anomaly patterns in three seamounts imply that three volcanic seamounts were formed at different times and are composed of rocks that were produced in different conditions. It seems that the 3rd-Dok seamount was first to form and followed by the 1st-Dok seamount. The complicated magnetic and second vertical derivative anomaly patterns in the 1st-Dok seamount may be due to subsidiary cones around crater or the presence of intruded magma bodies below sea surface and the Dokdo is probably a marginal subsidiary part of crater.
A Study on the Regime of Island and Dokdo on the UNCLOS
Kwon, Moon-Sang ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 24, issue 4, 2002, Pages 501~524
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2002.24.4.501
Article 121 of the UNCLOS stipulates the regime of islands and grants different jurisdictions to islands and rocks. Especially, paragraph 3 gives different definitions and distinguishes the legal status of between islands and rocks. That is, rocks, which cannot sustain human habitation or economic life cannot have their own EEZ, continental shelf or the great-sphere maritime jurisdiction. In this paper various theories and state practicess on islands and rocks are examined with reference to Article 121 of UNCLOS. Also, the status of Dokdo as a rock or an island is examined in accordance with the interpretation of Article 121 of UNCLOS. National legislations, practices, and many scientific opinions are often contradictory and controversial with respect to the interpretation of Article 121 of the UNCLOS. However, it is believed that Article 121 of UNCLOS, particularly paragraph 3 has to be interpreted more strictly. That is because the highly developed modem scientific technology can be meaningless when the criteria of Article 121 of UNCLOS are to be inappropriately applied. Insular figures like
could bring the inequitable effects disadvantageous toward the other party when the maritime delimitation is applied. Claiming and Intentionally extending maritime zone of a coastal states by assigning EEZ for small insular figures like
is over-zealous nationalism which is illegal, and such practices must be recognized as actions bringing great harm to the neighboring nations and demise of the sprit of all mankind.