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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Ocean and Polar Research
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Journal DOI :
Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology
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Volume & Issues
Volume 25, Issue 4 - Dec 2003
Volume 25, Issue spc3 - Sep 2003
Volume 25, Issue 3 - Sep 2003
Volume 25, Issue 2 - Jun 2003
Volume 25, Issue 1 - Mar 2003
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Long-term Changes of Growth Rates and Shell Bioerosion of the Japanese Scallop related to Tumen River Discharge
Silina Alla V. ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~7
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.001
The purpose of this study was to determine changes in the growth rates and the degree of shell bioerosion exhibited by endolithic organisms of the Japanese scallop family, Patinopecten (Mizuhopecten) yessoensis, on the coast of Furugelm Island (Peter the Great Bay, northwest of East Sea = Sea of Japan) over the last three decades. The areas studied are affected by lumen (Tumangang) River run-off, which is enriched by organic matter and polluting agents. It was found that the linear growth rates of the Japanese scallops living along the coasts of Furugelm Island have decreased over the last three decades. The degree of bioerosion of scallop shells has significantly increased for the same period. These phenomena may be explained by a gradual increase in bottom sediment silting, organic enrichment and pollution of the areas being studied. It was found that the degree of scallop shell bioerosion increased with the scallop's age. At present, In each age group, the shells of the scallops sampled from the muddy sand showed greater erosion than the shells of individuals collected from the sandy substrate.
Radiative Properties at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica with the Radiative Transfer Model : A Surface UV-A and Erythemal UV-B Radiation Changes
Lee, Kyu-Tae ; Lee, Bang-Yong ; Won, Young-In ; Jee, Joon-Bum ; Lee, Won-Hak ; Kim, Youn-Joung ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 9~20
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.009
A solar radiation model was used to investigate the UV radiation at the surface offing Sejong Station in West Antarctica. The results calculated by this model were compared with the values measured by UV-Biometer and UV-A meter during 1999-2000. In this study, the parameterization of solar radiative transfer process was based on Chou and Lee(1996). The total ozone amounts measured by Breve. Ozone Spectrophotometer and the aerosol amounts by Nakajima et al.(1996) was used as the input data of the solar radiative transfer model. And the surface albedo is assumed to be 0.20 in summer and 0.85 in winter. The sensitivity test of solar radiative transfer model was done with the variation of total ozone, aerosol amount, and surface albedo. When the cosine of solar zenith angle is 0.3, Erythemal UV-B radiation decreased 73% with the 200% increase of total ozone from 100 DU to 300 DU, but the decrease of UV-A radiation is about 1%. Also, for the same solar zenith angle, UV-A radiation was decreased 31.0% with the variation of aerosol optical thickness from 0.0 to 0.3 and Erythemal UV-B radiation was decreased only 6.1%. The increase of Erythemal W-B radiation with the variation of surface albedo was twice that of UV-A increase. The surface Erythemal UV-B and UV-A radiation calculated by solar raditive transfer model were compared with the measured values fer the relatively clear day at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica. The model calculated Erythemal UV-B radiation at the surface coincide well with the measured values except for cloudy days. But the difference between the model calculated UV-A radiation and the measured value at the surface was large because of cloud scattering effect. So, the cloud property data is needed to calculate the UV radiation more exactly at King Sejong Station in West Antarctica.
Composition and Structure of Marine Benthic Community Regarding Conditions of Chronic Barbour Pollution
Fadeeva, N.P. ; Bezverbnaja, I.P. ; Tazaki, Kazue ; Watanabe, Hiroaki ; Fadeev, V.I. ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 21~30
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.021
Seasonal fluctuations of physico-chemical and biological aspects of the environment were studied in Vladivostok harbour (Golden Horn Bay, the East Sea/Sea of Japan). The benthic community structure was described with a focus on size-spectra (bacteria, meio- and macrofauna) related with the chemical environment and chemical fluxes in sediment and to reveal their possible ecological role in the process of bioremediation of the environment. Samples from two sites with different concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni Cd, Co) and petroleum hydrocarbon were assessed by a number of methods. These included plate counts of culturable bacteria, observation through a scanning electron (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). These approaches were complemented with microscopic assessments of the diversity of the benthic community. The specific communities had a limited number of species, tolerant to abnormally high levels of toxic compounds. The dominant species were presented by several sho.1-lived small polychaetes (Capitella capitata) and nematodes (Oncholaimium ramosum). The highest population density was recorded in microbenthos, in various diatoms, various physiological groups of bacteria which participate in biomineralization: marine heterotrophic bacteria, which oxidized oil, black oil in addition to groups resistant to heavy metals. They have the entire set of mechanisms for neutralizing the negative effect of those compounds, forming the detrital food web and biogeochemical circulation of material in sediments, which results in the biological self-recycling of sea basins. Macro- and meiobenthic organisms were more sensitive to a greater extent of
and petroleum hydrocarbons than to metal content, but the within-site rankings were the same as those achieved for microbiological analyses.
Contamination of Sediments and Histological Alterations in Barfin Plaice Pleuronectes pinnifasciatus from Amursky Bay(Peter the Great Bay, East Sea/Sea of Japan)
Vaschenko Marina A. ; Syasina Iraida G. ; Durkina Valentina B. ; Zhadan Petr M. ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 31~40
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.031
In August-September 2001, 15 samples of bottom sediments were collected in the inner, middle and open parts of Amursky Bay near Vladivostok, Russia, and barfin plaice Pleuronectes pinnifasciatus was sampled from the inner and the middle locations of the bay. In the sediments from all three sites elevated concentrations of several heavy metals, i.e. Zn (
dry weight), Ni
were discovered. The contents of oil hydrocarbons were very close to or slightly higher than the maximal normal environmental background level,
dry weight. The sediments contained negligible amounts of hexachlorocyclohexane, while DDT concentrations were quite high (1.7-16.3ng/g dry weight). Generally, there were no substantial differences in the pollution levels of the locations studied and our results resembled those reported for Amursky Bay in the 1990s. Surprisingly, in 2001 'fiesh' DDT comprised 70-85% of the total DDT content in sediment from all the locations studied. In fish liver total DDTs concentrations were 212.8 and 122.54 ng/g wet weight for the inner and the middle locations, respectively, and 'fresh' DDT comprised 35 and 64% of DDTs, respectively. These results provide evidence of recent input of DDT from an unknown source into the ecosystem of Amursky Bay. Histopathological changes revealed in the plaice liver (vacuolization of hepatocytes, coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes, inflammatory reaction, and necrosis of epithelial cells of bile ducts) are probably connected with an intensive metabolism of DDT in the fish organism. No histological and histomorphometric differences were found in the state of the interrenal tissue. Similar condition of the liver and the interrenal tissue in barfin plaice sampled from the inner and the middle locations of Amursky Bay may be explained by the absence of great differences in the pollution levels of these sites.
Behaviors of Metals in the Settling Particles in the Bransfield Strait, Antarctica
Kim, Dong-Seon ; Kim, Dong-Yup ; Kim, Young-June ; Kang, Young-Chul ; Shim, Jeong-Hee ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 41~52
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.041
Sediment trap samples were collected to find out characteristic behaviors of metals in the settling particles by using time-series sediment traps at 678m and 1678m water depths in the Bransfield Strait from December 27th, 1999 to December 26th, 2000. Total mass fluxes at the intermediate water depth (678m water depth) were high in the austral summer and low in the austral winter, whereas at the deep water depth (1678m water depth) they showed high values in both the summer and winter. Total mass fluxes were generally higher in the deep water depth than in the intermediate water depth, which indicates that a substantial amount of sediments are laterally transported by strong currents into the deep basin from the shallow water depths. Aluminium contents also showed large seasonal variations with high values in the winter and low values in the summer. On the contrary, organic carbon contents were high in the summer and low in the winter. Al contents were negatively correlated with organic carbon contents, which may be ascribed that detrital particles are diluted by organic matter produced by phytoplankton in the surface waters. Metals measured in this study exhibited three characteristic behaviors; 1) a positive correlation with Al-Ti, Fe, Mn, V, Co, and Ba, 2) a negative correlation with Al-Cd and Zn, 3) no relationship with Al-Sr, Cu, Cr, Ni. Terrestrial materials may act as a major source fer metals that are positively correlated with Al, and organic matter may be a major source for metals that are negatively correlated with Al. Enrichment factor (EF) of Fe, Mn, Ba, Vi Co, Sr, Cr, and Ni ranged from 0.5 to 1.5, whereas EF of Zn, Cu, and Cd showed much higher values than 1.
Determination of Rare Earth Elements Abundance in Alkaline Rocks by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS)
Hur, Soon-Do ; Lee, Jong-Ik ; Lee, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Yea-Dong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 53~62
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.053
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is useful instrument for determining abundance of rare earth elements, due to very low detection limits and rapid data acquisition. In this article, two methods are used for decomposition of alkaline rocks; close vessel acid digestion and
fusion. The two analytical results show good agreements. Considering total dissolved solids and detection limits, the most adequate dilution factor is 5,000 times. Polyatomic ion interferences during analysis can give rise to Inaccuracies. After correction from oxide and hydroxide interference, the analytical result show 20-30% decrease for Gd and Tm, 10-20% decrease for Tb and Er. In comparing the analytical results from KORDI with other institutes, most rare earth elements abundance show good agreements except Lu.
An Analytical Investigation on the Build-up of the Temperature Field due to a Point Heat Source in Shallow Coastal Water with Oscillatory Alongshore-flow
Jung, Kyung-Tae ; Kim, Chong-Hak ; Jang, Chan-Joo ; Lee, Ho-Jin ; Kang, Sok-Kuh ; Yjm, Ki-Dai ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 63~74
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.063
The build-up of the heat field in shallow coastal water due to a point source has been investigated using an analytical solution of a time-integral form derived by extending the solutions by Holley(1969) and also presented in Harleman (1971). The uniform water depth is assumed with non-isotropic turbulent dispersion. The alongshore-flow is assumed to be uni-directional, spatially uniform and oscillatory. Due to the presence of the oscillatory alongshore-flow, the heat build-up occurs in an oscillatory manner, and the excess temperature thereby fluctuates in that course and even in the quasi-steady state. A series of calculations reveal that proper choices of the decay coefficient as well as dispersion coefficients are critical to the reliable prediction of the excess temperature field. The dispersion coefficients determine the absolute values of the excess temperature and characterize the shoreline profile, particularly within the tidal excursion distance, while the decay coefficient determines the absolute value of the excess temperature and the convergence rate to that of the quasi-steady state. Within the e-folding time scale
is the heat decay coefficient), heat build-up occurs more than 90% of the quasi-steady state values in a region within a tidal excursion distance (L), while occurs increasingly less the farther we go to the downstream direction (about 80% at 1.25L, and 70% at 1.5L). Calculations with onshore and offshore discharges indicate that thermal spreading in the direction of the shoreline is reduced as the shoreline constraint which controls the lateral mixing is reduced. The importance of collecting long-term records of in situ meteorological conditions and clarifying the definition of the heat loss coefficient is addressed. Interactive use of analytical and numerical modeling is recommended as a desirable way to obtain a reliable estimate of the far-field excess temperature along with extensive field measurements.
Water Balance and Flushing Time in the Restricted Indian River Lagoon (IRL), Florida USA
Kim, Young-Taeg ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 75~87
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.075
The water balance calculation in the IRL shows that fresh groundwater discharge is the primary factor, with surface runoff from gaged and ungaged areas as the second freshwater contributor. Precipitation and evaporation are almost in balance fer the entire IRL. Due to high freshwater discharge from ground-water, the annual net flow is outward from the IRL to the continental shelf of the Atlantic Ocean resulting in a relatively short flushing time, denoted as
(50% flushing time) and
(99% flushing time).
without a tidal effect in the Northern IRL are 17 and 114 days, respectively, during the dry season. During the wet season, they are 10 and 65 days, respectively. Tidal flushing effects are considered in central IRL due to the proximity to Sebastian Inlet. In the Northern Central zone during dry season,
are 6 and 43 days, respectively and during the wet season 5 and 33 days. In the Southern Central zone they are 2 and 16 days for the dry season,2 and 15 days for the wet season. High groundwater seepage into the IRL is considered to be a positive effect in maintaining relatively good water quality condition even with few narrow inlets.
Nonlinear Tidal Characteristics along the Uldolmok Waterway off the Southwestern Tip of the Korean Peninsula
Kang, Sok-Kuh ; Yum, Ki-Dai ; So, Jae-Kwi ; Song, Won-Oh ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 89~106
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.089
Analyses of tidal observations and a numerical model of the
tides in the Uldolmok waterway located at the southwestern tip of the Korean Peninsula are described. This waterway is well known fer its strong tidal flows of up to more than 10 knots at the narrowest part of the channel. Harmonic analysis of the observed water level at five tidal stations reveals dramatic changes in the amplitude and phase of the shallow water constituents at the station near the narrowest part, while survey results show a decreasing trend in local mean sea levels toward the narrow section. It was also observed that the amplitudes of semi-diurnal constituents,
are diminishing toward the narrowest part of the waterway. Two-dimensional numerical modeling shows that the
energy flux is dominated by the component coming from the eastern boundary. The
energy is inward from both open boundaries and is transported toward the narrow region of the channel, where it is frictionally dissipated or transferred to other constituents due to a strong non-linear advection effect. It is also shown that the
generation is strong around the narrow region, and the abrupt decrease in the M4 amplitude in the region is due to a cancellation of the locally generated M4 with the component propagated from open boundaries. The superposition of both propagated and generated M4 contributions also explains the discontinuity of the M4 phase lag in the region. The tide-induced residual sea level change and the regeneration effect of the
tide through interaction with
are also examined.
Axial Seamount Basalts in P3 Segment of Phoenix Ridge, Drake Passage, Antarctica: K-Ar Age Determination and Geochemistry
Lee, Jong-Ik ; Hur, Soon-Do ; Lee, Mi-Jung ; Kim, Kyu-Jung ; Nagao, Keisuke ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 107~118
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.107
The axial seamount basalts in the P3 segment of the Phoenix Ridge were obtained from dredging and the K-Ar age determination and whole-rock geochemical analyses have been done for understanding their origin. The K-Ar ages for PRS basalts sampled from 1,000m below sea level are 2.6-2.2 Ma and those for PR3 basalts from 800m are 1.6-1.5 Ma. The younger ages towards the crest of the seamount indicate that this submarine volcano has been grown by central eruptions. The youngest age of about 1.5 Ma for PR3 basalts corresponds to the final eruption period of this volcano. The seamount basalts contain small amounts of normative quartz and olivine. They have transitional geochemical nature between alkaline- and subalkaline-series basalts. Trace and rare earth elements compositions of the seamount basalts are very similar to those of ocean island basalts (OIB), and indicate that this seamount has been formed by a hotspot activity, not in association with a seafloor spreading. The melting degree from the source has decreased with time, and finally the volcanic activity has stopped when the basaltic magma reached mild alkaline composition.
Occurrence and Petrogenesis of Phoscorite-Carbonatite Complexes in the Kola Alkaline Province, Arctic
Lee, Mi-Jung ; Lee, Jong-Ik ; Kim, Yea-Dong ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 119~128
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.119
Although phoscorites and carbonatites form only a minor proportion of the earth's crustal rocks, these unusual rocks and their intimate relation are of both academic and economic importance. Rare metal (Nb, Zr, Ta) and REEs mineralizations are in close relation with the differentiation of these phoscorite-carbonatite complexes (PCCs). Recent integrated petrological and geochemical data on PCCs in the Kola Alkaline Province, Arctic, indicate that phoscorites and associated carbonatites are differentiated from common 'carbonated silicate patental magma'. Various hypotheses for the genesis of phoscorite-carbonatite complexes have been proposed during the last half-century. A simple magmatic fractionation scheme can not explain the chemical and mineralogical characteristics of phoscorite and conjugate carbonatite. Instead, the hypotheses involving liquid immiscibility and coeval accumulation processes are favored to explain the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of phoscorite and carbonatite association.
Screening for Antioxidizing and Tyrosinase-inhibitory Activities of the Extracts of Marine Algae from Busan Coastal Area
Seo, Young-Wan ; Yoo, Jong-Su ;
Ocean and Polar Research, volume 25, issue 1, 2003, Pages 129~132
DOI : 10.4217/OPR.2003.25.1.129
The crude extracts of marine algae were screened for tyrosinase-inhibitory and radical scavenging effects. Among the samples tested, Symphyocladia latiuscula and Gloiopeltis furcata were found to be the most effective in DPPH radical scavenging test while Gigatina tenella, Sargassum thunbergii, and Sargassum sp. were moderately active. For the inhibition against mushroom tyrosinase, Symphyocladia latiuscula and Sargassum confusum showed the strongest inhibition. Codium adhaerens, Corallina pilulifera, Carpopeltis cornea, Halymenia acuminata, Hizikia fuziformis, Porphyra suborbiculata, and Enteromorpha linza exhibited mild inhibitory potency.